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French Revolution --_quot;Liberal_quot; Phase

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French Revolution --_quot;Liberal_quot; Phase Powered By Docstoc
					C h a p te
T h e
R ev o lu
        T h e
                                     1   -1




 Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI
        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
S ecti o n
        M                                    o n a rch y
                                • 1. Why has pre-Revolutionary France been
                                  called a rich nation with an impoverished
                                  government? How did the financial weakness of
                                  the French monarchy lay the foundations of the
                                  revolution of 1789?
                                • 2. What did Chancellor René Maupeou do in an
     Jacques Necker               attempt to collect new taxes?
                                • 2. How was Necker's approach to dealing with
                                  France's financial difficulties different from
                                  Turgot?
                                • 3. What were Charles Calonne's economic
                                  proposals? Why was he shocked at the refusal of
                                  the Assembly of Notables to endorse them?
                                • 4. What was the impact of the American
                                  Revolution on France and on the rest of Europe?
Charles Alexandre de Calonne,   • 5. Why was the Estates-General reconvened
  portrait by Marie Louise
   Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun.        after a century and a half?
             Financial Problems
               in France, 1789
a Urban Commoner’s
  Budget:
              –    Food              80%    a King’s Budget:
              –    Rent              25%         –   Interest 50%
              –    Tithe             10%         –   Army        25%
              –    Taxes             35%         –   Versailles 25%
              –    Clothing           20%        –   Coronation 10%
              –    TOTAL             170%        –   Loans       25%
                                                 –   Admin.      25%
                                                 –   TOTAL      160%

        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                 Where is the tax money?




        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                                       Marie
                                     Antoinette
                                      and the
                                       Royal
                                      Children


        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                                Marie Antoinette’s
                                “Peasant Cottage”




        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                                Marie Antoinette’s
                                “Peasant Cottage”




        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                  The Necklace Scandal


                                          1,600,000 livres

                                         [$100 million today]




Y Cardinal Louis René Édouard de Rohan
Y The Countess de LaMotte
        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
S ecti o n
• 1. In the local elections which
  ultimately sent representatives to
  the Estates General, which groups
  held a majority in each Estate?
• 2. What was Abbé Sieyès's view of
  the third estate? Why did the third
  estate clash with the other
  privileged estates?
• 3. What was the intent of the
  nobility when the Estates General     Abbé Sieyès
  was called into session? What was     1748-1836
  the reaction of the Third Estate?
• 4. How was the Estates General
  transformed into the National
  Assembly?
S ecti o n
             5. What events led to the Tennis Court
                 Oath on June 20, 1789? Why did Louis
                 XVI falter & support the nobles?
             6. What was the significance of the fall of
                 the Bastille? Why did it help save the
                 National Assembly and the Revolution?
             7. Trace and account for the increasing
                 intervention of the peasants and other
                 commoners in the summer and early
                 fall of 1789.
             8. What was the Great Fear? What was its
                 impact on the National Assembly?
             9. What principles of the new state were
                 created in the August 26, 1789
                 Declaration of the Rights of Man? What
                 role did women play?
             10. What were Louis XVI’s most serious
                 mistakes during the French Revolution?
                 Had he been a more able ruler, could the
                 French Revolution have been avoided or
                 a constitutional monarchy could have
                 succeeded? Did the revolution have
                 little to do with the competence of the
                 monarch?
                   “The Tennis Court Oath”
                           by Jacques Louis David




        By: Susan M. Pojer           June 20, 1789
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
T he Great Fear: Peasant Revolt
                                      (July 20, 1789)




Y Rumors that the feudal aristocracy [the aristos]
  were sending hired brigands to attack peasants and
  pillage their land.
         By: Susan M. Pojer
 Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                                     T he Path
                                       of the
                                      “Great
                                      Fear”


        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
    Night Session of August 4, 1789

       Y Before the night was over:
                    The feudal regime in France had
                           been abolished.
                    All Frenchmen were, at least in
                           principle, subject to the same laws
                           and the same taxes and eligible for
                           the same offices.


                         Equality & Meritocracy!
        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
   National Constituent Assembly
                                      1789 - 1791

               Liberté!
                                                      Egalité!

