Learning Center
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out
Your Federal Quarterly Tax Payments are due April 15th Get Help Now >>



My researches about accesible bus interior design project

More Info
in collaboration with Umeå Municipality

  Ceren Bagatar, Advanced Product Design
  Degree Project, Umeå Institute of Design, 2009
Table of Contents
1. Introduction                             3

1.1. Aim of the project                     4
1.2. Accessible Sweden                      5
1.3. An overview of disability in Sweden    6

2. Research                                 7

2.1.   Transportation in Umeå               8
2.2.   Standards in public transportation   16
2.3.   User research and interviews         19
2.4.   Problem analysis                     45

3. Goals and Wishes                         58

4. Concept Creation                         61

4.1.   Package design                       62
4.2.   Detailing                            71
4.3.   Concept statement                    80
4.4.   Scenario creation                    84
4.5.   Sketching                            91

5. Final Design                             110


1.1. Aim of the Project

The aim of the accessible city bus project is to create a city bus
which gives an accessible public transportation service considering
the equality approach. Considering transportation needs of the
society and future public transportation scenarios, Accessible City
Bus is aimed to be the future public transportation vehicle for an
open society where diversity is welcomed and appreciated. This
aim brings out the need of rethinking and redesigning of a city bus
through accessibility and equality approach.

The idea of the Accessible City Bus Project has started during the
discussion about 17 new city buses which had been purchased
by Swebus, and found to have poor accessibility. The discussion
took part in the Umeå Municipality with Britta Nordbrandt Nilsson-
the Transportation Service Chief and Fredrik Forsell-the Public
Transportation Chief; and was mainly about two topics that were
accessibility problems in the existing city buses and what could
be done in the future to achive the Government goal “Accessible
Sweden in 2010”.

                                 Equality...          Flexibility...      Independency...

1.2. Accessible Sweden

The Central Government Administration had announced an
action plan of a goal which was to create an accessible Sweden
in 2010. This accessibility particularly applied to public transport
and easily remedied obstacles in buildings and public places. The
action plan contains clear accessibility objectives in these areas
that should be achieved no later than 2010.

As Handisam mentions, in a diversity based social community,
the disability policy doesn’t only relate to people with disability,
but to everyone in the society.

In a diversity based social community, it is required that people
with disability participate the life of the community without
facing any obstacles. It is important to create an open society
that gives equal opportunities to girls, boys, women and men
with disabilities and this could be achieved by accessibility.

Ministry of Health and Social Affairs,
1.3. An Overview of Disability in Sweden

Disability is a very heterogeneous term. The largest groups of
disabled people are...

There are about 428 000 disabled people in Sweden aged 16-
84 years. Of these, about 100 000 are wheelchair users, others         Impaired vision
have mostly impaired function in the arms and hands.       Most        A total 1.5 percent of the adult population have impaired vision and
disabled are older, aged 65-84 years and are 21.2 percent of the       it is most common among the oldest.
disabled.                                                              26 000 people have only the disabled and additional 80 000 people
                                                                       have impaired vision in combination with other disabilities. People
Impaired hearing                                                       with impaired sight rarely travel by public transport.
This is the most common disability and nearly 700 000 people
only have impaired hearing. 12 percent of the adult population         Multiple disabilities
have hearing impairment. People with impaired hearing, of all          Over 200 000 people (3 percent) of the adult population suffering
ages, have been travelling the same as non-disabled.                   from multiple disabilities. Elderly people get high-age health fragile
                                                                       and it is especially the oldest who have multiple disabilities. A third
Severe asthma / allergy                                                of 75-84-year-olds have multiple disabilities,
3 percent, or 210 000 persons of the adult population, mainly          over 100 000 people. In this group are women, often living alone.
young and middle-aged, have severe asthma or allergy. People           Persons with multiple disabilities rarely travels by public transport.
with severe asthma or allergy are travelling the same as non-
disabled.                                                                                                                source:
                                                                                                                         SIKA Rapport 2002:6
problem identification

2.1. Transportation in Umeå

As a start of the research phase, the municipality, the public transportation
department, the bus garage are visited as well as travelling by special
service vehicles and customized cars.

Beside private cars, transportation in Umeå is basically done by city buses,
special services (färdtjänst) and various bikes.

In order to enhance accessibility for the disabled, private cars are customized
and special services (färdtjänst) are provided by the municipality as a
replacement of public transportation service.

customized cars (for disabled)
The private cars of disabled people are customized to answer special
needs of their users such as safety, easy access and driving.

The customizing includes special steering wheel as well as special
locking system for wheelchairs, lowered floor and an entrance ramp
for easy access.

w    e
 he cia
    el l lo
       ch c
         ai k f
           r    ort
                    he                    tied
                                         rear wns a
                                                    t th

                    do eelch
                         ng airs

                                                             Ortman Specialanpassningar AB, Umea
special service for disabled (färdtjänst)
The municipality offers a special service for those who have significant
difficulties in using public transportation because of their disability.

Over 4000 people in Umeå use special service. The service is given
by Umeå Taxi and the customers who have special service card, pay
25% of taximeter amount which is around 20 SEK in minimum.


               co and
                 nt b
                   ra ar
                     st s,

    ty b

                             12                         Special Service for disabled people, Umeå

                       Have to book it at least 4 hr
                       before or not at all!

                                          Time consuming! We have to leave
                                          the others 1st before going home.

                                          You never know how long it will take.

                     You never have independency.

                     You have to plan with a big tolerance.

The special service is provided by the municipality in order to meet
transportation needs of disabled people; however it can never be enough to
meet the most important needs of people such as independency and equality.
city buses                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Till / Från Ersmark                                                                            6 8 9 69              Ö.Ersboda

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Väg 364
                                                                                                                                                             Forslundagymnasiet                                                                                                                                                                                                 5,76
                                                                                                                                                                                 78                                                                                               Morgonv.              Ersmark                                               Måttgr.                                                  Ö.Ersboda
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   .     5 76                                                                                           oken                                       Krukgr.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Aftonv                                                                                                                 8,74

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Väg 364
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Onsdagsv.                                                                                         C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Gräddv.                                                                                     Kärnv.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Ersmark                                                                             Snipgr.                   83               .             Ö.Er
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hälsogr.                Byttg         sbod
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skymningsv.                                                                                         5                                                  aC

The only public transportation that is used in Umeå is city bus. Because
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             V.Ersboda                                                                    r.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Kylgr.        Ystarv.                  6,9,69                              74
                                                                                                                                                                                                     (7)                                                                                                                                                                                                            S.Slevgr.
                                                                                  Klockarbäcken                                                                                                            ICA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Gärssjöbäcksv.                                    8,76,83
                                                                               karb                                                                                                                          Såifa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Bron                                                                                  83                                  Illerv.               Bruksv.
                                                                                        n                                                                                                                                                                                                   5,76                                                              Kröken

of size of the city and its slow speed of growth, there are no other
                                                                                              (1)                                                                                                     Kontaktv.                                                                                                                                                                         5          E4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 7

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Bussgaraget                                    Ersforsen N                                                                                                         Rådjursv.                                              E4
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Bussverkstaden                                                                                                      8,76                                  Vargv.           Mårdv.
                                                                                                                                                                                               Banankompaniet                          Strömv.                                                                                                             Utterv.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          .    Marieberg ieberg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 rgs-         Mar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   78                                                                                                                                    Mariebe
                                                                                                          Paradisgr.      1 72 83
                                                                                                                                        E12                                                                              Förrådsv.                                                                                                                                           5,83        skolan

means of public transportation that are planned to be used in Umeå
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Fläktv.               Rälsv.                             Ersforsen S                                                            Mariedal                                                          2,6,9,69
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Rödberget                                                                                                   Sandbacka                         5,83                                                                                       Mariehemshöjd
                                                                                                                                                                             Kronoparken              Rödäng                                                                                                       E4
                                                                                                           Glädjens gr.        Umedalen                                                                            Rödäng

                                                                                                                                                      Kronoskogsv.                    Stickv.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Västerslätt            VK                                                                                                                      Bräntbergsskolan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Dalstigen                                                                      Morkullev.

                                                                                                                                         72                                               83           Utfartsv. Kornettstr.                 Vallmov.    (7)                                               8,76         83                                                                                                                Nydala
                                                                                                                                                                              nget                                            7                                               Soldattorpet                                          5

for the near future.
                                                                                                                          än  d                                                        Backen                    Aspv.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Västerslätts C    72                             77
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Mariehem                        74
                                                                                                                    ts gr                                                                                                    E12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Ö.Grinden           Sandaparken              Solvändan
                                                                                                               Löfte              83       gan                                          1,72
                                                                                                                                                         Hedv.              arksv.                                                                                      Midgårdsskolan                                                 Lyckogr.                                                                                Mariehemsv.13
                                                                                                                          1            kstu                         Kronop
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Tallparken.                                                                              Regementet                                                                                    2,6,7,9,69
                                                                                                                                  Kyr                                                      sv.                                 Hedl                 7
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Signalv.                  Kanslihuset                                 Haga Skogsbrynet
                                                                                                                                              Backenhemmet                       Gabrieljan skolan                                  unda
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                rg.                           5                              83
                                                                                                                   Kyrkvägen                                                        Grisbacka       Hartvigsg                                  n Dra                                                                       Bäckv.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Mariehems C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ränsv.                                gon            Dragonfältet                        Löjtnantsg.                 Simhallen

                                                                                                                                                                                                           Stadsg                               1            sko                                        69                         .
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Fältg Gärdesv.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Berghem 2,7

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 lan                   ttsg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       .                                 Drag Hovrä                        Järnvägs-                                       Magnusdalsv. Blåbärsv.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Ängesv            Döbe                           ong.                   9 torget 83 Tuvgr. Fredrikshögsg.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        lns                           Nyg.                                                                           2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            v.     83 plan Sme                                                                  9,69             Gammlia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    V.Brink                                   ds Sta                Renmarks-                         n                              Berghemsv.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                g. d
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Tvärån                                       v.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Ö.Brink mgården                         sh Ku                      83        Sporthalle         2,9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       He                                us n torget                                                          Terrängv.                 Liljansberget
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Ume älv                                                             et gs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Vasaplan        2,75 Ö.Norrlandsg. 69 Fridhemsv.                           7                (2)               Rullstensg.

