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					10.1                           10.5
Development of
Democracy                      WWI
10.2                           10.6
Documents of                   The West
democracy                      Between the
                               Wars
Glorious
Revolution                     10.7
American                       Totalitarian
Revolution                     governments
French
Revolution
                 CST Review    10.8
                               WWII
Age of                         10.9
Napoleon
                               The Cold War
Concert of
Europe             10.1-10.9   10.10
10.3                           Post WWII
                               Nation
Industrial                     building
Revolution
10.4
Imperialism
           Forms of Government                 I didn’t do it!



• Mesopotamian/Egyptian –
  Monarchy
   – Hammurabi’s Law Code
       • Social inequality
• Rome
   – Republic (Twelve Tables)
       • Our legal system today
       • Senate
   – Empire
• Greece
   – Athens: Direct Democracy
       • Civil duty to participate in
         government and your community
       • Equality under the law for citizens
   – Sparta: Oligarchy (military)
   – Corinth: Tyranny
                        Definitions
• Monarchy – rule through
  bloodline (many were thought
  to be gods).
• Direct democracy – directly
  participate in government
• Democracy – rule by the
  majority.
• Republic – elected
  representatives run the
  country. (also called an indirect
  democracy)
• Oligarchy – rule by the military
  or business elite.
• Tyranny – took control of the
  government, and lost the
  support of the people.
        Judeo-Christian Tradition
• Everyone is born with worth
  and dignity because they were
  created by God.
• Every person has the ability to
  choose between doing good
  and doing wrong (free
  will/individual choice)
• Every person has the
  responsibility to help others in
  need.
• Charity, love, forgiveness
• Written scriptures
• Spread through the Roman
  Empire via roads, and the
  Jewish Diaspora
Greco-Roman Tradition
           • Citizens should
             participate in government.
           • The world has natural
             laws – discovered
             through reason and not
             superstition.
           • Democracy can be
             protected through
             branches of government.
           • There should be written
             laws (Twelve Tables).
       The Ancient Philosophers
• Philosopher “lovers of
  wisdom”
• Plato (no pp)
   – Wrote The Republic
   – Said a tyrant becomes
     troublesome when he loves
     his power so much that he
     takes drastic measures to
     maintain it.
   – Philosopher King
• Aristotle
   – Wrote Politics
       • Said that tyrants rule without
         the will of the people.
       • Said a constitutional
         government is the best form.
 How the U.S. influenced everyone
               else!
• Federalism
   – National government and
     the states share power
• Separation of powers
   – Three branches of
     government that check and
     balance each other.
• Popular sovereignty
   – The government gets its
     authority from the people.
• Individual rights
   – Rights guaranteed to each
     citizen (ex the Bill of
     Rights)
            The Enlightenment
•   An intellectual movement that began in
    the 18th century (1700s)
•   John Locke
     –   Natural rights (life, liberty, and property)
     –   Government gets its authority from the
         people.
•   Montesquieu
     –   Separation of powers into three
         branches of government: Legislative,
         executive, and judicial
•   Voltaire
     –   Freedom of speech
     –   Religious toleration
•   Rousseau
     –   Social contract – citizens accept certain
         rights and responsibilities, and grant
         the government the power to uphold
         those rights and responsibilities.
The American Revolution and the
        Enlightenment
                •   Thomas Jefferson
                     – Declaration of Independence
                •   James Madison
                     – U.S. Constitution
                •   Ben Franklin
                     – Deism
                •   Thomas Paine
                     – Common Sense
                •   George Washington
                     – American Revolution general
                     – 1st president
                     – Warned against political parties
                       (factions)
                •   Alexander Hamilton
                     – Federalist
                          • Strong federal government,
                            weaker state governments.
   American Influence around the
             world….
• Mexican Independence
  1824 (Father Hidalgo
  revolt in 1810)
• Simon Bolivar
  – Fought to liberate his
    country, Venezuela, from
    Spanish rule.
  – Led movements in Bolivia,
    Colombia, Ecuador,
    Panama, and Peru.
  – Influenced by the American
    Revolution.
Documents of Democracy
           •   Magna Carta (England)
                –   1215, England
                –   Limits the power of the monarch
                      •   Due Process of Law
                      •   Property and taxes
           •   English Bill of Rights
                –   After the Glorious Revolution
                –   1689
                –   Limited the power of the Monarch.