                                     Fraternité!


                                August Decrees
                                      August 4-11, 1789
             (A renunciation of aristocratic privileges!)
        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                                     BUT . . . . .
Y       Feudal dues were not renounced outright
        [this had been too strong a threat to the
        principle of private property!]
Y       Peasants would compensate their landlords
        through a series of direct payments for
        obligations from which they had supposedly
        been freed.
           Therefore, the National Assembly made
                   revolutionary gestures, but remained
                   essentially moderate.

            Their Goal                 Safeguard the right of private
                                       property!!
        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                  T he Tricolor (1789)




   The WHITE of the
  Bourbons + the RED &
     BLUE of Paris.



      Citizen!
        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
    T he Tricolor is the Fashion!




        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
 S ecti o n
          F ra n ce
• What was the difference between ‘active’
  and ‘passive’ citizens?
• How did the new Constituent Assembly
  raise money?
• What changes too place under the 1790
  Civil Constitution of the Clergy?
• Who were the émigrés?
• What was the Flight to Varennes? Why
  did this take place? What were its long
  term ramifications?                     •“Let them   eat
• What was the Declaration of Pillnitz?       cake”?
  How did this declaration unite the
  divided revolutionary factions against
  the monarchy & other European
  monarchies?
                   Revolutionary Symbols



    Cockade


                                                   Liberté
                                     La Republic



    Revolutionary
       Clock
        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
   T he Declaration of the Rights of
        Man and of the Citizen
                                        August 26,
                                          1789
                                     V Liberty!
                                     V Property!
                                     V Resistance to
                                       oppression!
                                     V Thomas Jefferson
                                       was in Paris at this
                                       time.
        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
   T he Declaration of the Rights of
        Man and of the Citizen
        Posed New Dilemmas

1. Did women have equal rights with men?
2. What about free blacks in the colonies?
3. How could slavery be justified if all men
   were born free?
4. Did religious toleration of Protestants
   and Jews include equal political rights?

        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                       March of the Women,
                                     October 5-6, 1789
                A spontaneous demonstration of Parisian
                          women for bread.




                  We want the baker, the baker’s wife
        By: Susan M. Pojer
                           and the baker’s boy!
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
Olympe de Gouges (1745-1793)
V Women played a vital
  role in the Revolution.
V But, The Declaration
   of the Rights of Man
   did NOT extend the
   rights and protections
   of citizenship to
   women.


 Declaration of the
  Rights of Woman
 and of the Citizen
                       (1791)
  By: Susan M. Pojer
      T he “October Days” (1789)




  The king was thought to be surrounded by evil
advisors at Versailles so he was forced to move to
     Paris and reside at the Tuileries Palace.
        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
How to Finance the New Govt.?
 1. Confiscate Church Lands (1790)




 One of the most controversial decisions of the
          entire revolutionary period.
        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                      2. Print Assignats




V Issued by the National Constituent Assembly.
V Interest-bearing notes which had the church lands as
   security.                                  By: Susan M. Pojer
                                      Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                  T he Civil Constitution
                           of the Clergy
                                       July 12,
                                        1790

                                       Jurying

                                           vs.

                                     Non-Jurying
                                     [refractory]
The oath of allegiance permanently     Clergy
 divided the Catholic population!               By: Susan M. Pojer
                                        Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
             New Relations Between
                Church & State
    V Government paid the salaries of the French
      clergy and maintained the churches.
    V The church was reorganized:
                   Parish priests  elected by the district
                    assemblies.
                   Bishops  named by the
                    department assemblies.
                   The pope had NO
                    voice in the
                    appointment of
                    the French clergy.
    V It transformed France’s
      Roman Catholic Church
      into a branch of the state!!                   Pope Pius VI
        By: Susan M. Pojer                           [1775-1799]
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
     T he French Constitution of 1791:
        A Bourgeois Government
 V The king got the “suspensive” veto [which
   prevented the passage of laws for 4
   years].
                        He could not pass laws.
                        His ministers were responsible for their
                         own actions.