The public transportation system in Umeå is designed by the municipality
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Sved                                                                kolan            Församlingsgården
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Laxg        jebac
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ken Bry M
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           gs           4,6 Mimers                  84 sen             Fabriksg.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ö. Gym.       Skidspåret Samhällsvetar-                      (2),6,9,69
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Umeli           ränd                                   b                        yrkan nsstyrel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             iv.                              gg ålarg 84 org                 Stadsk         Lä                                       75                        huset
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Volvo                                              arg r.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     .                         dc. Häradshövdingeg.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Järnvägsg.         9,69           Univ.omr.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Furugr.                                 Tegs vår          (4) 9 73         Järnvägsg.
                                                                                   Hpl Universitetssjukhuset (NUS-terminalen)
                                                                                                                                                                                                          bärs           9,69                                                                                                                            72          Universitetet
                                                                                                                                                                                                               v.                                84                                Teg C                    84                                                         Universum
                                                                                   trafikeras av linjerna:
                                                                                                                                                                                                       nv.                                                                 9,73                                            1,5-8,84                                                                                                           Nydalasjön
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Teg 69 Varvsg.                                                                                   set IKSU-hallen

and the service is provided by a contracted bus company.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Tegs                                                                                                       Växthu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Enbärsv.                                              Ce                                                          almsg.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Tegs skola ntral-
                                                                                   1 5 6 7 8 72 73 74 84                                                                              Böleäng                           6,73                     Riks              v.                                             .             Österm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         set                                              74
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      v.                                     Obbolav.                                           etssjukhu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       69,84                                                          Universit                           1 5,8,84 Ålidhöjd
                                                                                                                                                                                               Klarbärsv.                                                                                                                                             75

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             (4) Tegs sjukhem

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 en         Vinterg.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Åldermansv. Linåkersv               84          Nabbv. Ön 4 84


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               75 84


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 4,84                  4                                                            ogsv                                     .
                                                                                                                                                                                                         ,69                                                                         Slåtterv.                   Ringv.              Storåv.                            .
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            .    Magisterv               Minera
                                                                                                                                                                                                     6,9                                                                     Söderslätt Ringv.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Lekparken                       Gimonäsv.                    ora
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Lab Ålidhem
                                                                                                                                                              Röbäck                                                                                                                                                         Mudderv.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Öv.               Sofieborg                                                     8,75            Nornaplatsen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Sofiehems-                          Socio                Carlslid
                                                                                                                                                                          Grus                                                                                                                                                                                                                      nom
                                                                                                                                                                Röbä           åsv. Travba                                                                                                                                                                skolan                  Assis 84              str.
                                                                                                                           6 9 69 73                                 cks C                  nev.                                                                                                                                Hakegr.                                                 tentv.                 5              Tomtebo Vitterv.

The Public transportation department of the Municipality works as a
                                                                                                                                                      Rose                                                                                                                                                                                     Båthamn
                                                                                                                                                           ttv.                                                                                                                                              Masking.                                       Sofiehem
                                                                                                                                         Man                                                                                                                                                                                    Reningsverket          Verkmästargr.               Elev


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Tomteboparken            Källplatsen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Tallv.            1                              Flintv.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      84                               5                             Sagovägen           8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Lärlingsg.                                                                     Gnejsv.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                5                                                               75
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Carlshem                                          Till / Från

supervisor of the regulations and it gets feedback from the bus company                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Sjöbodarna                                1                  .                                                Innertavle
                                                                                                Vasaplan, med Ultrabussarnas Information (tel. 16 22 50)                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Porfyrv.           Kvartsv
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Strömpilen 84                                            Carlshöjd
                                                                                                Linjerna 1-9, 69, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78 och 83-84, med hållplats
                                                                                                Linjesträckning för enstaka turer, med hållplats                                                                                                                                                                             Alviksgr.                                 Gimonäs                                  Carlshöjd

                                                                                    4 / (4)     Linjenummer / Linjenummer för enstaka turer

during the contracted period.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Alvik                   4     Till / Från Stöcksjö (-Ansmark)

Lines 1-9
These lines are mainly weekdays between around 06.00 and up to about
23.00, as well as night buses at weekends.
Lines 6 and 9 operate on weekdays before 20.00 and only daytime on
Line 4 operates only during weekdays, and is primarily adapted to school
and commuting.

Line 69
This line replaces lines 6 and 9 on weekdays after 19.00 pm, most of Saturday
and throughout Sunday.

Lines 77 and 78
These lines run only on weekdays and are primarily adapted to school and
commuting. Line 78 is only school days.

Lines 83 and 84
Lines 83 and 84 are designed with a particular view of the elderly and
disabled people and other travelers who may experience difficulty in getting
around. Their network has relatively many stops and is in several cases
adjusted to important service points, such as clinics, shops and centers.

Line 80
It is an airport bus service operating in connection to and from the flight to
Arlanda and Bromma. The airport comes from the railway and goes through
Vasaplan, university and hospital area and Ålidhem till Umeå airport.
2.2. Standards in Public Transportation

EU has published standards for city busses and coaches in order to           Colors and Lighting:
enable international public transportation by buses.                         Large glossy surfaces should be avoided because they at some
                                                                             lighting can make reflections.
Accessibility:                                                               Prams:
Shall have low floor entrance                                                There must be room for prams. The width of a pram for a (1)
Shall have at least one wheelchair space                                     children considered to be 600 mm.
Shall be equipped with lift/ramp or other similar devices to assist
in entry and exit                                                            Wheelchairs:
                                                                             Low-floor buses shall be accessible for people with impaired
Doors:                                                                       mobility, including wheelchair users.
The clear width of door openings shall be applied in the bus:                Wheelchair compartment shall be at least 750 mm wide and
Single Door 900mm - relates to the door for people with                      1300 mm long. At the site must be simple and fast device for
wheelchairs.                                                                 support or anchorage of a wheelchair or walking frame.
Simple Door 650 mm - to other doors
Double Door 1200 mm

it is important that the bus’s interior is designed to facilitate the
movement of the bus.
Optimum comfort with respect to the traffic used in the bus shall
always be sought.
There must be sufficient support in the direction the bus as to
minimize the risks of FALL route.
Seats shall as far as possible be facing in the direction of travel.
The passenger must be able to obtain good views from the bus
from all seats.
Distance between the floor and the seat top surface shall be above
620 mm
Minimum dimension of the seat sitch shall be 680mm                                               Buss 2000 Huvudmannakrav på
                                                                                                 bussar i linjetrafik, Version 2006

wheelchairs and bus trips
In the EU standards the highest dimensions for wheelchairs is fixed
to 700x1200 with weight of 250 kg which is quite small according to
wheelchair sizes that are used today.

Beside the wheelchair dimensions, the ramp of busses is set to have a
maximum slope of 12% which is hard to manage with some powered

Buses commonly used in urban transport have special wheelchair
seats with a back and side support that requires wheelchair to go
backward, without clamping.

bus stops
There are around 400 bus stops in Umeå which will be rebuilt to meet
the requirements of accessible transportation.

Umeå has it’s own standards which are mainly related to the dimensions
of the bus stops and are wider than the national standards.
(20m x 3m x 16cm)

In the new bus stops the width will be 3 meters in order to make it
easier for wheelchair accessibility and for cleaning out the snow.

Note that there are no standards for:
Structure (walls, roof,...)
Colors, contrast
Accessories and furniture

                                       Visit to Ortman Specialanpassningar
                                       AB with Anders Jonsson
  A short trip to Umedalen
  by bus line 1
                                         To city center with
                                         Elisabeth Nilsson by Färtjänst
      Visit to Bus Garage
      (Peter Eriksson)
                                         Interview with Anders Jonsson

  Interview with bus drivers
  Anna Karin Venman                    Visit to Öbacka Servicehus (elderly)
  and Catrin Linström

                                        user                                   Visit to scene talking

                                                                               Visit to hjälpmedel...

                                    r e s e ar ch
Discussion on existing city buses
with Britta Nilsson

Interview with Hanna Malm on
bus stops and traffic safety

Interview with Fredrik Forsell
on future public transportation
in Umeå

                                       Interview with Zaida Holm-Gradin

                                                                              Discussion with an occupational
                                         Interview with Lena ...              therapist, Christine Lundberg
                                                                              (Barn och Ungdomshabiliteringen)
                                         Interview with Bert Nilsson
                                                     19                        Interview with Daniella & Sara

During the user research phase, some short visits were done to
the Youth Habilitation Center in Umea,
the Handicapped Organization in Umea,
the Swebus Bus Garage,
the Public Transportation department of the Umea Municipality

Beside these visits, special equipments for disabilities were tried
in the Hjälpsmedels Center, a scene talking cinema for visually
impaired people was visited and a car custumization garage was
observed to understand special needs of different people.

The user interviews were done with a homogeneous group which
. 2 bus drivers
. 2 wheelchair users
. a young wheelchair user with her assistant
. a visually impaired woman
. a hearing impaired 80 year old man
. a movement disabled woman with rheumatism
. a parent with pram
. a young student
. an occupational therapist
 ri                                                          x4


                                            car / fä
                                                     rdtjä     nst
                                                                                                 City b
                                       rt:                                         The same
                          Getting on
                                       and off is
                         car                       easier in
                         But the se                                    t and priv
                                     ats are low                                  ate       The seats
                                                 !                                                       ar
                                                                                            more comf e higher and
                       Driver:                                                                          ortable
                       more cont

                      and it coul in färdtjänst
                                 d be more                                               When I sh
                                             helpful                                                ow
                                                                                        person wi my card, they shou
                                                                                                   th disabilit               ld know th
                                                                                                                y, but mo                at there
                                                                                                                          stly they               is a
                                                                                      It’s easier                                   don’t.
                                                                                                   with woma
                                                                                                               n drivers
                                                                                                                           and younge
                                                                                    Reggea Ki
                                                                                   He speaks
                                                                                                                                       r men
                                                                                                                                                         During the interviews, users’ daily journey cycle is asked to be described
                                                                                               , plays mu
                                                                                  His behaviour            sic, sin
                                                                                                 makes it mu gs
                                                                                 I don’t fe
                                                                                             el safer, ch more fun
                                                                                                         but don’t
                                                                                                                                                         from the starting point till the final destination. Beside that, disposable
                                                                                                                    feel unsafe
                                                                                                                                                         cameras are given to users and private stories are asked to be shared
                                                                                Sometimes                                         neither
                                                                               trucks, th e driver is angr
                                                                                            en I feel               y to the
                                                                                                       unsafe                  traffic or
                                                                                                                                                         in order to be considered as a feedback for the evaluation process.

                                                                             It’s fun by
                                                                             Meet frie s
                                                                                        nds and ma
                                                                                                                                                         The interviews are tried to be done in an inofficial coffee visit atmosphere,
                                                                                                   ke new fr
                                                                                                                                                         instead of creating an official atmosphere with questionnaires to be
                                                                           Work in
                                                                          rheumatis      a group
                                                                                     m”               “women
                                                                                                                from ab
                                                                                                                                                         filled in. Therefore the interviews are transferred into the report as
                                                                         I find them                                     road wi
                                                                                       in the bu                                 th
                                                                       I talk to pe
                                                                                    ople and so
                                                                      Have made
                                                                                                metimes ma
                                                                                                           ke friend
                                                                                                                     s                                   items in a summarized format.
                                                                                   many cont
                                                                                             acts with
                                                                                                       people on
                                                                                                                 the bus

user interviews

                                                                                       Disadvantages of their work:
                                                                                       The air in the town is not clean in the traffic, also in Vasaplan.

                                                                                       Shortest bus trip:
                                                                                       Bus no.7 from Vasaplan to Rödäng (10 min)

                                                                                       Longest bus trip:
                                                                                       Bus no.9 from Vasaplan to Ersboda. (40 min non stop) (through Ersboda,
                                                                                       Mariehem, Nydalahöjd, University..)
                                                                                       Almost every bus driver drives no.9 every day
                                                                                       No.7 has 4 buses.
                                                                                       No.9 has 14 buses. It changes with no.8.
                                                                                       If you drive no.8, you always have no.9. It needs too much hard work.

                                                                                       Anna Karin: I always feel very safe in the bus.
                   Catrin Linström and Anna Karin Venman                               Catrin: In the night not so safe. People are drunk.
                                 (bus drivers)                                         They don’t want to pay
                                                                                       Fights between passengers
                                                                                       Robbery happens in the bus. Once took the money and ran away.
                                                                                       Knives, baseball sticks,.. not usual, but it happens.

