Brantford_ ON - Jan 13 2010

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					           Rotary Club


          Brantford, ON




   Nature and Nurture


       By J. Fraser Mustard
     The Founders’ Network
        Founding Chairman
Council for Early Child Development
                                January 13, 2010
10-001



             Human Development
         Early human development affects
         health, learning, and behaviour
         Neurological and biological pathways
         100 billion neurons with the same DNA
         (nature)
         How do neurons differentiate for their
         function?
         Experience and epigenetics (nurture)
08-026

          What is experience?

    Everything that you encounter both
    pre- and postnatally as well as in
    adulthood…

    Examples: sounds, touch, light, smell,
    food, thoughts, alcohol and drugs,
    injury, disease…
                                     Kolb, U Lethbridge
07-169
                  Environment
         Affects Normal Gene Function
              Nature and Nurture

               Epigenetics

               MicroRNAs
09-160
          Methylation of DNA and
          Acetylation of Histones

         Gene switched on:
         Unmethylated cytosine
         Acetylated histones



         Gene switched off:
         Methylated DNA cytosine
         Deacetylated histones
05-056

Individual differences in stress reactivity of the adult are
  determined by maternal behaviour during infancy


    HIGH LG                                 LOW LG

                   Development of
                   Stress Reactivity

                                     Increased Stress
     Modest Stress                       Reactivity
      Reactivity                  Increased Risk for Heart
                                  Disease, Type II Diabetes,
         Reduced Risk
                                  Alcoholism, Affective
          for Disease             Disorders, Brain Aging, etc.
                                                            M. Szyf
03-002


         Sensory
          Stimuli
                                Prefrontal
                                 Cortex

             Amygdala                        Hippocampus
         +               +    Hypothalamus   -              -
                                    PVN
              Cortisol                           Cortisol
                             CRF
                                    PIT
                             ACTH
                               Adrenal
                               Cortex
                                                   LeDoux, Synaptic Self
Methylation of GR Gene and Behaviour
09-114
                - Rats
  100

   80


   60


   40


   20


   0
        Low Maternal Care   Plentiful Maternal Care
                                                 Meaney & Szyf
09-095 Methylation of DNA
Maternal Diet and Phenotype - Mice
     100                                            Full methyl donor
                  Thymus
                  Liver
         80       Kidney
                  Brain

         60

                                Some methyl donor
         40


         20
              No methyl donor


         0
              Yellow & Fat           Mottled           Brown & Thin
09-034


         The epidemiologic observations
         that smaller size or relative
         thinness at birth and during
         infancy is associated with
         increased rates of coronary heart
         disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes
         mellitus, adiposity, the metabolic
         syndrome, and osteoporosis in
         adult life have been extensively
         replicated.
                                  Gluckman et al. 2008
03-089
         5-HTT Gene and Depression
                            Age 26
Depression
   Risk    Length of normal gene
 .70
            S = Short Allele                                     SS
            L = Long Allele
 .50
                                                                  SL

 .30                                                              LL


             No Abuse      Moderate Abuse Severe Abuse
                   Early Childhood     A. Caspi, Science, 18 July 2003, Vol 301.
04-006

          ECD and Male Adult Health - Sweden

                            Number of Adverse ECD Circumstances*

                             0          1           2               3              4

  Adult Health                         Odds - Ratios
 General Physical           1        1.39        1.54            2.08          2.66

 Circulatory                1        1.56        1.53            2.91          7.76

 Mental                     1        1.78        2.05            3.76 10.27
* Economic, family size, broken family and family dissention

                                              Lundberg, Soc. Sci. Med, Vol. 36, No. 8, 1993
04-200


Early Child Development and Language

         Starts early – first 7 months –
         neurons differentiate language
         sounds (e.g. English, Japanese)
         Sets capability for mastering
         multiple languages
         Sets literacy and language learning
         trajectory for the second and third
         stages of development
02-001

   Vocabulary Growth – First 3 Years
 Vocabulary                                           Word Exposure
  1200
                                                             High (SES)


                                                             Middle (SES)
     600
                                                            Low (SES)


         0
             12   16   20 24     28 32 36
                                     B. Hart & T. Risley, Meaningful Differences in Everyday
                        Age - Months Experiences of Young American Children, 1995
01-003

         Human Brain Development –
           Language and Cognition
         Sensing      Language
        Pathways                                     Higher
    (vision, hearing)                                Cognitive Function




         -6   -3     0   3   6    9     1      4      8    12         16
                   Months                            Years
                                 AGE

                                 C. Nelson, in From Neurons to Neighborhoods, 2000.
06-149

                   Vancouver EDI
                      Reading
    # of              % Failing   % Not Passing
 Vulnerabilities      Grade 4       Grade 4
                       Test

