Beyond Consciousness to
Cosmos: Beyond Relativity
and Quantum Theory to
Why We Have No Physical
Cosmology, and How to Start
Discuss the origins and nature of Relativity
and Quantum Mechanics
Show that Relativity is inadequate ideology
Introduce Natural Philosophy as the
disciplined use of full our cognitive abilities
Introduce a physical theory of space and
motion to replace Relativity
Demonstrate how this theory can explain
Scientists are trained to work within a
They have neither the mental tools nor the
motivation to change the program
“Normal science” goes on until “paradoxes”
accumulate to an embarrassing degree
An innovator from outside the system
imposes a new program
The cycle repeats
Crisis in Theoretical Physics
Subjectivistic—limited to describing what
the observer experiences and measures.
No hypotheses—no physical causality
Ad hoc fixes abound
Mathematics accurate but overcomplicated
Relativity and QM are incompatible
Hubble Deep Field—Galaxies!
Milky Way Galaxy
500 yrs ago: Earth-observer perspective!
The Math Worked!
Observer-based—observer at the center and
not moving—just as his senses and
“Laws” just described the observer’s
measurements—in his frame
No physical hypotheses—anti-physical!
Mathematics accurate but over complicated
Stood in the way of the advancement of
Shifted the “frame” from the observer’s
consciousness to the Cosmos
In retrospect, we can see that no progress in
Cosmology or physics was possible in the
Ptolemaic observer-based scheme
Opponents argued: No evidence of Earth’s
motion, mathematics not as accurate, no
explanation of cause of such motion
Observer-based—all physical motion
related to and equally well described in any
Light travels at c relative to the human
observer not relative to matter.
No physical hypotheses
Stands in the way of progress
Einstein sought “laws of nature” valid
for any CS—including the rotating
Earth observer’s CS
Claimed that Relativity would render
the historic struggle between the views
of Ptolemy and Copernicus “quite
meaningless” since “Either CS could
be used with equal justification.”
Einstein and Infeld, The Evolution of Physics, 1938 p. 224.
We need a Second
Again remove the observer from the center
Relate motion and laws of physics to the
matter and space of the Cosmos—not to any
A physical theory of space, matter and
Why are we in this mess?
Natural Philosophy vs.
Aristotle revered by Church until works of natural
Conflict between Aristotelian natural philosophy
and Christian doctrine Condemnation 1277 of
ideas of Aristotle, Averröes, and St. Thomas
Church: “God can move the Cosmos and leave a
void”, “The world is not eternal”, etc.
William of Ockham—eliminated all hypothetical
entities and causes except God
Descartes and Locke—Judeo-Christian dualism
Roots of Relativity
Dualism—Spirit and Matter
Copernicus and Newton offered material
explanations of phenomena.
Threats to traditional religious belief
Philosophical explanations reduced role of
God in Nature.
Bishop Berkeley attacked Newton’s
Mechanics as ‘atheistic materialism”.
Berkeley’s Subjective Idealism
Since we know only our own conscious
experiences and have no direct knowledge
of any material Cosmos, we must not
assume that it exists.
Berkeley, Principles of Human Knowledge (1710) body, para. 18.
Reality is a virtual reality simulation fed to
our spirits from God’s Spirit.
The laws of optics are some of the rules that
govern the Matrix.
Father of Relativity
We must treat motion not as absolute,
Cosmic, or real but as merely relative to
ourselves and to any other objects in our
sensoria, and treat time as the mere
succession of events in our consciousness.
Principles of Human Knowledge (1710) para. 112., para. 98.
Denied that we could know any Cosmic
causes, saying that our belief that an effect
will follow from a cause is merely a
“custom” we have acquired through
repetitive experience. He denied that we
could ever know the cause of such a
“custom” as gravity.
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (1748)
Admitted the influence of Berkeley and Hume
“The world consists only of our sensations”
Ernst Mach, Analysis of Sensations p. 12.
Mach refused to believe in atoms (circa 1900)
because they were not evident to our senses.