                  Have been working for 30 years                                       Stressing / disturbing issues:
                  Know passengers from growing up kids!                                The passengers are stressed!.. The older ones!
                                                                                       They want to go fast.
                  Daily work:                                                          The traffic around 4-5 is stressful. Big road to Ersboda, E4.
                  2.5 hr driving + 10 min. short break for toilet and coffee
                  After 5 hr. lunch/meal break                                         The chair is too low. It should have one more step to sit on.
                  Work for 8 hr in total 7-16                                          I want to be at the same height or higher than the passengers who enter.
                  Change bus in Vasaplan or bus garage                                 Eye contact is important. You get control when you have it.
                  Used to work in night buses, but not anymore                         I’m reading the person getting in the bus. Reading and talking to them.
                  Change buses for 4-5 times a day
                                                                                       Woman / man driver:
                  Bus line prefered by them:                                           It’s the same.
                  Bus no.5 (Always get your break)                                     They like women driving the bus. They drive much better.
                  The driving time is enough and doesn’t have too many people.
                  Opposite to no.1 which is too long.                                  Tiring issues:
                                                                                       The vibrations, bumps in the snow. Jumps for 8 hours!
                  Advantages of their work:                                            Noise. Some buses are very noisy. The furniture, accessories are not
                  You see lot’s of things like you’re in the cinema or TV show.        fixed, they move around.
                  You’re sitting at the first raw                                      Heat system (in the front), radio, people, the sound.
                  You see so many things everyday                                      We use earplugs. We have to use them.
                                                                                                                            user interviews
(what if a passenger asks a question?)
All people have ipods in their ears. All young people...
When they pay and you say something.. they don’t hear anything.
The telephone.. everyone uses telephone.
Sometimes there are ten people talking at the same time... very disturbing

Talking to driver:
Talking to the driver is prohibited while driving.

People who sit in the front:
Some lonely people sit in the front and want talk to us. In the evenings,
night bus.

Playing loud music at the bus:
Reggea King! All the young ones and old ladies love him.
It’s the middle aged men, they don’t like the music.
Old ladies feel safe with him.
He’s very kind. He says “Oh my little princess!...” to them.

Specific bus lines preferable by elderly or disabled:
No.83 and 84 are long lines going to the houses. Too many rollators               SNOW
                                                                                                      BUS STOP
You have to drive carefully, slowly and wait for them to have a seat.
No.2 and 7 have many disabled.

Rush hours:
8 o’clock in the morning. (School people)
Then 4pm and 5pm.
Elderly take the bus in the lunch time.
                                                                                                                 BUS STOP
Handicapped and pram accessibility during rush hours:
Not any problem. People make place for them.
The problem occurs when there is no enough space for three of them.
Then we have to leave them in the bus stop and they take the next one.
In Tomtebo there are many prams. So they can’t get in.

Number of rollators, wheelchairs and prams in a bus:
The new buses take 1 wheelchair.
The others can take 3 rollators or 3 prams and a wheelchair                              SNOW
                                                                                                                 BUS STOP
The wheelchairs are different. It depends on size.

user interviews

                  Difference between driving the Scania and the new Volvo?
                  The older Scania is faster.
                  The passengers can take care of themselves.                                      Ramps:
                  In a better way they can help each other.                                        (Automatic ramps)
                  While getting off, they don’t cross each other.                                  I saw it in London! On the red double deckers.
                                                                                                   It doesn’t work here in Sweden. They say it makes rust. But it is very good.
                  In the new Volvo buses, the pram next to the door need to get off                (Manual ramps)
                  and open the way to the other and then get on the bus again.                     In the new busses you open the ramp manually.
                  They are changing places, moving around.                                         In the older ones, you carry the ramp around and place it. It’s a free ramp.
                  It takes a lot of time to get one out, and give enough space for the next        It makes your hands dirty.
                  one.                                                                             (What about the new ones? Are they heavy?)
                                                                                                   No. But it’s a bit dangerous. While closing, you have to watch the fingers.
                  Prams and wheelchairs at the bus stop when the bus is full:                      It’s very easy in the new buses. We like that. That’s the best ramp.
                  Sometimes prams try to find a place and get on, but then give up.                When you have that ramp, the passengers help each other.
                  And sometimes I shake my head and don’t stop.                                    Anyone can take the ramp up.
                  (And the wheelchairs?)                                                           (Old ramps)
                  I always stop and talk to them, but not to the prams.                            Some of the wheelchairs’ accompanies know how to do it and they do it themselves.
                  (Any sign indicating the bus is full)                                            They always accompany to the wheelchairs, always drive with them.
                  No... Never trust the sign on the bus!                                           May be 50% of the wheelchair have accompany.
                  Talk to the driver!
                                                                                                   Lowering the bus
                  Control on the passengers when it’s full                                         When I see in the mirror that something is happening, I do it.
                  It’s hard to see. It can be hard to see when they are getting off.               Or when I remember where they are going. (Some people go to the same
                  You don’t see the wheelchair.                                                    place everyday.) Then I lower the bus.
                  (the rear car in the articulated buses)                                          Some stops are too high. You have problems with lowering the bus. It
                  Mostly I have my eyes on the front. I just look back to check it up an at the    touches the ground. That can be a problem if someone’s foot is there. So
                  stops.                                                                           it’s best if you don’t lower it every time.
                  Some buses have dark windows at rear. That’s really difficult to see
                  what’s going on.
                                                                                                   When the bus is longer than the bus stop
                  Special stop buttons for the wheelchair and disabled                             and the back exit is blocked by snow
                  They don’t use it.                                                               Some of them jump!
                  If they use it, I can control the door. I can lock the door open, so that        The younger people know the rules and they choose to jump.
                  it can’t close without my control.                                               But many people in the bus cannot choose. They say it’s impossible.
                  The bus door is automatic. It closes. Then they scream to me. :)                 Then you have to wait for them to come all the way to the middle door and
                  “Don’t close the door!”                                                          you have to watch them through the mirror.
                  “I didn’t!” It’s automatic.                                                      We have snow everywhere.
                  There are sensors on both sides of the door. When it’s empty, the                Everyone knows this bus is 18 meters and the bus stop is 12!
                  door closes itself.                                                              They should make the bus stops big enough and keep the snow away.

                                                                                                                                                              user interviews
When there are two or three buses in the front at the same bus stop              Problems with the ramp angle, depending on the bus stops
The younger ones jump out, then I wait and drive forward to the bus              Some bus stops don’t exist! The exit is right into the wood.
stop, then the others can go out.                                                It’s too deep for the ramp.
The passenger is afraid of the third bus to give left signal and pass the        I have to take them to the next stop.
others without taking him/her.                                                   Then they go back with the wheelchair.
(Does it happen?) Yes, it happens.                                               When there’s construction (Mariestrand) they remove the bus stop and
Usually the third one stops at the bus stop.                                     make a small one which is part of the road.
The second one can give a signal with his/her hand saying “you come              Then the wheelchair cannot get off. Then I take them to the next stop
to me”                                                                           (Mariehemshöjd).

Understanding the ones waiting for your bus at the bus stop                      Passengers’ reaction to wheelchairs
If you drive for long time, you understand.                                      People are screaming that we have to stop and wait for the wheelchair.
Some people make signs, but some people play with their bags, look               Sometimes we don’t have enough time to give the passengers enough
around, act like they don’t see you.                                             service and space.
You have to slow down and stop.                                                  If there are two wheelchairs, it takes 5 min to get on, then the other
                                                                                 passengers might miss the other connection bus.
Understanding type of disability before the passenger gets on                    The time planning doesn’t tolerate these kinds of delays.
You can see the white stick of the visually impaired ones.                       The time is too tight to take care of them and show them respect.
Hearing impaired?
Sometimes you see it.                                                            The youngest passengers
                                                                                 Foreign people in Ersboda send their children to a special school and they
Educational course for accessibility                                             travel all alone. Some of them look like five years old and they go alone
When they started the lines 83, 84, their drivers took a course.                 or with their brother/sister. They change buses in Vasaplan and they
They talked with the handicap organization, everything...                        manage it.
They were very good.
But now all the drivers use those buses without taking a course.                 Age limit to travel alone
Some of them drive very fast and scare the older ones.                           None.
Now everything depends on us, our empathy.
I would like to take a course!                                                   Passengers falling down in the bus
                                                                                 The drunk ones!..
Problems that wheelchairs face                                                   When the bus swings side to side (searches for balance), the old ones
Some electric wheelchairs are too big.                                           have problem to balance. Then I grab old men over the separator and
They can’t turn in the bus. Especially in the new bus.                           pull them into the bus!
In the older buses they go straight forward to their place.
In the new buses they have to turn around the corner.

Problems with hearing / visually impaired people
(Missing information)
We have the C90 voice sign system.
When that’s wrong, a problem might occur, because some of them
cannot see the road.
(Berghem/Mariehem) They might misunderstand the voice, then they
user interviews

                  seat layout of current buses
                               Never go back!
                               Too long and seats are high!

                                                                                                                                                                             bus drivers’s view through
                                                                                         No bars to hold                                                                     the mirror
                                                                                         It’s hard to open those seats
                                                                                         No stop button close

                                                                                                                              Most preferable seats
                                                                                                                              Many people sit behind my back. Even if the bus is empty.
                                                                                                                              They’re very shy people. They don’t want to see faces.

                      The best seat!                             Like these seats,                                            Younger
                      Low floor                                  but mostly occupied by young people                          Sit at the back together and talk to each other.
                      Holding bar                                I ask them if they have a problem,
                      Spacious                                   cause they are reserved for those who                        The front seat
                      Enough space for legs                      have problems in movements                                   For the handicapped, but they don’t want to sit there.
                      Close to the door                                                                                       They don’t want to show that they are disabled.
                                                                                                                              They prefer the middle of the bus, near to the door.
                                 Easy to sit and get up, but uncomfortable                                                    But then I can’t control their exit and lower the bus. I can’t see them if
                                 After the surgery, it’s hard to sit on them                                                  they have a cane or something else. The mirror is too small.
                                                                                                                              When the door closes, they get angry at me. They think I did it!

                                                                                                                              Use the middle of the bus, the seats close to the door or the foldable
                                                                                                                              ones all the time.
                                                                                                                              It is easier to get up from them. It’s higher than the others.
                                                                                                                              The other seats are hard for the elderly and with walking sticks to turn
                                                                                                                              around and sit on them.
                                                                                                                              They want to be close to the door, because it takes a lot of time getting
                                  Leg room is too small                                                                       off the bus.
                                  Hard to sit on the seats                                                                    Otherwise the door closes before they get off. They are afraid of that.
                                                                                                                                                 user interviews
                                                                           Safety issues in the bus
                                                                           With an electric wheelchair,
                                                                           Safety is possible in your car and special services...
                                                                           but not in city buses!
                                                                           My wheelchair is 130 kg. In case of crash or break, it moves.

                                                                           Bus stops
                                                                           Side walk is not high enough for the ramp angle
                                                                           Never sure if the destination stop will be fine for the ramp angle.

                                                                           Ordinary taxi
                                                                           If you have a small wheelchair, it is OK.
                                                                           You don’t have to plan your day that much.

                                                                           Planning the day
                                                                            “Want to be a free person!”

