Central and Eastern Europe CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE DIFFERENT by yurtgc548

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									CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE
          CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

DIFFERENT PATTERNS OF DEVELOPMENT
 Remain largely agrarian & retain serfdom

 Low level of urbanization & industrialization

 Limited development of merchant class

 No overseas empires

 Families remains large, extended, & multigenerational,
age of marriage lower
           CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE


POLAND

 14th century: Dynastic
alliance with Lithuania
 Poland becomes superior
partner = Republic of Poland

 Becomes one of largest,
most powerful states in
Europe

                               Polish Queen Jadwiga weds Lithuanian
                               Grand Duke Jageillo, unifying in 1385
           CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

POLAND

 Structure of Society
   Made up of estates – nobility,
  burghers (townspeople), peasants
   Nobility (Szlachta) = 8% of
  population, had all rights &
  privileges
            CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

POLAND
 Structure of State
   Monarch elected by
  parliament (Sejm)
   Each deputy had veto
  power = LIBERUM VETO
   King had no national
  army, court system or
  bureaucracy
   Led to political chaos &
  weakness
           CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

OTTOMAN EMPIRE
 Muslim Turks controlled
large area of Christian
Eastern Europe from 15th c.
 Became great power, but
began to decline in 18th c.

 Significant impact on
development of lands it held

 But did not interfere with
religious or cultural life
            CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

OTTOMAN EMPIRE
 Structure of Society
   Divided subjects into
  MILLETS based on religion
   Practiced relative toleration
   Muslims = privileged class
   Christians subject to
  DEVSHIRME
   Much resentment of
  Ottoman rule
           CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE


OTTOMAN EMPIRE
 Structure of State
   Similar to feudal system
    • Military leaders gave
    service to SULTAN
    • Muslims = lords
    Christians = peasants
    • Local rulers (Pashas) had
    virtually complete control
   Began to decline in 17th century
             CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

AUSTRIA
 Consolidation of State
   LEOPOLD I (r. 1657-1705)
   • Established religious
   conformity

   • Defeated Ottomans &
   gained Hungarian lands

   • Expanded into Balkans,
   Italy, & Netherlands
           CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE


PRUSSIA
 Consolidation of State
  Brandenburg unified with
 Prussia & began to expand
  GREAT ELECTOR –
 Frederick William (r.
 1640-1688)
   • began build up of army
   • centralization of
   power at expense of
   JUNKERS
           CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE


PRUSSIA
 Consolidation of State
  FREDERICK I (r. 1688-1713)
   • named king in return for
   supplying troops to Habsburgs
   • continued building
   army & centralizing
   • army = centerpiece
   of Prussia state &
   society

								
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