  V A permanent, elected, single chamber
    National Assembly.
                        Had the power to grant taxation.

  V An independent judiciary.

        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
T he French Constitution of 1791:
   A Bourgeois Government
V “Active” Citizen [who pays taxes
  amounting to 3 days labor] could vote vs.
  “Passive” Citizen.
      1/3 of adult males were denied the
        franchise.
       Domestic servants were also excluded.
V A newly elected LEGISLATIVE
  ASSEMBLY.


     GOAL  Make sure that the country
       was not turned over to the mob!
   83 Revolutionary Departments




                                     February 26, 1790
        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
         T he Royal Family Attempts
                            to Flee
   Y June, 1791
   Y Helped by the Swedish Count Hans Axel
            von Fusen [Marie Antoinette’s lover].
   Y Headed toward the
            Luxembourg
            border.
   Y The King was
            recognized at
            Varennes, near
            the border
        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
              T he First Coalition &
             T he Brunswick Manifesto
                                       (August 3, 1792)

Duke of Brunswick if the Royal Family is harmed,
                  Paris will be leveled!!


                                           1792-
               FRANCE                       1797
                                                      AUSTRIA
                                                      PRUSSIA
                                                      BRITAIN
                                                      SPAIN
                                                      PIEDMONT
                    This military crisis undermined the new
          By: Susan M. Pojer  Legislative Assembly.
  Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
    French Soldiers & the Tricolor:
                                 Vive Le Patrie!
                                          V The French armies
                                            were ill-prepared for
                                            the conflict.
                                          V ½ of the officer corps
                                            had emigrated.
                                          V Many men disserted.
                                          V New recruits were
                                            enthusiastic, but
                                            ill-trained.
                                          V French troops often
                                            broke ranks and fled
                                            in disorder.
        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
 French Expansion: 1791-1799




        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
         Sir Edmund Burke (1790):
    Reflections on the Revolution in France




The conservative response
 to the French Revolution
        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
 S ecti o n
M o n a rch y :
• What was the Revolution of 1792 & why did it
  occur?
• What were the policies of the Girondins? What
  groups supported them?
• What happened when Francis II became
  Emperor of Austria?
• Who were the sans-culottes & how did they
  become a factor in the politics of the period?
• How influential were the sans-culottes during
  ‘the Terror’?
 S ecti o n
M o n a rch y :
• Who were the Jacobins? What did they stand for?
• Why did the Jacobins and sans-culottes cooperate at
  first?
• Who was Citizen Capet? What was his fate?
              T he “Second” French
                    Revolution
 The National Convention:
              Girondin Rule: 1792-1793
              Jacobin Rule: 1793-1794
                    [“Reign of Terror”]
              Thermidorian Reaction:     1794-1795
 The Directory  1795-1799

        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
        Attitudes
                                            Fear of          Religious
        & actions
                                           Counter-          divisions
           of
                                           Revolution
        monarchy
         & court

                                       The Causes of
                                     Instability in France
                                         1792 - 1795


       Economi
                                                             Political
          c
                                             War             divisions
        Crises


        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                                T he Jacobins
                                          Jacobin Meeting House




                                      They held their meetings in the
                                       library of a former Jacobin
                                       monastery in Paris.
                                      Started as a debating society.
                                      Membership mostly middle class.
                                      Created a vast network of clubs.
        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                  T he Sans-Culottes:
            T he Parisian Working Class

  Small shopkeepers.
  Tradesmen.
  Artisans.




They shared many of the
 ideals of their middle
class representatives in
      government!
        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                    T he Sans-Culottes




      Depicted as Savages by a British Cartoonist.

        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
 T he Storming of the Tuilieres:
                                 August 9-10, 1792




        This was triggered in part by the publication in
         Paris of the August 3 Brunswick Manifesto,
        which confirmed popular suspicions concerning
                      the king’s treason.
        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
T he September Massacres, 1792
    (T he dark side of the Revolution!)