                                                                           Call municipality for a service
                                                                           Lucky, if you have a car (much more freedom to plan the day)

                    Elisabeth Nilsson                                      Intercity trips
                  (expert & passenger)                                     To visit my mother, have to make planning 14 days before the trip

                                                                           Stockholm trips:
                                                                           Service from home to the airport
                                                                           Flight from Umeå to Stklm
                                                                           Service from Arlanda to Stklm
Lives in Umeå                                                              Carry big Battery Charger with you!!!
Wheelchair user
                                                                           Unplanned intercity trips
Types of transportation she uses in the city:                              Only the taxi from Arlanda to Stklm costs 3000 SEK
Own car                                                                    Special service - Färtjänst
                                                                           Works better
City Bus                                                                   “ I know they will take good care of me”
My wheelchair is long and can’t fit in the bus when there’s already        Have safety
another wheelchair on the bus.                                             Know each other and communicate
Then wait for another bus.                                                 Same driver, same people, talk to each other and be nice

Safety Belt in the bus                                                     How Färtjänst is booked
Can’t use it by myself!                                                    Call to the taxi company a day before
It’s not safe. It only holds me, but not the wheelchair                    Need to plan 1 day before. No spontaneous programming

user interviews
                                                                                                  Use on weekdays (6-7 times) to go to work.
                                                                                                  Have to book at least 4 hr before or not at all
                                                                                                  It’s expensive for the municipality.
                                                                                                  Passenger pays 25% of the cost, and the rest is paid by the municipality.

                                                                                                  City bus:
                                                                                                  Money saving, since it’s free
                                                                                                  Use to go to the city center.(no.6,9,69)
                                                                                                  Don’t use to go to work, since it’s too complicated.
                                                                                                  Have to make several changes of lines.
                                                                                                  After 4pm, there is no bus (no. 84)
                                                                                                  Then have to go from Sofiehem to Alidhem to take a bus
                                                                                                  Hard to go from home to the bus stop in cold winter.

                                                                                                  Have an electric wheelchair (150 kg)
                                                                                                  Can use it to go out in summer
                                                                                                  Can go 20-25 km eventhough it says 30-40 km.
                                                                                                  Once the battery is empty, can’t use it manually.

                                                                                                  Using the city buses...
                                        Anders Jonsson
                                         (passenger)                                              If the bus comes full:
                                                                                                  Wait for another 20-30 minutes.
                                                                                                  Sometimes it’s freezing.

                                                                                                  Wheelchair capacity:
                  Lives in Umea                                                                   Some buses have space for 2 wheelchairs
                  Wheelchair user                                                                 2 Wheelchairs is unsafe
                                                                                                  and takes space!
                  Types of transportation he uses in the city:
                  Own car                                                                         Special stop button:
                  Färdtjänst                                                                      Every bus has it at a different place
                  City bus                                                                        Don’t use it
                  Wheelchair                                                                      Instead, Tells the driver where to stop
                                                                                                  Have to sit at a certain angle to be able to press it
                  Own car:
                  Freedom in decision of time and place                                           Safety belt:
                  Can’t use often in winter, because cold weather affects my muscles.             Don’t use it
                  Own a 95 model Chrysler and have recently ordered a new model.                  Might be even more dangerous to use it.
                  Can be driven with wheelchair.                                                  If the person is tied up with it when the bus crashes, The chair underneath
                  The wheelchair is locked for safety and it enters the car through a ramp        would move!

                                                                          user interviews
Sitting backwards:
Doesn’t matter.
Always know where to get off.
It might have been hard if I didn’t know where to get off the bus.

Nice for changes
When it is full, they squeze for you
They help the disabled people to carry accessibility broad.

Snow at bus stops:
It blocks the way
Sometimes there’s no space on the pavement, then I have to go on the
road level
Snow blocks the connection between the bike path and the bus stop
The problem is, It is slippery and bumpy for wheelchair
Snow affects moves of elderly and wheelchaired

Intercity trips:
Take riksfärdtjänst (replcament for intercity transportation)
Only pay bus price.
The intercity buses should also be accessible. (to Holmsund)

Thoughts about accessibility:
It was a goal in the 70’s.
Then the only accessible areas were subways and aeroplanes.
Still have some problems in Umeå airport.
The disabled person is carried by people to the aeroplane.
Some people have problems with being carried, but I don’t.
More low floor, more accessible!

user interviews

                                                                                              City bus:
                                                                                              The bus stop is very close to home.
                                                                                              That’s why it’s easy to use the bus
                                                                                              Daniella likes it more
                                                                                              It has more action and it is more social
                                                                                              She can look around (likes watching people)

                                                                                              Frequency of using the bus:
                                                                                              Use for free time (no.8)
                                                                                              Daniella travels with 1 or 2 assistants
                                                                                              It’s free for her and both her assistants

                                                                                              Getting on the bus:
                                                                                              Sometimes the driver doesn’t see us
                                                                                              Then I run to the front and ask him to open the door

                                                                                              Lowering the bus
                                                                                              Helps a lot!
                                                                                              The ramp angle becomes smaller and it’s easier to get on
                                                                                              Otherwise we have to speed up on the ramp, then it’s hard to turn right after.
                                        Daniella & Sara                                       Many times I squeezed my foot in between the wheelchair and the step to
                                         (passengers)                                         the seats (new Volvo)

                  Live in Umeå                                                                Very often I open the new ramp, also the older ones (the free ramps)
                  Daniella: 21 years old, student, wheelchair user                            It saves time doing it myself
                  Sara: Daniella’s assistant. She is a mother and expecting a new baby        They should check the ramps (when it is old)
                                                                                              Once the ramp broke and fell onto the ground
                                                                                              “It wasn’t our fault!
                  Types of transportation in the city:                                        It was the driver’s responsibility to place the ramp, but we did it...”
                  Private family bus with special chair and a ramp                            Without a ramp,
                  Färdtjänst                                                                  It’s impossible to lift the electric wheelchairs.
                  City bus
                  School taxi
                  Own car:                                                                    It’s hard to turn right after entering the bus (new Volvo)
                  Use with the family
                  Färdtjänst:                                                                 Some of them are nice and helpful in opening the ramp
                  Use to come home from school and in Daniella’s free time.                   Sometimes they remember Daniella and don’t want to look at her card
                  The price has been risen and it’s not that economic.                        Sometimes they want to see the card
                                                                                              Some bus drivers are cranky!

                                                                                                                                                                   user interviews
Daniella and Sara’s Daily Use of Citybus

                                           Very often Sara opens the ramp
Sara opens the ramp for Daniella

                                                                                                                           th ny t
                                                                                                                             e s im
Helps Daniella to maneuver in the bus                                                                                           ea es
                                                                                                                                  ts   c
                                                                                                                                     an rash
                                                                                                                                       d t ed
                                                                                                                                          he he
                                                                                                                                             wh r fo
                                                                                                                                               ee ot b
                                                                                                                                                     air etwe

                                                                                                      fety belt
Drives into the wheelchair compartment

                                                                                             r and sa
                                                                                    e the ba
                                                                            Don’t us

Sits as close as possible to Daniella

                                                                                                                                s lla
                                                                                                                               a e
                                                                                                                           be an
                                                                                                                        to to
                                                                                                                    ies le
                                                                                                                  Tr ssib
user interviews

                                                                                                                  Safety belt and the bar:
                                                                                                                  Never realized the bar
                                                                                                                  Don’t use them

                                                                                                                  Special stop button:
                                                                                                                  We use it (Sara)
                                                                                                                  Then they know that they have to lower the bus and get the ramp ready,
                                                                                                                  but they don’t!

                                                                                                                  Sitting backwards:
                                                                                                                  It doesn’t matter
                                                                                                                  Often she looks out through the side windows

                                                                                                                  If the bus comes full:
                                                                                                                  Not so often
                                                                                                                  at noon around 3-4 it might be crowded and full
                                                                                                                  Wait for another 20 minutes.
                                                                                                                  If we are supposed to be somewhere, they have to plan the trip before
                                                                                                                  Once we changed our plan, since we couldn’t take the bus
                                         on Chart
                             Private ca
                                         r / färdtjä
                                                                         City bus                                 Never get help - They don’t know what to do
                                      car is th
                                      sits on no
                                                   e safest
                                                            , cause
                                                                                                                  Sometimes the pram is on the way, they have to move
                            School ta             rm
                           lock the
                                      xi and th al seat.
                                      chair, bu
                                                  e färdtjä
                                                                        Has noth
                                                                                 ing   for safety                 Mostly kids look at Daniella - Maybe they think it’s exciting
                           safety be             t they do t also
                                     lt so ofte             n’t use
                          The priv
                                    ate car
                                                                                                                  Wheelchair capacity:
                          and it’s m        has
                                     ore comfo normal chair
                                              rtable                  Doesn’t
                                                                              matter. Sh
                                                                                                                  It’s only one in new buses. (not enough)
                                                                      chair.             e sits on
                                                                                                   her own
                                                                                                                  Used to be two wheelchairs.
                        Driver:                                                                                   Then Daniella was travelling together with her best friend, but not anymore.
                       The taxi
                       but they
                                and färd
                                         tjänst dr
                                                   ivers help                                                     They use the färdtjänst instead
                       They mak pect us to lock th           ,      Don’t he
                                 e jokes an
                                            d are nice
                                                      e chair
                                                                             lp anythi
                                                                                       ng                         Depending on the bus driver, sometimes they accept two wheelchairs.
                      In färdtjä
                     know ea
                                 nst, even
                                            though we
                                                                                                                  Snow at bus stops:
                     jokes with other, we talk an
                     We unde
                                  other pa
                                                    d make
                                                                  We just
                                                                  We don’
                                                                           talk with
                                                                                     each othe
                                                                                                                  Icy and slippery
                              rstand ea
                                         ch other
                                                    .                     t ta
                                                                  know him lk to anyone un
                                                                 Some ol er.
                                                                                                less we           It is difficult to get off.
                                                                           d people
                                                                                       need to
                                                                                                   talk           Once Daniella and her other assistant couldn’t get off, since the bus stop
                                                              Used to
                                                              not anym
                                                                      travel wi
                                                                                th best fri
                                                                                                                  was covered by snow.
                                                                                            end, but
                                                                                                                  They went on and passed many stops till the end and came back to the
                  Don’t trus
                  Only to ou any of them!
                              r private
                                                                                                                  same stop on the other side of the road and got off there
                  The taxi               car.
                            might no
                                      t come on
                                                  time or m
                                                            ight have

                                                                                                                                             user interviews
                                                                  Getting on the bus:
                                                                  Sometimes the gap between the bus and the bus stop is too big
                                                                  Then I have to either make a large step,
                                                                  or get down to the road level and then get on the bus, but it hurts

                                                                  Rush hours:
                                                                  Too many people in the morning (no.1)
                                                                  In Tomtebo there is always a seat free,
                                                                  but in Alidhem it’s always full.
                                                                  5-6 year old children block the passage