Believed that Newton’s theory of absolute space
and motion was “devoid of content”, since we have
knowledge only of relative spaces and motions.”
He called those who shared his view “relativists”.
Ernst Mach, The Science of Mechanics pp. 283, 293.
Admitted: Read Berkeley, infl. by Hume, Mach
“The only justification for our concepts and
system of concepts is that they serve to
represent the complex of experiences; beyond
this they have no legitimacy.”
Albert Einstein, The Meaning of Relativity,1922, p. 2.
The“real external world” is the sum total of all
experienced events about which subjects agree.
Albert Einstein, Ideas and Opinions, 1954, p. 363
Relative to what does light move at
1. People in any state of motion
2. Stars and Planets
3. Both—even same light, same time
Cosmic Reality vs. Observer
Sun Centauri B
Light c 4.3 years
What causes the emission or
absorption of a subatomic particle by
an atom or nucleus?
1. People observing it
2. Unknown Physical Factors
“Quantum mechanics, however, regards the
interactions of object and observer as the
ultimate reality. It uses the language of physical
relations and processes rather than that of
physical qualities and properties. It rejects as
meaningless and useless the notion that behind
the universe of our perception there lies a hidden
objective world ruled by causality; instead, it
confines itself to the description of the relations
Robert Eisberg and Robert Resnik, Quantum Physics (John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., New York, 1974) p. 88.
Restricted Principle of Relativity: “All
laws of nature are the same in every
uniformly moving coordinate system (CS).”
(including that of every human observer)
Invariant c: The velocity of light, c, is a
law of physics for every CS.
Lorentz transformations: relate
measurements made in co-moving frames
No mention of the Cosmos, matter, or causes?
Motion is Only Relative?
There is “no such thing as an
independently existing trajectory, but only
a trajectory relative to a particular body of
Relativity, The Special and General Theory p. 10.
“Relativity” means that all motion and laws
of motion are merely relative to any chosen
observer or CS, not uniquely related to the
matter and space of this Cosmos!
Space and Time
To keep c constant for the observer, “space”
and “time” are made variable—as per the
Lorentz transformations between frames.
= √ 1-v2/c2
Einstein claimed he had thus rendered the
He had merely changed the program: From
describing the Cosmos to describing our
General Principle of Relativity: “All CSs
(observers) are equivalent for the
formulation of the laws of nature whatever
may be their state of motion”.
Einstein tried to “relativize” gravity and
acceleration—describe them as nothing but
types of transformations between co-
No mention of the Cosmos or of physical causes!
Attempted to produce a single set of “laws
of nature” valid for any observer in any
state of motion—including accelerated!
This didn’t work
Minkowski helped Einstein produce a
second version: the space-time matrix
The “Cosmos” represented, reconstructed,
as a set of space-time measurements made
Is not an objectivistic model of the physical
It is a mathematical representation of the
observers’ experiences and measurements.
It is subjectivistic in that it assumes that
light travels at c relative to every observer
It’s “physical reality” is a set of observed
“events” and the space-time intervals that
observers measure between these “events”.
The Space-time Interval
Simply adds a “timelike” imaginary 4th axis
to Descartes’ 3 spatial axes
c2dt2 —the square of the distance light
travels at c in the observer’s time
It is composed of the one thing that
observers agree upon when c is absolute for
each—the intervals that they measure
between observed “events”.
Einstein on the Interval
“Thechronotropic interval has no
physical meaning or significance.”
quoted by T. Levi-Civita, Nuovo Cimento, 13, 45 (1936).
“The space-time curvature around the Earth acts on
fast or slow balls in exactly the same way. It tells
these balls how to move.”
No. Space-time is the observer’s 4-dimensional
description of the motion of objects in a gravitational
field. Space-time does not cause anything!
Relativity, in original or space-time form,
fulfills Berkeley’s program for a physics
that merely described the rules that control
our sensations and measurements.