         0             13.6             17.8
         1             26.7             33.9
         2-3           29.5             43.1
         4-5           48.4             68.3

                                   Hertzman, HELP, 2006
   New Zealand Education Study

              Student Performance at Age 14

              Highest Quartile           Lowest Quartile
                 at Age 5                     at Age 5
                 Age 14                      Age 14
              Above Median                Below Median


Mathematics       87                             91
Reading           94                             85

                                 NZ Council for Educational Research
05-178

 Literacy Levels for the Population
        Ages 16 to 65 – USA
    35
                             Prose
    30                       Document
    25                       Quantitative
    20

    15

    10

     5

     0
         1   2     3     4        5
                 Level               NALS, p. 17, 2002
05-173

Literacy Levels (Quantitative) and Physical,
 Mental or Other Health Conditions – USA
    60
                           Health Problems
    50
                           Mental or Emotional
                           Problems
    40
                           Long-term Illness
    30

    20

    10

     0
         1     2     3        4        5
                   Level                NALS, p. 44, 2002
Early Experience and Brain Architecture and Function
 07-001




  Affects gene expression and neural pathways
  Shapes emotion, regulates temperament and
  social development
  Shapes perceptual and cognitive ability
  Shapes physical and mental health and behaviour
  in adult life
  Shapes physical activity (e.g. skiing, swimming,
  etc.)
  Shapes language and literacy capability
03-116




           THE EVIDENCE
         FROM EARLY CHILD
           DEVELOPMENT
            PROGRAMS
93-040

  Mental Development of Undersized Children
  (Low Height for Age) : The Jamaican Study

            110
                                  children of
                                  normal height     stimulation &
            105                                     supplement

 develop-                                           stimulation
 ment       100
 quotient                                           supplement
            95
                                                    control
            90
                  baseline 6 mo   12 mo   18 mo 24 mo

                                                  Grantham-McGregor
08-031      A “Natural” Experiment:
           Romanian Orphan Adoption

    Children adopted into middle class homes
      after 8 months in the orphanages show at
      11 years in contrast to children adopted
      early:

    1. Abnormal brain development (small brain,
       low metabolic activity, abnormal EEG)
    2. Social and cognitive problems (IQ loss)
    3. High vulnerability to behavioural problems
       (ADHD, aggression, quasi-autism)
                                           Kolb, U Lethbridge
09-009
         Bucharest Early Intervention Project
         Foster parent care vs orphanage care

           The children who were
           youngest when placed in
           foster parent care are
           approaching normal, a
           recovery that sadly does not
           seem to be occurring in
           children first placed in foster
           care well after the age of 2.
                        C. Nelson, The Bucharest Early Intervention Project
04-153

    Abecedarian Study – Reading
Effect Size           Special      Preschool        Preschool &
  1.2                 Primary      (4 mths to       Special
                      Grades       School)          Primary Grades


  0.8



  0.4



    0
              Age 8       Age 12      Age 15           Age 21
                           Age at Testing
                                                Campbell & Ramey, 2002
POPULATION
 STUDIES
    Socioeconomic Gradients for Adult
06-114


    Document Literacy Scores (16 to 65)
Mean Scores
   350


   310
         Intern’l Mean
                                                                U.S.
   270
                                                                Canada

   230                                                          Australia
                                                                Sweden
   190                                                          Finland
                                                                Chile
    0
              3      5   7    9     11    13   15     17   19
                         Parents’ Education (years)             OECD, 2000
00-042


 Sociocultural           360

 Gradients for
 Language                                            Cuba
                         320
 Scores
 By Country
                                                           Argentina
                         280               Chile        Brazil
                                                           Colombia
                         240                       Mexico


                         200
                               1       4       8      12        16
                                   Parents' Education (Years)
 Willms & Somers, 2000
05-066

         Grade 3 Language Scores

     Argentina _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

     Brazil _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

     Chile _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

     Cuba _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

     Mexico _ _ _ _ _ _ _

                 100    150       200   250   300   350   400


                                                          UNESCO, 1998
                              Health and Language Scores
                  90                                                                                                                      350
                              Language Scores – UNESCO First




                                                                                                                                                4th grade Language (UNESCO, 1998)
                  80          Regional Study (1998)
                                                                                                                                          330
                  70

                                                                          Under One Mortality Rate
 Mortality Rate




                  60                                                                                                                      310
                                                                          (WHO, 1990)
                  50
                                                                                                                                          290
                  40
                                                                                                                                          270
                  30

                  20                                                                                                                      250

                  10
                                                                                                                                          230
                                                   Venezuela