 Rumors that the anti-revolutionary political prisoners
  were plotting to break out & attack from the rear the
  armies defending France, while the Prussians attacked
  from the front.
 Buveurs de sang [“drinkers of blood.”] over 1000 killed!
 It discredited the Revolution among its remaining
  sympathizers abroad.              By: Susan M. Pojer
                                 Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                   T he National Convention
                           (September, 1792)
                Its first act was the formal
                 abolition of the monarchy on
                 September 22, 1792.
                        The Year I of the French Republic.
                The Decree of Fraternity
                        it offered French assistance to any
                         subject peoples who wished to
                         overthrow their governments.

                          When France sneezes,
                       all of Europe catches cold!
By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S.
 Chappaqua, NY
          T he Political Spectrum
TODAY:




1790s:
                                            The Plain
                                           (swing votes)
          Montagnards
           (“The Mountain”)                         Girondists
                                                                 Monarchíen
                                                                 (Royalists)

                                      Jacobins
         By: Susan M. Pojer
 Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
           T he Politics of the
     National Convention (1792-1795)

        Montagnards                         Girondists

 Power base in Paris.                 Power base in the
                                        provinces.
 Main support from the
  sans-culottes.                       Feared the influence
                                        of the sans-culottes.
 Would adopt extreme
  measures to achieve their            Feared the dominance
  goals.                                of Paris in national
                                        politics.
 Saw Paris as the center of the
  Revolution.                          Supported more
                                        national government
 More centralized [in Paris]
                                        centralization
  approach to government.
                                        [federalism].
         By: Susan M. Pojer
 Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
    T he “Purifying” Pot of the
            Jacobin




        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                  Louis XVI as a Pig




     c         For the Montagnards, the king was a traitor.
     c         The Girondins felt that the Revolution had
               gone far enough and didn’t want to execute
               the king [maybe exile him].
        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
Louis XVI’s Head (January 21, 1793)
                                     c   The trial of the king
                                         was hastened by the
                                         discovery in a secret
                                         cupboard in the
                                         Tuilieres of a cache of
                                         documents.
                                     c   They proved
                                         conclusively Louis’
                                         knowledge and
                                         encouragement of
                                         foreign intervention.
                                     c   The National
                                         Convention voted
                                         387 to 334 to
        By: Susan M. Pojer
                                         execute the monarchs.
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
T he Death of “Citizen” Louis Capet

Matter for reflection
  for the crowned
      jugglers.




   So impure blood
 doesn’t soil our land!




         By: Susan M. Pojer
 Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
  Marie Antoinette as a Serpent




                                     The “Widow Capet”
        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
                Marie Antoinette
          on the Way to the Guillotine




        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
              Marie Antoinette Died in
                  October, 1793




        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
S ecti o n
     th e
• On what points did Edmund Burke attack the
  Second French Revolution in his book Reflections
  on the Revolution in France?
• What were the political consequences of the
  French Revolution on British politics?
• What were the consequences of the French
  Revolution upon Poland?
• Why did France go to war with Austria in
  1792? What were the benefits & drawbacks for
  France of fighting an external war in the midst
  of a domestic political revolution?
S ecti o n
     th e
S ecti o n
• What nations formed the First Coalition against France?
  What were these nations seeking to achieve in going to war
  against revolutionary France?
• What was the result of the War of the First Coalition?
     • Napoleon at the Battle of Rivoli, by Felix Philipoteaux
                         T he Levee en Masse:
An Entire Nation at Arms! – 500,000 Soldiers




           An army based on merit, not birth!
        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
S ecti o n
      • What were the causes of the Terror?
      • What was the Committee of Public
        Safety?
      • How did the Jacobins use the sans-
        culottes to secure power in the
        Convention in 1793?
      • What was the Levée en Masse? Why
        is it considered such an important
        aspect of early modern history?
      • What was the ‘Republic of Virtue’?
        Who was its leader?
      • Why did the Jacobins attempt to de-
        Christianize France? What was
        Robespierre’s reaction to this attempt?
                    T he Reign of Terror
    Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible. --
    Robespierre
Let terror be the order of
         the day!

c         The Revolutionary
          Tribunal of Paris alone
          executed 2,639 victims
          in 15 months.
c         The total number of
          victims nationwide was
          over 20,000!
            By: Susan M. Pojer
    Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
              Different Social Classes
                     Executed

