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					                                    Memory
The Nature of Memory

♦ flashbulb memories


Information Processing


Encoding
♦ automatic processing


♦ effortful processing

   •   rehearsal
       ° next-in-line effect

       °   spacing effect

       °   serial position effect


♦ encoding meaning

   •   semantic encoding


   •   acoustic encoding


   •   visual encoding


♦ encoding imagery
  • imagery

       °   mnemonics

           ∗   method of loci

           ∗   peg-word system


♦ organizing information
  • chunking


   •   hierarchies
Storage
♦ sensory memory

   •   iconic

   •   echoic

♦ short-term memory

   •   Magical Number Seven

♦ long-term memory


♦ storing memories in the brain

   •   synaptic changes


   •   stress hormones and memory


   •   implicit and explicit memories


       °    hippocampus


       °    cerebellum

Retrieval

♦ recall

   •   recognition

   •   relearning

♦ retrieval cues

   •   priming


   •   context effects


       °    déjà vu


   •   moods and memories
       °     state–dependent memory


       °     mood-congruent memory


Forgetting

♦ the seven sins of memory
  • three sins of forgetting
      ° absent-mindedness

       °     transience

       °     blocking

   •   three sins of distortion

       °     misattribution

       °     suggestibility

       °     bias

   •   one sin of intrusion
       ° persistence

♦ encoding failure


♦ storage decay


♦ retrieval failure

   •   interference

       °     proactive interference


       °     retroactive interference


   •   motivated forgetting
       ° suppresion

       °     repression
   Memory Construction
   ♦ misinformation and imagination effects


   ♦ source amnesia (source misattribution)


   ♦ false memories


       •   eyewitness testimony

       •   hypnosis


   ♦ children’s recall

       •   interview methods


   ♦ repressed or false memories?




   Improving Memory

   ♦ suggestions




                                   Reading Questions – Study Guide

1. Explain memory in terms of information processing.




2. Explain the process of encoding and distinguish between automatic and effortful processing.
3. Discuss the importance of rehearsal, spacing, and serial position in encoding.




4. Explain the importance of meaning, imagery, and organization in the encoding process.




5. Give examples of material encoded by automatic processing and by effortful processing.




6. Distinguish between iconic and echoic memory.




7. Describe memory capacity and duration.




8. Discuss research findings on the physical basis of memory.




9. Discuss what research with amnesiacs and animal conditioning studies reveals about the brain mechanisms
   involved in the dual explicit-implicit memory system.




10. Contrast recall, recognition, and relearning measures of memory.




11. Describe the importance of retrieval cues, noting the effects of priming, contexts, and moods on retrieval.
12. How does the text explain the déjà vu experience?




13. Describe the effects of mood on memory.



14. Broadly describe Schacter’s seven sins of memory as a categorization of the ways in which we forget.




15. Discuss forgetting as either a form of encoding failure or storage decay.




16. Discuss the roles of interference and motivated forgetting in the process of retrieval failure.




17. Discuss the evidence for memory’s being constructive.




18. Identify several ways in which real memories differ from false memories, and discuss whether children are credible
    eyewitnesses.




19. Explain why memory researchers are suspicious of claims of long-repressed memories “recovered” with the aid of a
    therapist.




20. Discuss strategies for improving memory.
PRACTICE TEST

    1. In one study, children were periodically asked whether they remembered going to the hospital with a mousetrap on their finger.
       This experiment best illustrated the dynamics of: a) memory construction. b) long-term potentiation. c) flashbulb memory.
       d) sensory memory. e) mood-congruent memory.

    2. When we fall in love, we tend to overestimate how much we liked our partner when we first began dating. This best illustrates the
       dynamics of: a) automatic processing. b) the spacing effect. c) proactive interference. d) the serial position effect. e)
       memory construction.

    3. The accuracy of the flashbulb memories of those who were eyewitnesses to the first bombings of Baghdad during the 2003 war in
       Iraq best illustrates that memory formation is facilitated by: a) chunking. b) hierarchical organization. c) the serial position
                                                      s
       effect. d) the method of loci. e) the body' release of stress hormones.