                                                                  When the bus is full:
                                                                  Ask the young ones sitting on low floor seats whether they have any
                                                                  disability or any problem in movements.
         Zaida Holm-Gradin                                        If not, ask them to leave the seat
                                                                  Too low!
                                                                  Need something (bar) to grab while getting up
                                                                  High seats are better tor get up
Have been in Umeå for 10 years                                    Might be better if I could just lean my hip on something
Have difficulties in movement because of rheumatism
                                                                  Keeping track of the route:
Types of transportation in the city:                              Find it easy
färdtjänst (taxi)                                                 Listen the voice information in winter, since it’s dark outside
city bus
                                                                  Getting off the bus:
Färdtjänst:                                                       It is a bigger problem to get off the bus!
Use when...                                                       It’s slippery in winter and there’s snow on pavement
       it is cold (because of rheumatism)
       I have bags                                                Always hurt myself getting off the bus
       I fell unhealthy                                           The bus stops far from the pavement.
                                                                  Then I have to either jump forward and step on the side of the pavement;
City bus:                                                         or step on the road
Always choose bus when it is possible
Use to exercise, get fresh air, to walk, to get sun               Always ask the driver to lower the bus
It’s cheaper for the community
                                                                  When it’s full, people are more helpful. They ask the driver to wait.
4 days a week (for going to hospital, cause I have lots of        Bus no.84:
treatments)                                                       Feels like easier to contact driver
                                                                  Since it’s used by elderly, they care and drive better

user interviews

                                                                                                       te ca
                                                                                                             r / fä
                  Comparison Chart                                                                                  rdtjänst
                                                                                                                                                                                   too wide!                          too high!
                  Private car / färdtjänst           City bus                                    Relia
                                                                                                       b                                        City
                                                                                                Taxi ility:                                            bus
                  Safety:                                                                            some
                                                 The same                                                 time
                                                                                                               s   come
                                                                                                                          s 30
                  Comfort:                                                                                                           late
                  Getting on and off is easier in    The seats are higher and                                                                   is
                                                                                            Wait                                            More never la
                  färdtjänst and private car         more comfortable                            in                                              relia    te fo
                  But the seats are low!                                                    Wait g:                                                   ble      r mo
                                                                                                                                                                   re th
                                                                                                 for fä                                                                 an 1
                                                                                                        rdtjänst                                                             min
                                                                                                                   at ho
                  Driver:                                                                                                me
                                                     When I show my card, they should
                  more contact in färdtjänst         know that there is a person with                                                    It’s im
                  and it could be more helpful       disability, but mostly they don’t.                                                 when possible
                                                                                                                                        The it’s cold o wait in
                                                                                                                                              b                    the b
                                                     It’s easier with woman drivers and                                                the w us stop                     us st
                                                                                                                                              ind      has                    op
                                                     younger men                                                                                            no w
                                                                                                                                      Dista                            to b
                                                                                                                                            nce                            lock
                                                                                                                                     hom         betw
                                                     Reggea King:                                                                         e          e
                                                                                                                                     Som is proble en the b                                      too wide!
                                                     He speaks, plays music, sings                                                       etim
                                                                                                                                               es I m          us s
                                                     His behaviour makes it much more fun                                                          can h                  and
                                                     I don’t feel safer, but don’t feel                                                                       walk                                                too high!
                                                     unsafe neither

                                                     Sometimes the driver is angry to                                                                                                             too risky!
                                                     the traffic or snow trucks, then I
                                                     feel unsafe

                  Socialising:                       It’s fun by bus
                                                     Meet friends and make new friends

                                                     Work in a group “women from
                                                     abroad with rheumatism”
                                                     I find them in the bus

                                                     I talk to people and sometimes
                                                     make friends

                                                     Have made many contacts with
                                                     people on the bus

                                                                                                                                                                                          easy to lean on      needs a bar    higher seat is
                                                                                                                                                                                          and get up           to hold on     easier to get up

                                                                                                                               user interviews
                                                                                                Zaida’s Daily Use of Citybus
        Never go back!
        Too long and seats are high!

                                                      No bars to hold
                                                      It’s hard to open those seats
                                                      No stop button close

                          Like these seats,                                           Frida
The best seat!
Low floor                 but mostly occupied by young people
Holding bar               I ask them if they have a problem,
Spacious                  cause they are reserved for those who
Enough space for legs     have problems in movements
Close to the door


   Easy to sit and get up, but uncomfortable
   After the surgery, it’s hard to sit on them

          Leg room is too small
          Hard to sit on the seats
user interviews
                                                                   Going to an unknown address:
                                                                   I choose taxi.
                                                                   Too difficult by bus.
                                                                   I must be prepared.
                                                                   I sit at the front and tell the driver
                                                                   I need someone waiting in the destination stop

                                                                   Learning a new address:
                                                                   I need to learn fast.
                                                                   Need accompany maybe once or twice.

                                                                   Bus stop:                                                                                             S-
                                                                   It’s difficult to see the bus stop especially in winter
                                                                                                                                                                  R NV
                                                                   Sometimes it’s a sign on a pole
                                                                                                                                                                JA TAN
                                                                   or just a sign on a wall
                                                                   Destination of the bus:
                                                                   Can’t see it without monocular
                                                                   Can’t hear the voice information because of noise
                                                                   It’s hard to hear when people talk around you and
                  Lives in the middle of the city, Umeå            when snow trucks are working
                  Have visual impairment                           Can always ask people

                  Types of transportation:                         Getting on the bus:
                  walking                                          Slippery to enter
                  färdtjänst (taxi)                                I can use cane to feel around
                  city bus                                         Noise makes it difficult to orientate

                  Walking:                                         Orientation in the bus:
                  Usually walk to work                             It’s difficult to see the details.
                  Like exercising and moving                       Can’t see if there’s a human on a seat.
                                                                   Color change wouldn’t help. People might wear the same color
                  Färdtjänst:                                      (When a man wears the same color as the curtains, I just see the face!)
                  If I’m going to an address that I don’t know     If I know where to get off, it doesn’t matter where I sit

                  City bus:                                        Seats:
                  Don’t use it often                               If it’s a new bus, It might be difficult to find a seat and sit
                  Sometimes take the bus from Vasaplan to work,    It would be better if the buses where the same (seats, buttons,..)
                                                                   If it’s the first time I prefer sitting at the front, but I sit where it is free
                  don’t take the bus on the way back, because...
                  Can’t find where the bus stop is                 To find a seat, I walk slowly and I can see that much.
                  Everything is white                              People move, talk or cough to indicate that the seat is full
                                                                   Children are the best! They are always noisy
                  Why shouldn’t I go out and do everything like    I can stand, if I can hold on to something
                                                                                                                                                                          user interviews
My disability is the same.
It’s the environment making it worse or better.                                                                            us
                                                                                                                    City b
Too much light might disturb my eyes.                                Comp
                                                                                                                                          om th
                                                                                                                                                e     bus st

                                                                                                                                  way fr m!
Reflections from lights can make it hard to see my way                Färdtj
                                                                                                                            g my
                                                                                                                      Findin e is a prob
Indirect lighting is better                                           Safety
                                                                             ore sa
                                                                      It’s m
Contrast colors help,                                                                                                                                   the
                                                                                                                                       in win n’t enjoy
but there might be someone wearing the same colors.                                                                             rtable
                                                                                                                          Comfo mer you
                                                                                                                          In su r
                                                                                rt:                                              e
                                                                          Comfo                                            weath
Keeping track of the route:
It’s easy from Vasaplan to work. I feel the turns                                                                                         ’t
I can always ask people.                                                       Drive
                                                                                                                          e min is best
                                                                                                            re all doesn’t do
                                                                                                     They e, who
I always ask to driver, if I can sit at the front.                                                   met o
                                                                                                                                                               s on
It’s difficult to hear bus stop names in the bus                                                                                      time   s me
                                                                                                                                                  et    friend
Only hearing the bus stop names would be fine                                            lising:          are cl
                                                                                                                 ose fr
                                                                                                                           I get
                                                                                   Socia assengers ion before my
                                                                                           p              ss               r
                                                                                   Some art a discu               ask fo
                                                                                    T hey st xi, then
Getting off the bus:                                                                on th
                                                                                           e ta
                                                                                             n                                                ps wh
                                                                                                                                                    ere it
                                                                                                                                                           has to
                                                                                                                                       It sto
Placement of stop buttons is different                                                         ility:
                                                                                                             ave to e before

                                                                                       Reliab           we h
The button to open the doors is impossible to see.
                                                                                               times         s ho
                                                                                       Some passenger’                            it’s
                                                                                        other                            times
once I waited in front of the door.                                                     mine. time and
                                                                                         Ta kes
I was told to press the button, but I couldn’t see and find the button.                  frustra

Passengers screamed to the driver, then he opened the door.

Lena’s Daily Use of Citybus

       can’t hear the
       bus stop names

                                might be confusing           I sit where it is free
                                to orientate yourself

user interviews

                             Bert Nilsson
                                                                  Waiting the bus:
                                                                  Wait in the waiting room of the hospital
                                                                  It’s good to have screens, but I look at my own watch
                  Lives in Umeå
                                                                  In summer we wait outside
                  80 years old and have hearing impairment
                                                                  Rush hours:
                  Types of transportation:
                                                                  Never a problem for me.
                  private car
                                                                  Keeping track of the route:
                  city bus
                                                                  Know the city very well
                                                                  Travel with my wife and friends
                  Usually walk
                                                                  Sitting backwards:
                  It’s good for my legs
                                                                  No problem
                                                                  I travel a lot and know the city well
                  Private car:
                  Drive to my brothers’ home, ...
                                                                  Communication with drivers:
                                                                  Very seldom
                  City bus:
                                                                  Don’t have a reason to do
                  Go to the hospital once a week
                  Easier in parking at hospital
                                                                  Getting off the bus:
                  Take no.1 or no.7
                                                                  Slippery, depending on shoes
                  It always comes on time

                                                                                                                                                                            user interviews
Bert’s Daily Use of Citybus


                                                                                                                                               City b
                                                        sometimes   seldom                                                                            us
I sit where it is free...                                                                                                         Feel s
                                                                                                                                         afe in
                              Don’t use them                                             Comfo

                                                                                                                            No pr        h
                                                                                                                                  oblem t of it...
                                                                                                                                        in both

                                                                                 Socia                                                                 ved a
                                                                                       lis                                                                   nything ba
                                                                                It dep ing:                                                                             d
                                                                               with m nds what a
                                                                                        e            ccom
                                                                               Old fr .                     pany
                                                                                                                 I have
                     mostly                                                                , wife
                                                                                                  , child
                                                                                                                                   It’s g
                                                                                                                                          ood to
                                                                                                                                  talk           sit sid
                                                                                                                                                         e   by sid
                                                                             Reliab                                                                                 e and

                                                                                                                               time        m it d
                                                                                                                                                  oesn   ’t com
                                                                                                                                                                e   on


user interviews

                                                                                                                                        rison C
                                                                                                                                    :                                 City bu
                                                                                                                             Almost                                           s
                                                                                                                                     th e same

                                                                                                                                                                     Had to
                                                                                                                                                                     the wh ut his foot in
                                                                                                                                                                           eels of
                                                                                                                                                                                   the pra between

                                                                                                                         Car is
                                                                                                                         and mo ver over crow
                                                                                                                                 re com         d
                                                                                                                                        fortable ed
                                                                                                                                                                You ne
                                                                                                                                                                         ver kn
                                                                                                                                                               would             ow how
                                                                                                                                                                        be               crowde
                                                                                                                                                               It’s dif .                        d it
                                                                                                                                                                       ficult w
                                                                                                                                                              it is cro         ith the
                                                                                                                                                                        wded            baby, w

                                                                                                                     In the
                                                                                                                            car,   you are
                                                                                                                                           in charg
                                                                                                                                                            He was
                                                                                                                                                           Made so ice on the wa
                                                                                                                                                                    me fun            y
                                                                                                                                                                              ny rem back.
                                                                                                                                                          There is
                                                                                                                                                                   a nice fl
                                                                                                                                                          always             ight bu
                                                                                                                                                                 makes               s drive
                                                                                                                                                                          jokes.             r,he
                                   Ulrik Svenningsen                                                             The ca
                                                                                                                        r is mo
                                                                                                                                re relia
                                      (passenger)                                                                                                       Birgitte
                                                                                                                                                                   hates w
                                                                                                                                                                          aiting fo
                                                                                                                                                                                    r bus!