                                                                                                Honduras
                                       Argentina




                                                                            Paraguay




                                                                                                                    Dominican
                                                               Colombia




                                                                                       México
                       Cuba




                                                                                                                                Bolivia
                               Chile




                                                                                                           Brazil


                                                                                                                    Rep.
Mustard, JF. @
Tinajero, A., 2009
                                 Association Between Preschool Attendance and Learning




                                                                                                                                              Reading Scores – 6th grade (UNESCO, 2008)
                                 100%               % of preeschool enrolment - children                                                 50
                                                    ages 3-5 (UNESCO-LLECE, 2008)
 Percent enrolled in preschool




                                 90%
                                                                                                                                         45
                                 80%
                                                                                                                                         40
                                 70%
                                                                                                                                         35
                                 60%
                                                                                                                                         30
                                 50%
                                                                                                                                         25
                                 40%           % of children at Level                                                                    20
                                               IV – Reading Scores
                                 30%           (high) - 6th grade                                                                        15
                                               (UNESCO, 2008)
                                 20%                                                                                                     10
                                 10%                                                                                                     5
                                                                                 Argentina




                                                                                                               Dominican R.
                                                                                                    Colombia
                                                                       Uruguay
                                                  Costa Rica




                                                                                                                              Paraguay
                                                                                             Peru
                                        Cuba




                                                               Chile




Mustard, JF. @
Tinajero, A.,
08-168



         CENDI – Monterrey, Mexico


    Based on elements of Cuba’s early
    child development program (education
    and health) plus other components.
08-046
            EDI – Canada and
         CENDI - Monterrey, Mexico

                      % Low on     % Low on
                     One Domain   Two Domains

    CENDI              18.5%        3.8%
    (centre-based)
    (Monterrey)

    Canadian
    Sample             25.9%       12.9%
    (120,000)
02-056




Policies to Foster Human Capital

  "We cannot afford to postpone investing in
  children until they become adults nor can we
  wait until they reach school - a time when it
  may be too late to intervene."

                     Heckman, J., 2001
                    (Nobel Prize Economics, 2000)
 07-158
         Cost to Individuals and
          Canadian Society of
Poor Early Child Development (estimates)


          Crime and Violence   $120 Billion/year

          Mental Health        $100 Billion/year
          Behaviour and
          Drug Use
07-157
Cost of Universal ECD-P Centres
            Canada (0 to Grade 1)
                Age 0 to 6 Population

             Universal (2,100,000 children)
                     Not compulsory

         Cost about $20.0 Billion per year (1.5%
                       of GDP)
                 (80 to 90% participation)

          Present Expenditure 0.25% of GDP
09-079
         With Our Best Future in Mind
               – Pascal report
         Recommendation 1:
         The province should create a
         continuum of early learning, child
         care, and family supports for
         children from the prenatal period
         through to adolescence, under the
         leadership of the Minister of
         Education.
                                       Pascal, 2009
09-080
         With Our Best Future in Mind
               – Pascal report
         Recommendation 2:
         The Ministry of Education should
         establish an Early Years Division
         to develop and implement an
         Early Years Policy Framework that
         will create a continuity of early
         learning experiences for children
         from 0 to 8 years of age.
                                      Pascal, 2009
  World Health Organization
       Michael Marmot
   Inequalities in Health and
        Development
Closing the Gap in a Generation


                           WHO, August 2008
     WHO – Marmot Commission on
08-151


     Social Determinants of Health
         Chapter 5 – Equity from the Start

         Recommendation 5.1:
         WHO and UN Children’s Fund
         (UNICEF) set up an interagency
         mechanism to ensure policy coherence
         for early child development such that,
         across agencies, a comprehensive
         approach to early child development is
         acted on.
Recommendation 5.2
The Commission recommends that:
Governments build universal
coverage of a comprehensive
package of quality early child
development programmes and
services for children, mothers, and
other caregivers, regardless of ability
to pay.
                                 WHO, August 2008
01-039




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References
Mustard, J.F. Early child development and experience-based brain
  development: the scientific underpinnings of the importance of
  early child development. Washington: The Brookings
  Institution. 2006. Available at: www.founders.net
Mustard, J.F. Early brain development and human development.
  Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development,
  Encyclopedia on Early Child Development. (in press)
  http://www.excellence-earlychildhood.ca/home.asp?lang=EN
  Available at: www.founders.net
Gilbert, S.F. and Epel, D. Ecological developmental biology:
    integrating epigenetics, medicine, and evolution. Sinauer
    Associates. 2009.
McCain, M.N., J.F. Mustard and S. Shanker. Early Years Study 2:
  Putting Science into Action. Toronto: Council for Early Child
  Development. 2007. www.councilecd.ca

				
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