    4. Semantic encoding is to visual encoding as ________ is to ________. a) implicit memory; explicit memory b) effortful
       processing; automatic processing c) the serial position effect; the spacing effect d) iconic memory; flashbulb memory e)
       meaning; imagery

                                            s
    5. The use of acronyms to improve one' memory of unfamiliar material best illustrates the value of: a) imagery. b) chunking.
       c) the spacing effect. d) the serial position effect. e) the method of loci.

    6. In considering the seven sins of memory, transience is to the sin of ________ as suggestibility is to the sin of ________. a)
       distortion; intrusion b) proactive interference; retroactive interference c) forgetting; distortion d) retroactive interference;
       proactive interference

    7. Lars was feeling depressed at the time he read a chapter of his history textbook. Lars is likely to recall best the contents of that
       chapter when he is: a) depressed. b) happy. c) relaxed. d) unemotional.

    8. Using nonsense syllables to study memory, Ebbinghaus found that: a) our sensory memory capacity is essentially unlimited. b)
       iconic memory fades more rapidly than echoic memory. c) what is learned in one mood is most easily retrieved while in that
       same mood. d) the most rapid memory loss for novel information occurs shortly after it is learned.

    9. Rephrasing text material in your own words is an effective way to facilitate: a) semantic encoding. b) automatic processing.
       c) mood-congruent memory. d) proactive interference. e) implicit memory.

   10. For a fraction of a second after the lightning flash disappeared, Ileana retained a vivid mental image of its ragged edges. Her
       experience most clearly illustrates the nature of _______ memory. a) iconic b) flashbulb c) echoic d) explicit e)
       implicit

   11. Dario Donatelli could recall more than 70 sequentially presented digits by using the technique of: a) acoustic encoding. b)
       automatic processing. c) implicit memory. d) visual imagery. e) chunking.

   12. According to the information-processing model of memory, acquisition is to retention as ________ is to ________.           a) recall;
       recognition b) rehearsal; relearning c) interference; repression d) encoding; storage

   13. When Jake applied for a driver' license, he was embarrassed by a momentary inability to remember his address. Jake' memory
                                        s                                                                                s
       difficulty most likely resulted from a(n) ________ failure. a) rehearsal b) storage c) encoding d) retrieval e) automatic
       processing

   14. Developed by the ancient Greeks, the method of loci is an illustration of: a) the spacing effect. b) a mnemonic device.           c)
       flashbulb memory. d) automatic processing. e) the serial position effect.

   15. Short-term memory is ________ permanent and ________ limited than long-term memory.               a) less; more b) more; less      c)
       less; less d) more; more

   16. Unlike implicit memories, explicit memories are processed by the: a) hippocampus. b) cerebellum.               c) hypothalamus. d)
       motor cortex.

   17. Implicit memory is to explicit memory as ________ is to ________. a) hippocampus; brainstem b) short-term memory; long-
       term memory c) effortful processing; automatic processing d) skill memory; fact memory
18. Many people retain their classically conditioned fears without any conscious recollection of how or when those fears were learned.
    This best illustrates ________ memory. a) implicit b) short-term c) sensory d) flashbulb e) state-dependent

19. Being asked to explain why a previously observed stranger was feeling angry has been
                                s                                 s
     found to influence people' perceptual memories of that person' facial expression. This best illustrates the dynamics of:
 a) proactive interference.
 b) memory construction.
 c) iconic memory.
 d) automatic processing.
 e) the serial position effect.

20. Researchers asked university students to recall childhood events, including a false event such as breaking a window with their
    hand. They discovered that: a) events from the distant past are less vulnerable to memory distortion than more recent events. b)
    people can easily distinguish between their own true and false memories. c) hypnotic suggestion is an effective technique for
    accurate memory retrieval. d) it is surprisingly easy to lead people to construct false memories.

21. After suffering a brain injury in a motorcycle accident, Adam cannot form new memories. He can, however, remember his life
                                            s
    experiences before the accident. Adam' memory difficulty most clearly illustrates: a) repression. b) retroactive interference.
    c) encoding failure. d) source amnesia. e) motivated forgetting.

22. The extensive rehearsal necessary to encode nonsense syllables best illustrates:     a) the spacing effect. b) implicit memory.      c)
    the serial position effect. d) effortful processing. e) chunking.