Physics reduced to observer-based
Physical theory abandoned
Natural philosophy suppressed
Relativity and QM
Science should just describe what the
observer experiences and measures—the
contents of his consciousness!
Science should not attempt to relate motion
to the matter and space of the Cosmos
Science should not seek the underlying
causes of quantum events.
Physicists believe they can use the concepts
in these models in a common sense way to
describe and understand the nature of
Cosmic reality and causes of Cosmic
These models were not designed for that
The Crux: Void vs. Ether
If the subjectivistic, observer-created reality
is true, then there must be no evidence that
there is any observer-independent space or
Space itself must have no physical qualities
and must cause nothing.
But applied physics always requires
observer-independent spatial frame-ether!
How does Relativity cover it up!
Space has no physical qualities—it is a
void. But in a void there could be:
1. No resistance to acceleration
2. No unique light velocity indep. of source
3. No limiting velocity for matter
4. No redshift of moving atomic spectra
5. No resolution of the twin/clock paradox—need
third frame to break the symmetry
6. No physical cause of gravity, inertia, clock-
slowing with velocity, or of anything!
Unless all these things happen by MAGIC!
Ether Physics vs. Relativity
Sun Centauri B
What’s the relative velocity of the spaceship and the
light in this Cosmos?
What light velocity does the spaceship measure?
Lorentz before Einstein
Lorentz Ether Theory: Relative velocity
is 1.5c, however due to slowing of the
ship’s clocks and shortening of its length
caused by its velocity in Cosmic
electromagnetic space, the ship’s crew will
measure light’s velocity as c.
Einstein Relativity: Relative velocity is c
because velocity c for light is a law of
physics valid for all observers or frames.
Relativity vs. Causality
Einstein’sSpecial Relativity (SR)
retained Lorentz’s clock-slowing and
length contraction effects, but dropped
the Cosmic context and the cause!
Lorentz’s Theory works.
Does Relativity work?
Paradoxes arise because Relativity claims that all motion is
merely relative to any arbitrary frame of reference.
Any two frames in relative motion have identical trajectories in
each other’s CSs—in Relativity each twin can consider himself
stationary and the other moving!
A third frame is required to break the symmetry!
(clue: The Cosmos, ether, inertial space, etc.)
In Reality, it is always the twin who moves relative to
the nearby celestial bodies (Cosmic distribution of
matter) that is the younger one!
Motion is NOT merely relative—it is Cosmic!
Global Positioning System
Ifall motion is merely relative motion,
why does the GPS system relate light
velocity and clock-slowing ONLY to
the non-rotating Earth frame?
Relativists claim “It’s just simpler!”
Maybe “simpler” implies “cause”!
If aberration were caused by relative motion
only, then why don’t the stars in a binary
system shift in their apparent positions in
accordance with their varying velocities
relative to the Earth-observer?
Stark’s experiment: the direction of light
arriving from stationary and high-velocity
moving atoms at the same location is
Ann. Phys. 4, 77 (1925).
Fact: Aberration is always and only
due to the motion of the observer (in
the frame in which light moves at c.)
Around the circumference of a rotating
platform (disc, Earth, etc.) light’s velocity is
c +/- v.
Working principle behind laser gyroscopes.
Light travels East on Earth at c – rotational
velocity, West at c + rotational velocity
(465m/s at Earth’s equator).
Light travels at c in the non-rotating frame
of the Earth! Not relative to any observer!
Relativity is Wrong
Every trajectory is a unique path
relative to near and distant distribution
of matter in this Cosmos.
There is ALWAYS a preferred
frame—the physical space/ether we
call the local gravitational field
Light propagates at c relative to the
distribution of matter, not the observer.
Why Don’t They Get It?
To resolve these paradoxes, Relativists
introduce a third frame (space-matter frame)
They then deny that they have done so, or
they claim that this is still Relativity!
Their confusion and denial makes debate
with them a fruitless endeavor.
Yes, the space-time model works—because
it incorporates the effects of ethereal space
on the observer’s measurements!