                                                                 Journey Plan:
                                                                 Not successful.
                  Temporarily lives in Umeå                      Waited for 20 minutes in the bus stop
                  Foreign student                                Depending on the web site, it was supposed to come at 15:19,
                                                                 but came at 15:42
                  Types of transportation he uses in the city:
                  private car                                    In the bus:
                  cycling                                        Stood next to the pram, because we are not used to leaving her
                  city bus                                       alone

                  Cycling:                                       Pram space:
                  Everyday for commuting                         It is big enough for a pram and its parents, but when another
                                                                 pram comes, parents can’t stand next to the pram.
                  When travelling with the family                Getting off the bus:
                                                                 It was a little hard, because of the other pram on the way.
                  City bus:                                      Pressed the pram button, and the bus is lowered down while
                  First time on the bus with the baby            getting off

                                                             user interviews
Ulrik and his family’s first use of Citybus with pram

user interviews

                      Visit to Öbacka Servicehouse
                                for Elderly

                  32 elderly people (67 - 103)

                  Type of transportation:
                  Can’t use city bus

                  To visit doctor, dentist, relatives in Umeå
                  To go for shopping

                  It carries them from door to door
                  Drivers and sometimes we follow them all the way up to the dentist,..

                  City bus:
                  Can’t use them
                  The bus stop is far away from home
                  Changing buses is difficult for them

                  Seats in the bus:
                  Leg room is too small
                  Seats are on high floor
                  seats height is low
                  Seats without any other seats in their front would be better
                  A holding bar would be better to get up

                                                                                                                                                                user interviews
                                                                                     Travelling alone:
                                                                                     In order to travel alone, they need training
                                                                                     Some have a paper that describes where to go, where to get off,
                                                                                     which line to take
                                                                                     It’s easy to learn, but if they miss a bus stop,
                                                                                     it would be a problem for them
                                                                                     Some might be nervous at the bus
      Visit to Christine Lundberg                                                    A travelling coach would be good for them
       Occupational Therapist in                                                     Teenagers are too shy to ask for help
                                                                                     Would be nice if they had a travelling guide to guide them how to travel
Children and Youth Habilitation Center
                                                                                     Accessibility in the bus:
                                                                                     It should be accessible for crutch and rollator beside wheelchairs
                                                                                     Sitting sideways with wheelchair is easier for avoiding sudden movements
                                                                                     Stop buttons are not easy to find and see
                                                                                     The bus stop names are not rightly pronounced. Might be a problem

                                                                                     Some panic in the bus,
Barn och ungdomshabilitaringen:
                                                                                     because of people staring , or just want to sit alone
Habilitation and rehabilitation of children and teenagers until they graduate
                                                                                     then want to get off!
from high school
                                                                                     If the door closes before they get off:
Travelling by city bus:
                                                                                     Might be hard to understand what happened
Many have movement disability and
                                                                                     Asking the bus driver would be the last thing that come to their mind
some have communication problems
                                                                                     It might be hard to get off the next bus stop and take another bus there
They have someone with them to travel
                                                                                     to go back
Some like going by bus, because it enables socialising and
it is more independent and economical
Evening and morning buses too crowded for them
                                                                                     Navigation is problem
Would be nice, if they had an additional buses in rush hours only for the
                                                                                     Which bus, when and which bus stop
people with färdtjänst card.
                                                                                     Hard to see screen for visually impaired

   Visit to HjälpmedelsCentrum

The Hjälpmedels Centrum is visited to
observe special equipments for elderly
and disabled people.

Wheelchairs and rollators are tested to
experience the movement difficulties
and their manoeuvrability for those
who are using these equipments on
buses. Some tools for visually impaired
people are also observed in order to
understand their needs in the interior
environment of the buses.

problem analysis

Journey Cycle of a passenger
Regarding the experiences of the users during the user research, a journey cycle of a passenger
is created and it is divided into 7 areas.

  Journey Planning

 Travel to bus stop

 Getting information                                  Getting to
          &                Boarding the bus                                Getting off the bus
  Waiting the bus

                                                                           Going to the actual

                                                     Bus stops:
                                                     No standardization about the bus stop furniture
                                                     No wind protection
                                                     Too cold to wait in winter

                                                     Distance between bus stop and destination

1.Environment Problems                               Snow hills block the way
                                                     Wheelchair cannot get off when it’s blocked by snow
                                                     Slippery getting off the bus
bus stops, roads, pedestrian and bike paths...
                                                     Some are too dirty
                                                     No Information about time
Environment Problems are the problems
that the passengers face in the public
transport environment such as bus stops,             Some are hard to recognise for visually impaired
roads and pedestrian and bike paths.                 Hard to be seen
                                                     Hard to find your way from bus stop to the destination
The conditions of the environment affect
quality and accessibility of the public transport    Gap between the bus and the bus stop is too wide
as much as the effect of the public transport        Hard to get off
vehicles themselves.
                                                     Closed Bus environment - doesn’t allow to enjoy the sun
                                                     Air pollution

                                                     Hard to orientate
                                                     Hard to see the screens
                                                     Hard to change buses (Distance, weather conditions)

environment problems





                                                                        BUS STOP

                                                     Driver Contact:
                                                     Driver can’t see the wheelchair in the bus
                                                     Driver can’t see the wheelchair in the bus stop
                                                     No contact with the driver in full capacity

                                                     Special stop button:
                                                     Not defined
                                                     In different places
2.Hardware Problems                                  Unreachable

interior   layout,  accessibility   features,        Capacity:
information        systems,         technical        No space for all wheelchairs, prams and elderly
characteristics...                                   Limited capacity for baby prams
                                                     Limited capacity for wheelchair

Hardware Problems are the ones that
                                                     Two wheelchairs - unsafe - take space
are faced in the interior layout, special
                                                     Two or more wheelchairs can’t travel together
equipment for accessibility, information
systems and technical characteristics of             Some drivers let two wheelchairs, some don’t
the buses.                                           When it’s full, wheelchair waits for the other bus
                                                     Wheelchair users have to plan with big tolerance
Hardware of the bus is the area that will            Standards for wheelchairs are too small
be addressed the most during the design
process of the project.                              Two prams - The one on the way have to get off
                                                     and open space for the other to get off

                                                     No safety for wheelchair
                                                     Safety belt is not usable
                                                     Can’t use it alone
                                                     Holds passenger, not wheelchair
                                                     Might be more dangerous using it

hardware problems...

Ramp:                                           Seat height is low
Narrow                                          It is hard to get up
Short to create a convenient angle
Creates a step in open position                 Interior:
Some bus stops are low                          Slippery to enter
Some bus stops don’t exist                      Too many steps in the bus
Opening the ramp takes time                     Every      bus    is     different,   no
Old ramps might break                           standardization
(Hard for electric wheelchair)                  Visually impaired:
No user instructions for ramp                   Low contrast or no contrast at all
(for wheelchair assistants)                     Articulation affects orientation
Have to speed on the ramp,                      Too much noise in the bus
then it’s hard to turn in the bus               Voice information is hard to hear
                                                Hard to find and see stop button
Seats:                                          Hard to see the seats
Elderly seats are high floor                    Hard to see the buttons
Small leg room
Foldable   seats   are hard to fold down        Some buses swing - hard to get on
Foldable   seats   are uncomfortable            Bus bumps a lot on snow
Foldable   seats   have no bar to hold          Driver seat is low for eye contact
Foldable   seats   have no stop button          Engine is too noisy for drivers

                                                                                                                                         w loc
                                                                                                                                          he ke

                                                                                                                                             el d
                                                                                                                                               ch by
                                                                                                                                                 ai s
                                                                                                                                                   r e te
                                                                                                                                                      nt ps
                                        po                                        e
                                           o                                  abl
                                       dri r wh

                                                                                                          ra tep
                                          ver                              ach n


                                              con elcha                 nre butto

                                                 tac ir-                   p

w p


  he ar


    el tm


      ch e

        ai nt

                                                                                                                                                                                                        84 cm

                             w    c
                              ith ure
                                   as me
                                     si nt
                                          an us
                                            ce ed

                                                                                             le sea                                                        con k a
                                                                                           and s ts with no                                                   tra nd
                                                                                                                                                                 st i
                                                                                                 top b
                                                                                                       utton                                                          nte low
                                                                                                             s                                                           rio                                    in
                                                                                                                                                                             r                                ps s
                                                                                                                                                                                                          ste    t
                                                                                                                                                                                                    h igh ly sea
                                                                                                                                                                                                     e lde

                                                            by sa
                                                           w pr e b
                                                             he am l
                                                               el       o
    w                                                            ch an cke
        co                                                          ai d d

                                                                                                                        st                                 h
                                                                                                                     st ran                             inc igh s
                                                                                                                       ra g                                on     t
                                           ed                                                                             ng e                                ve eps
                                      l ock                                                                                 e se                                nie an
                                                                                                                                                                    nt    d
                                  e b                                                                                        pl at
                                                                                                                               ac s                                    ba
                               ag                                                                                                                                         rs
                            ass ram
                           p p
                                                                                                                                 es in

                                                                                                                                                      no ro tion
                                                                                                                                                     inf orma

                               oise a gine
                           ch n y en                                                                                                                                                         oors
                         mu n b                                                                                                                                                         in d
                     too upatio                                                                      52                                                                        step
                       occ                                                                                                                                              high
hardware problems

   too wide!

    entrance - exit           contrast                  corridor width      low floor seats

        low floor        seat pitch & height           ramp structure        ramp width

   wheelchair entrance     stop buttons             wheelchair securement   driver contact
                                                           People with communication problems:
                                                           Some are nervous in the bus
                                                           Children in habilitation need training for travelling alone
                                                           Door closes automatically
                                                           When door closes automatically, it is hard to understand what
                                                           If the person is shy, might miss the bus stop

                                                           Many of the elderly are new to the city bus concept
                                                           More stressed
3.Human related Problems                                   Need time and experience for adaptation

behaviors of service givers, passengers...
                                                           Foreigners need time and experience
                                                           Never understand the time table
Behavior Problems are the behaviors of the                 Don’t understand bus stop names
service givers as well as the passengers that might
affect the quality of the journey.                         Driver:
                                                           No special education for drivers
                                                           Some drivers are not helpful (depending on disability)
                                                           Färdtjänst card doesn’t make them feel sensitive
                                                           Some drivers don’t lower the bus

                                                           Other passengers never help the wheelchair ramp
                                                           They don’t know what, how to do

                                                           Special seats for impaired people create discrimination
                                                           Seats for elderly and impaired are occupied by others
                                                           Some passengers are in hurry and don’t want to wait for the
                                                       Too complicated to go to a destination
                                                       Need several changes and connection buses
                                                       Changing bus lines is hard for disabled, elderly and children Some

4.Organization Problems                                connections are too far to go by wheelchair, etc.

time scheduling, bus lines, bus routes, service        Never fit in one’s plans
planning...                                            Arrives in destination either early or late
                                                       Don’t have enough time for giving a good service (bus drivers)
                                                       Time scarcity causes the passengers to be intolerant to the
OrganizationProblems are the problems such             wheelchairs and prams
as time scheduling, bus lines and bus routes           No Information about time in the bus stops and buses
planning as well as applications of regulations
and standards and service planning.
                                                       No free seat in rush hours
                                                       Always full
                                                       Children block the passage
                                                       Using the articulated buses don’t reduce the time spent at the
                                                       bus stops

Discussion Group                                                      Decisions taken:
with the users and experts                                            1. Different standards are used in different locations and buses. Same
                                                                      standards should be applied to the buses

Britta Nordbrandt Nilsson,                                            2. Travel coach or help is needed for those who cannot travel alone
Elisabeth Nilsson,
                                                                      3. A call center is needed for travelling alone
Anders Jonsson,
Christine Lundberg                                                    4. 2 or more wheelchairs should be able to travel together
In the meeting, accessibility features of the public transportation   5. The placement of the special buttons should be clear and the same
in Umea and Sweden were reviewed, the out findings of the             in each bus
user research was analysed and the future needs of the public
transportation in Umea and Sweden were disgussed.                     6. The buses and the roads should be snow free during winter

As a result of the meetings, some decisions for the final outcome     7. Wheelchairs and prams should be placed in the bus without blocking
of the project were taken.                                            the passage

                                                                      8. 3 wheeled wheelchair are becoming more common. There should
                                                                      be a place for a wheelchair of 1800mm x 830 mm

                                                                      9. The bus stops should have walls in order visually impaired people
                                                                      to orientate themselves

                                                                      10. Safety belt can’t be used without locking the wheelchair to bus

                                                                      11. Intellectual disabled children need safety belts

Chosen Problem Area

After user studies and finding out different problem areas
in the existing city buses, 2 presentations and discussions
were held with the municipality, users and experts.

