Theories of Human Development (PowerPoint download)

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					Socialization: Family
       Chapter 15
   The family is a social system – networks
    of reciprocal relationships that are
    constantly evolving
    – Direct effects
    – Indirect effects
   Parent effects model

   Child effects model

   Transactional model
             Parenting Styles
   Baumrind
    – Dimensions of parenting:
       Acceptance/responsiveness
       Demandingness/control
•   Figure 15.2 Two major dimensions of parenting. When we cross the two dimensions,
    we come up with four parenting styles. BASED ON MACCOBY & MARTIN, 1983.
 Child-rearing pattern    Preschool Outcomes
Authoritative            Cheerful, socially responsible,
                         self-reliant, achievement
                         oriented, cooperative
Authoritarian            Moody, unhappy, easily
                         annoyed, unfriendly, aimless,
                         not pleasant to be around
                         Impulsive and aggressive,
                         bossy, self-centered, lacked
Permissive               self-control, low in
                         independence and
Indulgent                None in study…
Child-rearing   Childhood                  Adolescence
                High cognitive and social High self-esteem,
Authoritative   competencies              excellent social skills,
                                          strong moral/prosocial
                                          concern, high academic
                Average cognitive and      Average academic
Authoritarian   social competencies        performance and social
                                           skills; more conforming
                                           than adolescents of
                                           permissive parents
                Low cognitive and social   Poor self-control and
Permissive      competencies               academic performance;
                                           more drug use than
                                           adolescents of
                                           authoritative or
                                           authoritarian parents
       Child-Rearing Patterns and
   Lamborn, Mounts, Steinberg, and
    Dornbusch (1991)
    – measures of psychosocial competence and
      psychological and behavioral dysfunction
   A parent takes a child to a shoe store and
    the parent selects three pairs of shoes
    that are acceptable to the parent in price
    and type. The child is told, “You may
    decide which you would like. This is what
    we can afford and I think these are
    suitable styles and quality.” (Think about
    what impact this parenting style might
    have on the child’s eventual ability to pick
    out shoes on his/her own.)
   A parent takes a child to a shoe store and
    says, “What do you like?” The child
    selects a pair that costs more than the
    parent can afford or that is not a suitable
    type of shoe in the parent’s judgment.
    The parent says, “No, I can’t buy that
    pair.” The child whines and fusses until
    the parent gives in.
   A parent takes a child to a shoe store and
    tells the salesperson, “We’ll try on those.”
    The child is given no say and ends up with
    a pair of shoes that s/he hates. The child
    feels disrespected. (“No one asked me
    what I wanted.”) The child says nothing
    out of fear of parental love-withdrawal
    (parent pouts and gives child silent
    treatment) or fear of harsh reaction
    (parent says, “You are just a spoiled brat;
    you don’t appreciate anything I do for
    you!” or parent slaps or spanks child for
   Appropriate behavior needs:
    – Compliance
    – Internalization of standards
         Effects of Prohibitions
   Carlsmith
    – Kindergarteners rank toys on attractiveness
    – E leaves, told not to play
    – Mild vs. severe threat
    – Temptation period
    – Preference for toys assessed
        Effects of Prohibitions
   Are they using this time to reflect on
    their behavior and attribute it internally
    or externally?
   What if children are told that all other
    children had obeyed E?
   If given before the temptation period,
    what would you expect?
   If given after the temptation period,
    what would you expect?
            Effects of Rewards
   magic markers and paper set up on a table in
    a preschool classroom
   children who drew with them during free time
    were later taken to another room and asked to
    draw again
   3 conditions:
    –   expected reward
    –   unexpected reward
    –   no reward
   2 weeks later markers returned to table in
    Minimum Sufficiency Principle
   it’s important to produce compliance
   failure to gain compliance reduces
    likelihood of future compliance
   must exert enough control to gain
   control is subtle enough to not be
    perceived as sole reason for compliance
Behavioral vs. Psychological Control
   Behavioral control
    – regulating conduct through firm but
      reasonable discipline and monitoring activities
   Psychological control
    – attempts to influence a child/adolescent’s
      behavior by psychological means
    – Separation anxious
    – Achievement oriented
        Social Class Differences
   Low SES parents compared to middle SES
    – stress obedience and respect for authority
    – more restrictive and authoritarian
    – more likely to use power-assertive discipline
    – less likely to show warmth and affection
Explanations for SES Differences
 More stress
 Work-role requires deference to authority
        Sibling Relationships
 80% of Americans grow up with at least
  one sibling
 Drop on maternal involvement with older
  child with birth of baby
 Older sibs become more domineering,
  aggressive, and also more likely to initiate
  helpful, playful, and other prosocial
 Younger sibs become more compliant
          Sibling Relationships
   Sibling Relationships During Middle
    Childhood and Adolescence
    – during middle childhood  increase in conflict
    – continue to rely on each other for
      companionship, emotional support, and
      assistance with everyday tasks
        Sibling Relationships
 Parents harmony matters
 Parental monitoring matters
 Sibling relationships are better if parents
  respond warmly and sensitively to all
        Sibling Relationships
 Siblings provide emotional support
 Siblings can be models and teachers

 Children in one-child families  well-
  adjusted and socially competent
 May even be more obedient and slightly
  more intellectually competent
           Adoptive Families
   Sensitivity associated with secure
   Can bring issues related to insecure
    attachments from previous homes…
   Unresolved curiosity about roots
   Transracial or transcultural adoption 
    identities are healthy blends
   Move towards open adoptions
    Donor Insemination Families
 Infertile couples/single women
 Concerns
 Golombok’s 12-year longitudinal study
•   Figure 15.4 Sexual orientation of adult children raised by lesbian mothers, gay fathers, and
    single-parent heterosexual mothers. (Notice that children with homosexual parents are just as
    likely to display a heterosexual orientation as children raised by heterosexuals. ADAPTED FROM
    BAILEY ET AL., 1995; GOLOMBOK & TASSER, 1996.
     Family Conflict and Divorce
 40-50% of marriages end in divorce
 More than half of children will spend time
  in a single-parent home
 Not a singular life event
    – Often begins with marital conflict
    – Includes many life changes
    Family Conflict and Divorce
 Period prior to divorce often includes a
  rise in family conflict
 Regular exposure to marital discord
  contributes to adjustment problems,
  including anxiety, depression, and
  externalizing disorders
 Direct and indirect effects
 Families often disrupted for a year or
  more after divorce
 Friends/financial situation may change
 Mothers may be overwhelmed with new
   Period immediately following divorce
    associated with more negative outcomes
    – high level of conflict during that time
    – adverse economic conditions
    – stresses resulting from mother having to
      start work or increase hours
    – compound effects of the father leaving and
      the mother being physically and emotionally
      less available to the child
    – child often temporarily “loses” both parents
   Children’s initial reactions vary as a
    function of gender and age
    – Preschool/early grade school
    – Preteen/early teens
    – Adolescents
 Long Term Reactions to Divorce
 Better for a child to be in a stable single-
  parent home than a conflict-ridden two-
  parent home
 Not all divorcing families experience all of
  the difficulties mentioned previously
   Longitudinal data from the large-scale
    longitudinal National Survey of Children:
    – poor relationships with their fathers and
    – dropping out of high school
    – repeating a grade
    – being in the lower half of class
    – receiving psychological help

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