           •   American Declaration of Independence
                –   1776
                –   Unalienable rights
                –   Thomas Jefferson (influenced by John
                    Locke)
           •   U.S. Constitution
                –   James Madison (influenced by
                    Montesquieu)
           •   French Declaration of the Rights of man
               and the Citizen.
                –   France
                –   1789
                –   Life, liberty, fraternity
           •   U.S. Bill of Rights
                –   Freedom of speech, religion, press, due
                    process of law, and trial rights
      The French Revolution
• Long-term causes
  – Lavish spending of the
    monarchy.
  – Lack of freedom and
    justice
  – Old Regime
     • 1st Estate – Clergy
     • 2nd Estate – Nobility
     • 3rd Estate – Bourgeoisie,
       San Culottes, Peasants
• Short –term causes
  – Bad harvest
  – American Revolution
  – Marie Antoinette
  Phases of the French Revolution
• Phase I – National Assembly
   – Tennis Court Oath
   – Constitution
   – Declaration of the Rights of
     Man and the Citizen
   – Women’s march on Versailles
• Phase II – Radical Phase
   – Rise of the San Culottes
   – Execution of the King and the
     Queen
   – De-Christianization
   – Reign of terror/Committee of
     Public Safety/ Maximillian
     Robespierre
                  Phases II and III
• Phase III – the Directory
    – Moderate
    – Corrupt
    – Coup d’etat of Napoleon
• Phase IV – the Age of
  Napoleon
    – Continental system
    – Concordat of 1801
    – Napoleonic Code
    – Russian Winter/Scorched
      Earth Policy
    – Waterloo
    – St. Helena
           Congress of Vienna
• 1814-1815
• King Frederick William III
  of Prussia, Czar
  Alexander I of Russia,
  Metternich from Austria
• Russia, Austria, Prussia,
  and England
• Balance of power
• Restore the monarchies
              Concert of Europe
• A European alliance that
  met when issues arose –
  also called the Holy
  Alliance.
   – Russia, Austria, and
     Prussia
• Concert of Europe
   – Russia, Austria, Prussia,
     England
• Promised to help each
  other stop the spread of
  revolutions.
         Revolutions of 1848
• Uprisings for self-
  government
• Nationalists in
  France, Austria,
  Germany, and Italy
• Shared culture and
  ethnicity
• Unification of
  Germany in 1871
  and Italy in 1872.

                        Toward the Unification of Germany, 1740-1871
         The Industrial Revolution
• 1750 England
• Factors of production
    – Land, labor, capital
• Natural resources
    – Iron, coal
• Raw materials
    – Cotton (textile industry)
• Population growth
    – Agricultural revolution
        • Enclosure movement
• Political stability
    – No wars or revolutions
• Other nations
    – Belgium, U.S, France, Japan,
      Russia, Austria, Germany,
      Italy
   Inventions and Social Change of
       the Industrial Revolution
• James Watt – Steam engine
• Eli Whitney – cotton gin
• Henry Bessemer – Bessemer
  process (iron ore into Steel)
• Louis Pasteur –
  pasteurization of liquids, let to
  antibiotics (penicillin by WWII).
• Thomas Edison – electric light.
• 1840s – England is connected
  by railroads.
    – Travel time is significantly less
• 1870s – communication
  (international mail, telegraph,
  and the telephone.
Population Shifts
  • Population explosions
     – Agricultural revolution = more
       food
  • Spread of Disease
     – Industrial pollution, terrible
       sanitation, cheap tenements,
       poor living conditions, polluted
       air and water, streets full of
       pooh!
  • Rural to urban migration
     – Labor force needed to be
       close to the factories
     – New market centers for new
       goods.
     – Banking and commercial
       centers.
    The Evolution of Work and Labor
•   The end of the slave trade
     – Free labor (earning a wage) was the
         only way to grow an industrial society.
•   Immigration
     – Most immigrants to the United States in
         the 18th century were from France,
         England and Germany
     – In the 19th century most immigrants
         were from Asia, and western Europe
     – By the 20th century most immigrants
         were from South Europe, and Eastern
         Europe
•   Division of labor
     – Upper, middle, and lower class
     – Working class = proletariat
•   The Union Movement
     – Union – an organization that speaks
         for the workers is represents.