Considering the results of the discussions, the chosen
problem area is decided to be the Hardware Problems
of the city buses focussing on the interior layout of the bus.

interior layout, accessibility features, information systems,
technical characteristics...

 Journey Planning

 Travel to bus stop

Getting information
                      Boarding the bus   Getting to    Getting off the bus
 Waiting the bus

                                                       Going to the actual

Goals and Wishes
Considering the chosen problem area, the output of the project
will be an interior layout concept for a city bus, answering the
needs for accessibility.

The deliverable of the project will be digital and physical
models and a report which will document user researches,
problem identification, possible design solutions and the whole
design process.

Technical detailing of the project will only cover the rough
understanding of the systems that will be used to drive, power and
manufacture the end product.

The final concept will be an accessible interior layout of
a city bus which will provide public transportation within
the equality approach and will let all parts of the society
to travel together without creating any borders.

                                                                   Easy in-out features eliminating high steps and gaps

The final design will have:

                                                                   Seat layout which is convenient and comfortable for
   Step free low floor                                             elderly and those who have movement disabilities

   Dedicated areas for wheelchairs and prams with a                Enhanced orientation for the visually impaired people
   capacity for two wheelchairs

                                                                     STOP BUTTON   ROUTE     CAPACITY

   Easy in-out flow for prams and wheelchairs without
                                                                     Better signage and information feedback
   disturbing the others and without having difficult
                                                                     provided to the user

The final design could also have:

                                                          A ramp which will be part of the
  2        +2                                             kneeling function of the bus, wider
                                                          than the existing standards
  Two prams and two wheelchairs on board


                                                          Visible and reachale stop buttons
  A wheelchair compartment higher than the
  standards with dimensions of 800x1200mm

                                                                Reachable handle bars and
                                                                other features to facilitate
                                                                movement in the bus
  Enhanced visual contact between the wheelchair
  and the driver

                                                          Dedicated seats for the
                                                          intellectually disabled people

                                                          Special seat design for the elderly
  Safety features both for the wheelchairs and the        and movement disabled people

concept creation


                              In wheel engine
                             it doesn’t need any mechanical power distribution systems and takes smaller

                             gives opportunity to use single wheel at the rear of the bus and requires
                             smaller wheel housings.

                             enables creating a full low floor in the bus and gives design flexibility

                            Fuel cell

                            Fuel cells are one of the best energy carriers for public transportation vehicles
                            in the cities with their zero emissions and high energy efficiency.
                    Vapor   Hydrogen fuel cell can be a sustainable energy solution if renewable energy
Hydrogen                    sources are used for creating it.

                            With the help of electric engines, fuel cells occupy less space and create better
           Oxygen           design flexibility. Beside that, it makes no noise and vibration opposing to
                            combustion engine systems working with fossil fuels.

package configuration

                12 meters

                                                               10 meters

       Conventional 12 m bus                  10 m bus with wheels at corners                   12 m 2 wheels at corners

 The wheel housings occupy too much          10 m layout brings the opportunity to         12 m with front wheels at the corners
 space and divides the interior of the bus   move the wheels to the corners and            option create a more flexible layout with
 into three in this conventional package,    enables step free, full low floor design in   full low floor design and a higher capacity
 and they don’t allow spacious seat layout   the bus.                                      of wheelchairs and prams.
 and low floor designs to be realized.
                                             However the capacity would let only one       The rear wheel housings would also
                                             wheelchair and one pram in the bus.           create an opportunity to realize a division
                                                                                           in the bus for prams and young people.

                  +                                            +                                  2           +2

                                                     Fuel cell                       Fuel cell stacks                   AC

            In wheel engines                                                                  Buffer Battery

package design

In order to enhance design flexibility inside the bus, fuel cells are        With in wheel engines, volume of the interior is increased and a

placed on the roof; buffer battery is placed in between the front            step free full low floor is created inside the bus.

wheels and driver is placed on top of it on a high floor in order to
give him/her a better view of road and high control of the bus.              Comparing with the conventional bus, this new package becomes
                                                                             more flexible, eco friendly, silent and more accessible.

                     Scania Omni Hybrid, 10 m, full low floor Concept Bus

                                                                                   12 meter conventional sized bus with
                                                                                   front wheels at the corners

                                                                                   As a result of the user research, the rear compartment
                                                                                   in articulated buses are seemed to be not preferred
3250                                      8160                              960
                                                                                   to be used because of     its long walking distance and
                                                                                   its complexity in entering and exiting circulation. More
                                                                                   over, the articulated buses are reported by the drivers
                                                                                   to be affecting visual control of the interior and time
                                                                                   consuming because of time that is required for each
                                                                                   passenger to walk through the bus and take a seat.

                                                                                   At a study of accessibility, a 12 meter conventional sized
                                                                                   bus is decided to be taken as a reference, while the
                                                                                   wheels placement of the Scania Concept bus is taken as
       Volvo 7700, 12m, partial low floor city bus                                 a reference of wheels placement in order to create a full
                                                                                   low floor and accessible interior.
layout configuration

  A flexible compartment for 3   Flexible compartments for 3 or   Dedicated compartments for 2
  wheelchairs or prams           more wheelchairs or prams        wheelchairs and 2 prams

final seat layout

The final layout includes dedicated compartments for 2 wheelchairs and 2 prams in
different areas of the bus in order to create smooth passenger flow, manoeuvrable
areas for prams and wheelchairs and easy orientation for elderly and visually impaired

During the user research there have been no complains about rear facing and side facing
positions, on the contrary face to face position was complimented as an accelerator of
socializing. Therefore a seat layout of different sitting positions is decided to be created
inside the bus.

In the existing city buses, the foldable seats are mostly used by elderly and that’s why
when pram or wheelchair comes in, the elderly have to leave and stand up for the rest
of the trip. In the new configuration, rear of the bus is decided to be the most suitable
area for foldable seats and prams, since that area is mostly preferred by younger people
and they can easily move when a pram comes in. The front of the bus is occupied with
stable seats in order to create a fixed environment for better orientation in the bus.

In the wheelchair compartment, a reasonable place for assistants of wheelchaired ones
is also thought to be necessary.

     Tape Mock up
     Seat layout is studied with a full scale tape mock up.

     One side of the is occupied by single seats that are facing
     the aisle, in order to create easy manoeuvrability inside the
     bus and to give opportunity for wheelchairs to enter and
     exit through the front door whenever necessary.

     The wheelchair compartment is occupied by foldable seats
     and includes space for wheelchair assistants as well.
The rear compartment is dedicated to prams and foldable

The best seating configuration is studied in the tape mock
up for easy access for prams and other passengers.


                 2             2

   18 regular        The final Layout is consist of 18 stable and 14 foldable seats. 7-8 of the foldable seats are
                     unavailable when prams and wheelchairs are using their compartments.
   14 foldable
    4 leaning
                     Placement of driver between the front wheels gives better view of road and a better contact with
   36 seats          passengers

                                               70                  *a conventional bus has 32-40 seats

Seat Height
The height of the seats differ from 0 .49 m to 0.45 m, because of the
needs of elderly and disabled passengers.

During the research for accessibility needs, it is found that “elderly
persons with moderate functional impairments compensate for
increased difficulty in rising from a chair by simultaneously attempting
to increase both momentum generation and stability”.

Their lowest successful chair height is found to be 0.40 m while the
highest successful chair height is 0.49 m.

They are found to be increasing their momentum generation while
rising from low seats and it relatively increases difficulty in stability.
This relation was also found in young subjects as seat height was
                         Source: Chair rise strategy in the functionally
                         impaired elderly, Michael A. Hughes, MS and
                         Margaret L . Schenkman, PhD, PT, Journal of
                         Rehabilitation Research and Development Vol . 33
                         No . 4, October 1996, Pages 409-412

          4 Point tie-downs                               Docking Systems                           Passive rear-facing space

  Advantages:                                     Advantages:                                      Advantages:
  It can be used with a wide variety of           It gives independency                            It provides a protector at the back
  wheelchairs                                     Safe
  It is universal                                 Easy                                             Disadvantages:
  No special hardware is needed to be                                                              Barrier is not used often
  added                                           Disadvantages:                                   The width is not enough for all types
                                                  Special hardware is needed to be                 of wheelchairs
  Disadvantages:                                  mounted on the wheelchair                        There is no standards
  Someone else is needed to attach it                                                              big bags hanging at the rear of the
  It is time consuming                                                                             wheelchairs block the barrier
  It is difficult to identify the
  appropriate place for attachment
  No independency

Wheelchair Securement
Existing wheelchair securement systems are evaluated in order to      evaluation of each system. That’s why docking system is found
find the most reliable and most independently used one.               to be the most suitable for public transportation, because of its
Independency and safety have been the key features in the             reliability and ease of use by the wheelchair user him/her self.

                                                                              Assessment and Monitoring of Wheelchair Transportation
                                                                              Activities and Incidents on Public Buses, Project Leaders: G.
                                                                              Bertocci, K. Frost, Graduate Student: S. Sisson

                                                                    , Rehabilitation Engineering Research
                                                                              Center on Wheelchair Transportation Safety
wheelchair securement...

Regarding the researches that are done by organizations and
institutions; injuries to wheelchair-seated passengers occur during
normal or emergency driving maneuvers on public transit buses.

Looking at the incident chart, there is no doubt that a reliable wheelchair
securement system is required in a public transportation system.
                                                                              Crashworthiness of Forward-Facing Wheelchairs under Rear
For the city buses, rear facing is found to be the safest solution,           Impact Conditions, Miriam A. Manary1, Beth A. Bezaire1, Gina
                                                                              E. Bertocci2, Zdravko Salipur2, and Lawrence W. Schneider1
since most of the incidents happen in rear impact crashes and
                                                                              1University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute,
during maneuvers. Therefore a protecting wall behind forward facing           2University of Louisville
wheelchair is required in order to make a safer trip.
UDIG (Universal Docking Interface Geometry)
Using a docking station requires all wheelchairs to include a locking geometry
attached to them. There are different types of docking systems that are
manufactured by different companies and that’s why they require different types
of locking geometry attached to wheelchairs.