23. At a block party, Cyndi is introduced to eight new neighbors. Moments later, she can only remember the names of the first three
    and last two neighbors. Her experience illustrates: a) source amnesia. b) the next-in-line effect. c) the spacing effect. d)
    implicit memory. e) the serial position effect.

24. Although Jordan could not recall the exact words of a poem he had recently heard, he clearly remembered the meaning of the
    poem. This best illustrates the importance of: a) implicit memory. b) semantic encoding. c) mood-congruent memory. d)
    the serial position effect. e) the method of loci.

25. It is easier to remember “what sobriety conceals, alcohol reveals” than to recall “what sobriety conceals, alcohol unmasks.” This
    best illustrates the value of: a) the serial position effect. b) mood-congruent memory. c) acoustic encoding. d) the spacing
    effect. e) implicit memory.

                                                                                 s
26. Employing the single word “HOMES” to remember the names of North America' five Great Lakes best illustrates the use of: a)
    the “peg-word” system. b) the method of loci. c) the serial position effect. d) a mnemonic device. e) implicit memory.

27. Which of the following is believed to be the biological basis for learning and memory?       a) priming    b) chunking     c) semantic
    encoding d) proactive interference e) long-term potentiation

28. Mr. Nydam suffers amnesia and is unable to remember playing golf on a particular course. Yet the more he plays the course, the
    more his game improves. His experience illustrates the need to distinguish between: a) short-term and long-term memory. b)
    proactive and retroactive interference. c) explicit and implicit memory. d) recognition and recall.

29. Memories of emotional events are especially likely to be facilitated by activation of the: a) amygdala.       b) hypothalamus.      c)
    sensory cortex. d) motor cortex.

30. A measure of your memory in which you need to pick the correctly learned answer from a displayed list of options is known as a
    measure of: a) recall. b) rehearsal. c) recognition. d) reconstruction. e) relearning.

31. The happier Judie is, the more readily she recalls her teachers as warm and generous. This best illustrates that emotional states can
    be: a) retrieval cues. b) short-term memories. c) visually encoded. d) sensory memories. e) flashbulb memories.

32. During her evening Spanish language exam, Janica so easily remembers the French vocabulary she studied that morning that she
    finds it difficult to recall the Spanish vocabulary she rehearsed that afternoon. Her difficulty best illustrates: a) the spacing effect.
    b) proactive interference. c) source amnesia. d) state-dependent memory. e) retroactive interference.

                      t
33. Mrs. McBride can'remember how frequently she criticizes her children because it would be too embarrassing for her. Sigmund
    Freud would have suggested that her poor memory illustrates: a) source amnesia. b) proactive interference. c) the self-
    reference effect. d) automatic processing. e) repression.
34. When 6-year-old Teresa reported that she had been verbally threatened by a stranger in a passing car, her mother asked her what
    color car the man was driving. Several hours later Teresa mistakenly recalled that she had been threatened by a male driver rather
                                       s
    than by a female passenger. Teresa' experience best illustrates: a) implicit memory. b) proactive interference. c) the
    misinformation effect. d) state-dependent memory. e) the serial position effect.

35. Recalling something that you had once merely imagined happening as something you had directly experienced best illustrates: a)
    the self-reference effect. b) mood-congruent memory. c) proactive interference d) source amnesia. e) implicit memory

36. Many people can easily recall exactly what they were doing when they heard the news of the 9/11 terrorist tragedy. This best
    illustrates ________ memory. a) echoic b) flashbulb c) implicit d) iconic e) state-dependent

37. When you hear familiar words in your native language, it is virtually impossible not to register the meanings of the words. This
    best illustrates the importance of: a) chunking. b) flashbulb memory. c) automatic processing. d) iconic memory. e) the
    spacing effect.

38. An understanding of the spacing effect provides insight into effective strategies for: a) encoding. b) echoic memory.        c)
    chunking. d) state-dependent memory. e) automatic processing.

39. Ebbinghaus observed that it is much easier to learn meaningful material than to learn nonsense material. This best illustrates the
    advantage of: a) the “peg-word” system. b) the spacing effect. c) mood-congruent memory. d) semantic encoding. e)
    implicit memory.