     – Collective Bargaining – negotiations
         to resolve disputes between the
         workers and employers.
     – Strike – union members refuse to work
         until their demands are met.
           Responses to Capitalism
•   Capitalism – an economic system that
    emphasizes profit and private ownership,
    the factors of production are privately
    owned.
      – United States and Western Europe
•   Utopianism – people live and work together
    sharing goods and property.
      – Robert Owen
•   Socialism – the factors of production are
    owned by the people, and used for the
    benefit of all.
•   Communism – revolutionary struggle in
    which the workers take control of all the
    factors of production. The government ends
    up owning and operating all factors of
    production.
      – Karl Marx The Communist Manifesto
      – China, USSR, Cuba, Vietnam, N.
          Korea
•   Social Democracy – government plays a
    role in managing production and provides
    certain social services.
      – Welfare and food stamps
      – Universal health care system
      – Social security.
    The Art Stuff
•   Classicism – imitated the art of
    ancient Greece and Rome
     – Enlightenment (logic and reason.
     – 18th century
•   Romanticism
     – Emotion, imagination, revolutions,
       nature
          • William Wordsworth Daffodils.
          • William Blake – weird religious
            stuff about demons
•   Realism
     – Social Critics (industrial pollution
       and disease)
     – Industrial Revolution
          • Charles Dickens
•   Cubism – modern art Picasso and
    the bombing of Guernica
•   Surrealism – dream-like state
     – Dali
             Imperialism – European
                   domination!
• Nationalism: more power,
  increase their armies, naval
  bases around the world
• Natural Resources and raw
  materials, and more markets
   – Iron ore, coal, oil, rubber,
     sugar, cotton, feathers, silk
• Social Darwinism (Herbert
  Spencer)
   – Belief that the while culture is
     superior
   – “White Man’s Burden” by
     Rudyard Kipling
• Christianity
   – Missionary impulse to spread
     religion to the heathens.

     Imperialism- the policy of a powerful nation dominating the politics,
     economy, and society of another nation.
       Locations of colonial rule
• England and France
  colonized most of Africa
• England had the largest
  empire
   – India, Australia, Burma,
     South Africa
• United States
   – Spanish American War
     1898
       • Philippines, Puerto Rico,
         Guam
• Berlin Conference
   – Partition or division of
     Africa
    Responses to Colonial Rule
• Forms of resistance:
   – Conflict against their
     invaders, or rulers.
       • Boxer Rebellion
       • Opium Wars
   – Guerrilla warfare
       • Kenya
   – Labor union, strikes,
     boycotts
       • Ghana
   – Non-violent (civil
     disobedience)
       • India
         Struggles for Independence
•   South America
     –      Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin –
            used military force to drive out the Spanish.
•   China
     –      Sun-Yat Sen and the Three Principals of the
            People
              •   Freedom from imperialism
              •   A government based on a constitution by the
                  people
              •   Healthy economy
              •   Became the first president of the Republic of
                  China in 1911 after the fall of the Qing Dynasty
•   India
     –      Gandhi
              •   Civil Disobedience
              •   Independence from Great Britain in 1947


•   Haiti
     –      Toussaint L’Ouverture
     –      Slave revolt led to independence from France
            in 1804
                              WWI – Causes
•   Nationalism
     –   More power
•   Imperialism
     –   New markets, natural resources and
         raw materials
           •   Germany is late to imperialize
•   Militarism
     –   Arms race, growing military strength in
         preparation, industrial revolution, and
         the glorification of war.
•   Alliance System
     –   Triple Alliance (central powers)
           •   Germany, Austria Hungary and Italy
     –   Triple Entente (Allies)
           •   Russia, England and France
•   Powder Keg
     –   Balkan Peninsula (Serbia)
     –   Bosnia – Archduke Franz Ferdinand
         is assassinated by the Black Hand in
         1914 started WWI.
WWI – A War on Two Fronts
              • The Western Front
                 – Schlieffen Plan
                 – Stalemate and Trench
                   Warfare
                     • No man’s land
                 – Battle of the Marne
                 – Battle of Verdun
                     • War of attrition
                 – Battle of the Somme
              • The Eastern Front
                 – Tannenberg
              • The Mediterranean
                 – Gallipoli
                     • Access to Russia
                       through the
                       Dardanelles.