There is an aim for standardization of this system which will let all wheelchairs have
the same locking geometry, so that they can use the same docking station. This
geometry is called Universal Docking Interface Geometry and it allows “wheelchair
users to independently secure and release their wheelchairs in public and private
motor vehicles by ensuring engagement compatibility between wheelchair
securement points, including wheelchair securement adaptors, and docking tiedown
devices installed in the vehicle”

In the accesible city bus proposal, this UDIG system is decided to be used in order
to allow wheelchair users travel safely and independently and to start a discussion
of standardization in docking systems in public transportation vehicles.

© ISO 2002, Technical systems and aids for disabled or handicapped persons — Wheelchair
tiedown and occupant-restraint systems — Part 3: Docking type tiedown systems

          Manual Foldover                               Automatic Foldover                                Automatic Cassette

  Advantages:                                    Advantages:                                     Advantages:
  Simple maintenance                             Easy to use                                     Easy to use
  Simple mechanics                               Wheelchair user can open it                     Wheelchair user can open it

  Disadvantages:                                 Disadvantages:                                  Disadvantages:
  Needs assistance to open it                    Occupies space at door.                         Occupies space underneath bus floor
  Wheelchair user cannot open it                 Blocks passage when not in use

Ramp Structure
Looking at the types of wheelchair access ramps, a suitable ramp        In order to get a better access and ease of use, cassette style
is searched for a better accessibility in city buses.                   ramps are chosen to be used in the bus.

Manual ramps are found to be difficult to carry and fold, and           Since ramp angle should be less than 8°, in order to get a short
confusion in opening them.                                              length of ramp and occupy less space in bus stop area, bus floor
                                                                        is decided to be added into the ramp structure.

     Ramp button is pressed...                        Ramp floor lowers down...             Ramp slides out and stops
                                                                                            when it touches pavement

Ramp Structure
The ramp of the bus works automatically controlled by either driver or wheelchair user.
First the ramp floor lowers down, then the ramp slides out from underneath the floor.

The ramp mechanics are assumed to be working with pneumatic or electric powered actuators

   Lightness Difference                             Hue Levels Difference                                High contrast

   Lightness difference should be                   Light colors from the top half of                    Adjacent colors in the circle
   stressed between foreground and                  the hue circle should be contrasted                  shouldn’t be used together
   background                                       with the dark colors from the
                                                    bottom half

Colors and Contrast
During the research phase some visual problems were mentioned             For this reason, 3 steps that are mentioned by Aries Arditi are
by the experts and the visually impaired user. In order to create         followed to create high contrast in the bus.
a better view, high contrast colors are required to be used in the
                                                                                 Source: Aries Arditi, Effective Color Contrast,

                           BACKGROUND                                                FOREGROUND

                                                 floor                       seats                handles

Colors and Contrast
Color combinations have been tried to get high contrast without creating a
stressful environment.

The aim is to create high contrast between the background and
foreground features.

concept statement

Accessibility brings INDEPENDENCY        ... and service EQUALITY

An accessible bus should be a bus for all and therefore...

              it should be FREE...                           ... and OPEN to everyone.

The interior of a bus for all should be...

                    SPACIOUS                      ... and WITHOUT OBSTACLES

scenario creation


user scenario study

 User Scenario 1                     User Scenario 2           User Scenario 3
 50 year old woman with rheumatism   Visually impaired woman   Parent with pram

user scenario study
wheelchair user


                                                           15:30                                                                     6 Roback

                                                           15:32 Roback via Universitet Sjukhuset


                                                           15:37 Roback via Gamlia


                                                                                                                                     9 Roback

                                             Alex and his assistant come to the bus
                                             stop and check the screen

    Alex makes plans for an afternoon fika   There are two buses, no6 with one
    with his friend Jens                     wheelchair and no9 with two wheel-
                                             chair space.
    He waits for his assistant to come and                                                          They wait on the wheelchair platform
    help him get prepared and accompany      Jens will take the same bus with them                  at the bus stop. They skip the no6 and
    him on his way to city center            on the next stop, so they choose no9                   take no9


                      9 Roback

                                       Alex drives his wheelchair directly to
                                       the wheelchair compartment without
                                       any maneuvers.

                                       He takes his place and his assistant
    The bus comes and the ramp opens   takes a seat at the wheelchair           Alex docks his wheelchair to the
    automatically                      compartment close to Alex                docking station for his safety


    Jens gets on the same bus at the next      Getting to the destination, they press
    bus stop.                                  the stop button for wheelchair users.

    He drives in and takes his place face to   When the bus stops, the docking          The ramp opens automatically when
    face with Alex                             stations release the wheelchairs.        the bus stops.

Information Scenario
An information scenario is created based on types of information and information media required
in a journey cycle of a passenger starting from home and ending at destination bus stop


                                                  Home                                                     Bus stop                                                 Bus

                                                                                 Bus routes information
                                                                                 Bus stop area information

                Time schedule
                                                                                 Actual Time
                Bus routes information                                                                                          Upcoming bus stop
                                                                                 Next hour time schedule
                Travel assistance for intellectually disabled                                                                   Connection busses information (if any)
                                                                                 Upcoming and actual bus information
                Travel assistance for visually impaired                                                                         Actual bus stop area (Directions)
                                                                                 (Route, time, passenger capacity)
                Bus stop wheelchair accessibility information

                Time schedule                                                    Actual Time                                    Actual Time

                Bus routes information                                           Next hour time schedule                        Upcoming bus stop
                                                                 screen                                                screen
                Travel assistance for intellectually disabled                    Upcoming and actual bus information            Connection busses information

                Travel assistance for visually impaired                          (Route, time, passenger capacity)              Actual bus stop

           e    Time schedule
       Tim                                                                       Color coding for bus routes                    Color coding for bus stops
                Bus routes information

Information Scenario in the bus
Information scenario of a bus is defined starting from departure at bus stop and arrival at destination bus stop.
The information includes time tables and and bus routes as well as bus capacity, connection busses and directions
from bus stops for visually impaired people

                 BUS                                                                                                                               BUS
                 STOP                                                                                                                              STOP


                 Departure                                       On board                                            Arrival

                  Bus name and route                                                                                Actual bus stop name
                                                                 Upcoming bus stop name
                  No wheelchair capacity                                                                            Basic area information with
                                                                 Connection busses information
                  No pram capacity                                                                                  directions to left, right and opposite

  15:30                                            15:40                                              15:41

    Tomtebo       Bus name and route
                                                    UNiversum    Actual Time                           UNiversum    Actual Time
  via vasaplan    Wheelchair capacity
                                                                 Upcoming bus stop name                             Actual bus stop name
                  Pram capacity                        BUs                                                BUs
                                                                 Connection busses information                      Connection busses information
                  Passenger capacity               Connections                                        Connections
                                                       6 9                                                6 9

                  Color coding for bus routes                    Color coding for upcoming bus stop                 Color coding for actual bus stop


ideation sketches - entrance/exit

                                     short ramp opens
         additional step             whenever doors open

ideation sketches - layout

ideation sketches - wheel housings

ideation sketches - seats

ideation sketches

ideation sketches - wheelchair compartment

ideation sketches - interior

ideation sketches - interior

concept generation sketches

concept generation sketches

concept generation sketches

refinement sketches


refinement sketches

refinement sketches

digital mockups

refinement sketches

physical & digital mock ups

final package
                                            Fuel cell stacks
                          Fuel cell                            AC

       In wheel engines

final result
accessible city bus interior

accessible city bus interior

        rear section                                     mid section

  flexible area with foldable   . a wheelchair compartment equipped with foldable seats
  seats that enables 4 prams    . stable seats of 450 and 480 mm height for elderly and disabled
  to be docked when needed      . handle bars accompanying passengers in every step

forward        and
backward facing
seats of 480mm
height     suitable
for elderly and

                            driver seat in
                            between the

wheelchair compartment for 2 wheelchairs and their assistants.
3 wheeled wheelchair also fits in, occupying one assistant seat.

                                                                   side facing
                                                                   a wide
                                                                   passage for

                                                                   handle bars
                                                                   in every two
                                                                   seats, having
                                                                   two stop
                                                                   buttons one
                                                                   facing the
                                                                   aisle and the
                                                                   other to the

                     tangible stripes
                     on   the    floor
                     to     facilitate
                     orientation and
maneuverable         indicate    seat
passage for          placement

                 baby carriage area with foldable seats

flexible rear
equipped with
foldable seats

      section views

                         modules that are housing
                         interchangeable seats


modules assembly   118
                   info wall

modules assembly           119
                   forward - backward
                   facing seats


modules assembly               120
modules assembly   121
modular seats
rear of the bus
rear of the bus

rear of the bus is equipped with foldable seats that create flexible
area for young passengers and parents with baby carriages.

 rear of the bus

there is a baby carriage compartment for two in this section,
however there can be up to four baby carriages when needed.

rear of the bus
wheelchair compartment

wheelchair compartment for 2

wheelchair compartment

and their assistants

wheelchair compartment
      wheelchair docking system

high contrast for visually impaired people

modular seats
Seat configuration can be changed in order to get better accessibility for elderly passengers.
Front seats can be also dedicated tor allergic people.
entrance - exit

          wheelchair and baby carriage capacity
          information is shown on the doors

    wheelchair enters through the mid door, while
    baby carriage enters through the rear door

     ramp lowers down at the rear door, while it
     lowers down and slides out at the mid door

      1:15 scale model

1. Ministry of Health and Social Affairs,

2. Handisam

3. SIKA Rapport 2002:6

4. Buss 2000 Huvudmannakrav på bussar i linjetrafik, Version 2006

5. Chair rise strategy in the functionally impaired elderly, Michael A. Hughes, MS and
Margaret L . Schenkman, PhD, PT, Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
Vol . 33 No . 4, October 1996, Pages 409-412

6. Assessment and Monitoring of Wheelchair Transportation Activities and Incidents on
Public Buses, Project Leaders: G. Bertocci, K. Frost, Graduate Student: S. Sisson, Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Wheelchair
Transportation Safety

7. Crashworthiness of Forward-Facing Wheelchairs under Rear Impact Conditions,
Miriam A. Manary1, Beth A. Bezaire1, Gina E. Bertocci2, Zdravko Salipur2, and Law-
rence W. Schneider1
1University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, 2University of Louisville

8. © ISO 2002, Technical systems and aids for disabled or handicapped persons —
Wheelchair tiedown and occupant-restraint systems — Part 3: Docking type tiedown

9. Aries Arditi, Effective Color Contrast,

Special thanks to...
my little family -Aydin and my mother- for their endless support and great patience;

Pete Avondoglio for his inspiring presence, Thomas Degn for his energy, Steen Mandsfelt for his
tutoring and Jasjit Singh for his interest and advices;

Britta Nordbrandt Nilsson for her guidance and Elisabeth Nilsson for her complimantery support;

Anders Jonsson, Christine Lundberg, Daniella and Sara, Lena, Zaida Holm-Gradin, Ulrik Svenningsen,
Bert Nilsson, Peter Eriksson, Fredrik Forsell, Tomas Sandtröm, Catrin Linström and Anna Karin
Venman for their participation in the user research and their experiences;

Kalle (Karl-Gustav Bergstedt), Håkan Hansson and Peder Fällefors for their great help and tolerance;

Demian Horst and Taras Czornyj for their time and advices;

Fredrik Nilsson for his help in starting the project;

Birgitta Nordholm for her moral support;

and Hakan Karabiber for believing me and sponsoring my education.


To top