                                     7%
                                8%
                                            28%

                          25%

                                          31%




        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
T he De-Christianization Program

   1. The adoption of a new Republican
      Calendar:
                  abolished Sundays & religious holidays.
                  months named after seasonal features.
                  7-day weeks replaced by 10-day
                   decades.
                  the yearly calendar was dated from
                   the creation of the Republic
                   [Sept. 22, 1792]


          The Convention symbolically divorced the
                  state from the Church!!
        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
T he New Republican Calendar
 New Name     Meaning            Time Period
Vendemaire   Vintage    September 22 – October 21
Brumaire     Fog        October 22 – November 20
Frimaire     Frost      November 21 – December 20
Nivose       Snow       December 21 – January 19
Pluviose     Rain       January 20 – February 18
Ventose      Wind       February 19 – March 20
Germinal     Budding    March 21 – April 19
Floreal      Flowers    April 20 – May 19
Prairial     Meadow     May 20 – June 18
Messidor     Harvest    June 19 – July 18
Thermidor    Heat       July 19 – August 17
Fructidor    Fruit      August 18 – September 21
A New Republican Calendar Year
             I       1792 – 1793
             II      1793 – 1794
            III      1794 – 1795
             IV      1795 – 1796
             V       1796 – 1797
             VI      1797 – 1798
            VII      1798 – 1799
            VIII     1799 – 1800
            IX       1800 – 1801
             X       1801 – 1802
            XI       1802 – 1803
            XII      1803 – 1804
            XIII     1804 – 1805
            XIV         1805

   The Gregorian System returned in 1806.
S ecti o n
• What brought about an end to
  the Terror? What events led to
  the downfall of Robespierre &
  the Committee of Public Safety?
• How did Robespierre bring about
  his own downfall?
• What happened during the
  Thermidorian Reaction? What
  social class emerged triumphant
  from the Revolution?
• What was the Directory? What
  sort of government did it
  establish?
• How did General Napoleon
  Bonaparte secure a hold on
  power during the Directory?
   T he “T hermidorian Reaction”
       V Curtailed the power of the Committee
         for Public Safety.
       V Closed the Jacobin Clubs.
       V Churches were reopened.
                         1795  freedom of worship for all cults was
                          granted.

       V Economic restrictions were lifted in
         favor of laissez-faire policies.
       V August, 1795  a new Constitution is
         written
                         more conservative republicanism.
        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
 Characteristics of the Directory
       V The Paris Commune was outlawed.
       V The Law of 22 Prairial was revoked.
       V People involved in the original Terror
         were now attacked  “White” Terror
       V Inflation continues.
       V Rule by rich bourgeois liberals.
       V Self-indulgence  frivolous culture;
         salons return; wild fashions.
       V Political corruption.
       V Revival of Catholicism.
        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
          T he Government Structure of the
                 New Directory
V 5-man executive committee or oligarchy [to avoid
  a dictatorship].
V Tried to avoid the dangers of a one-house
  legislature.
                 Council of 500  initiates legislation.
                 Council of Elders [250 members]  married or
                    widowed males over 40 years of age.
                     o They accepted or rejected the legislation.
                   Both houses elected by electors who owned or
                    rented property worth 100-200 days’ labor [limited
By: Susan M.
    Pojer           to 30,000 voters].
   Horace
Greeley H. S.
 Chappaqua,        The electors were elected by all males over 21 who
                    were taxpayers.
     NY
 Political Instability: 1795-1796
 April, 1795  Inflation; bread riots.
 May 20, 1795  Revolt of Prairial [Year III]
 October, 1795 :
              Vendée and Brittany
               revolted.
              Military suppressed
               them.
 May, 1796  First
  “communist” revolt
              Gracchus Babeuf and
               the Conspiracy of Equals”
        By: Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
              18 Brumaire (Nov. 9, 1799)

 Coup d’état by
  Napoleon.
 Approved by a
  plebiscite in
  December.
 Abbe Sieyès:
  Confidence
  from below;
  authority from
  above.


         By: Susan M. Pojer
 Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY

				
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