                 WWI and the U.S.
• Isolationism (U.S. foreign
  policy)
   – No alliances
   – Woodrow Wilson
• Unrestricted Submarine
  Warfare
   – Lusitania
• Propaganda
   – German atrocities
• Zimmerman Telegram
   – Mexico? Really?
• Russian Revolution (1917)
   – Lenin, the Bolsheviks and the
     Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
                    Costs of WWI
• “A War to End All Wars”?
• Military casualties high –
  Germany
• Poison gas, tanks, machine
  guns, airplane bombs,
  grenades, submarines.
• Total war – mobilization of all
  resources.
• Influenza killed 30 million
  people in 1918
• Colonial troops fought to gain
  their independence
• Russian Revolution continued
  to kill people until (1991?)
• Armenian Genocide
    – Turkey
                   Treaty of Versailles
•   At the Paris Peace Conference in 1919
     – Woodrow Wilson
     – Georges Clemenceau
     – David Lloyd George
     – Vittorio Orlando
•   Treaty of Versailles
     – War Guilt Clause
     – 33 billion in reparations
     – Loss of colonies
     – Demilitarization of the Rhineland
     – 100,000 army
     – Map changes
            • Creation of Poland and
              Czechoslovakia
            • Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
            • Break up of the Austria-Hungarian
              Empire
            • Yugoslavia
     – Wilson’s 14 Points
            • Self-Determination
            • League of Nations
                 – U.S. Senate did not ratify
                    because they did not want
                    to get entangled in another
                    European alliance/war.
          Postwar Disillusionment
• Reparations led to inflation of
  the Deutschmark
    – Dawes Plan
    – Stock market Crash
    – Great Depression
• Political instability leads to the
  rise of Fascism
    – Promises order and stability in
      a time of chaos
    – Mussolini in Italy
    – Hitler in Germany
• Lost Generation writers
    – Hemingway, Fitzgerald, Stein
    – Hopelessness and
      meaninglessness
Russian Revolution
         •   Causes
              – Autocracy of the Czars
                   • Duma
                   • Nicholas II
              –   Russo-Japanese War
              –   Bloody Sunday
              –   Rasputin
              –   March Revolution
              –   Poor working conditions
         •   Lenin and the Bolsheviks
              – The Red Army defeats the White
                Army and ends the Civil War
              – NEP
              – Communism and the Gulags
              – USSR 1922
         •   Rise of Stalin
             Totalitarian Governments
•   In common:
     –      Dictator
     –      One party rule
     –      Ideology
     –      Secret police
     –      Propaganda
     –      Censorship
     –      State control of the economy
     –      State control of everyday life
•   Stalin
     –      Cheka, gulags, communist (classless
            society) command economy.
•   Italy
     –      Black shirts, squadristi, or Ovra,
            corporate economy, fascist (emphasis
            on the state, not the individual)
•   Germany
     –      SA, Gestapo, SS, NAZI ideology
            (racism, Lebensraum, foreign
            aggression, and nationalism
       Hitler and the Holocaust
• Nuremberg Laws (1935)
   – Deprived Jews of their
     citizenship
• Kristallnacht
   – Attack on Jewish homes,
     businesses and
     synagogues
• Deportation
   – Labor camps and
     concentration camps
• Final Solution
   – Heydrich and Himmler
   – Death Squads
                           Drive for Empire
•   Germany
      – Lebensraum and the Unification of German
          People
            • Anschluss (1938)
            • Sudetenland (1938)
            • Munich Conference (1930
                  – Neville Chamberlain
                  – Appeasement “Peace for our
                     time”
            • Poland (1939) begins WWII on
               September 1st, declaration on the 3rd.
•   Italy
      – Ethiopia (1935)
            • Haille Sellassie’s warning.
      – Albania
•   Japan
      – Manchuria 1931
      – Invasion of China 1937
            • Rape of Nanjing
      – Asia for the Asiatics and the Greater East
          Asia co-Prosperity Sphere
      – Attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7th 1941
            • FDR “A Day Which Will Live In Infamy”
            • Begins WWII for the United States and
               the Pacific Theater.

				
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