40. The method of loci relies heavily on the use of: a) visual encoding. b) implicit memory.        c) the spacing effect. d) the self-
    reference effect. e) mood-congruent memory.

41. The combination of individual letters into familiar words enables you to remember more of the letters in this sentence. This best
    illustrates the value of: a) the spacing effect. b) iconic memory. c) the “peg-word” system. d) the method of loci. e)
    chunking.

42. When you have to make a long-distance call, dialing an unfamiliar area code plus a seven-digit number, you are likely to have
    trouble retaining the just-looked-up number. This best illustrates the limited capacity of ________ memory. a) long-term b)
    implicit c) short-term d) explicit e) flashbulb

43. They have most likely suffered damage to the:     a) hippocampus. b) cerebellum.       c) hypothalamus. d) amygdala.

44. Which of the following is most likely to be stored as an implicit memory?                            s
                                                                                 a) a mental image of one' best friend b) the date of
       s                                                      s
    one' own birth c) a conditioned fear of guns d) one' own name

45. In an effort to recall his early life experiences, Aaron formed vivid mental images of the various rooms in his childhood home.
    Aaron was engaging in the process of: a) automatic processing. b) implicit memory. c) semantic encoding. d) iconic
    memory. e) priming.

46. Whenever Valerie experiences intense feelings of fear, she is overwhelmed with childhood memories of her abusive parents.
           s
    Valerie' experience best illustrates: a) repression. b) mood-congruent memory. c) retroactive interference. d) the
    misinformation effect. e) implicit memory.

47. While taking the final exam in her American history class, Marie was surprised and frustrated by her momentary inability to
    remember the name of the first president of the United States. Her difficulty most clearly illustrates: a) source amnesia. b)
    state-dependent memory. c) the serial position effect. d) the self-reference effect. e) retrieval failure.

48. Although Ron typically smokes two packs of cigarettes a day, he recalls smoking little more than a pack a day. This poor memory
    best illustrates: a) the misinformation effect. b) motivated forgetting. c) the spacing effect. d) source amnesia. e) the
    self-reference effect.

49. The surprising ease with which people form false memories best illustrates that the processes of encoding and retrieval involve:
    a) implicit memory. b) automatic processing. c) long-term potentiation. d) memory construction. e) repression.

50. Several months after watching a science fiction movie about spaceship travel and alien abductions, Steve began to remember that
    he had been abducted by aliens and personally subjected to many of the horrors portrayed in the movie. His mistaken recall best
    illustrates: a) implicit memory. b) the spacing effect. c) source amnesia. d) mood-congruent memory. e) repression.
Answer Key

    1. a
       memory construction.
    2. e
       memory construction.
    3. e
                  s
       the body' release of stress hormones.
    4. e
       meaning; imagery
    5. b
       chunking.
    6. c
       forgetting; distortion
    7. a
       depressed.
    8. d
       the most rapid memory loss for novel information occurs shortly after it is learned.
    9. a
       semantic encoding.
   10. a
       iconic
   11. e
       chunking.
   12. d
       encoding; storage
   13. d
       retrieval
   14. b
       a mnemonic device.
   15. a
       less; more
   16. a
       hippocampus.
   17. d
       skill memory; fact memory
   18. a
       implicit
   19. b
       memory construction.
   20. d
       it is surprisingly easy to lead people to construct false memories.
   21. c
       encoding failure.
   22. d
       effortful processing.
   23. e
       the serial position effect.
   24. b
       semantic encoding.
   25. c
       acoustic encoding.
   26. d
       a mnemonic device.
   27. e
       long-term potentiation
   28. c
       explicit and implicit memory.
   29. a
       amygdala.
   30. c
       recognition.
31. a
    retrieval cues.
32. b
    proactive interference.
33. e
    repression.
34. c
    the misinformation effect.
35. d
    source amnesia.
36. b
    flashbulb
37. c
    automatic processing.
38. a
    encoding.
39. d
    semantic encoding.
40. a
    visual encoding.
41. e
    chunking.
42. c
    short-term
43. a
    hippocampus.
44. c
    a conditioned fear of guns
45. e
    priming.
46. b
    mood-congruent memory.
47. e
    retrieval failure.
48. b
    motivated forgetting.
49. d
    memory construction.
50. c
    source amnesia.

				
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