Einstein Admits It
“Recapitulating, we may say that according to
the general theory of relativity, space is endowed
with physical qualities; in this sense, therefore,
there exists an ether. According to the general
theory of relativity, space without ether is
unthinkable; for in such space there not only
would be no propagation of light, but also no
possibility of existence for standards of space and
time (measuring-rods and clocks), nor therefore
any space-time intervals in the physical sense.”
Ether and the Theory of Relativity, 1920
Einstein forbids Ether theory
“But this ether may not be thought of as
endowed with the quality characteristic of
ponderable media, as consisting of parts
which may be tracked through time. The
idea of motion may not be applied to it.”
Ether and The Theory of Relativity, 1920
Note to self: “Try to apply the idea of motion to
The Source of the Confusion
Einstein admitted that in the field of
epistemology he had been an “unscrupulous
opportunist”, resorting to realism, idealism,
positivism, and Platonism as the situation
seemed to require.
Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist, p. 684.
The Relativity program requires no ether
The facts indicate that space is ethereal
Einstein failed to resolve the contradiction
The Ether Taboo
Disciples lack the insight of the
Ad hoc fixes for Relativity and QM
Mention “ether” and you’re out!
Truth usually lies where one is
forbidden to look!
The creation, criticism, and testing of
theories about what exists and causes our
Uses all the tools of human cognition: logic,
mathematics, and theory
Goes beyond our consciousness to theorize
about what exists and how it causes our
existence and causes what we experience.
Reconstruction of Philosophy:
Ethereal—EM, light, gravity,
Physicochemical—subatomic, atomic, etc.
Linguo-mythic—early linguistic humans
Lower level entities and processes are organized in new
ways producing higher level entities and processes
Reconstruction of Theoretical
Metaphysics: Cosmism over Idealism
Epistemology: Objectivism and Causal
Theory over Subjectivistic modeling
Method: Physical hypotheses before
Macrocosm: Ether Theory over Relativity
Microcosm: Physical theory over QM
How to Think Ethereally
A knew, mostly unknown substance
Not matter as we know it
Ascribe to space whatever physical qualities
are needed to fit and explain the facts.
Beware of analogies with known substances
Strange qualities OK. Contradictions are
Modern Ether Surrogates
Frames (inertial, Earth, Sun-Star, etc.)
Rules—light velocity independent of source
Space (without “-time”), curved space
Higgs Field—to give particles inertia in QM
Additional “curled up” dimensions
What Do We Know about
EM medium—transmits light at c, redshifts
spectra of moving atoms
Is massless—mass (inertia/gravity) is due to
an interaction between matter and space
Resists the acceleration of matter (inertia)
Is accelerated by mattergravity
Resists the superluminal motion of particles
Causes the shortening of objects moving
with it (Lorentz contraction—if it exists)
Of Matter and Space
Newton’s absolute space was a single,
Cosmic, Euclidean ether that resisted
the acceleration of matter.
Lorentz’s ether was Newton’s ether
plus EM—the medium in which light
moved at c
If ether affects the motion of matter,
shouldn’t matter also affect the motion
What is fundamentally new in the ether
of general relativity as opposed to the
ether of Lorentz consists in this, that
the state of the former is at every place
determined by connections with the
matter and the state of the ether in
Albert Einstein, Ether and the Theory of Relativity, 1920
Can we translate this insight into a physical
theory of the ether?
Principle of Equivalence
Einstein likened being accelerated by a
rocket in deep space with sitting on a
The observer can’t tell the difference
without special instruments!
Gravity and inertial acceleration are
different aspects of the same phenomenon
Inertial and gravitational acceleration are
both acceleration wrt space!
In gravity, space is accelerating Earthward!
Matter does not naturally accelerate wrt
If forced into acceleration wrt space it
Free fall in a gravitational field is
weightless—a state of non-acceleration wrt
space due to falling towards the gravitator
On a planet’s surface, one is in a constant
state of acceleration wrt accelerating space
If matter causes its surrounding inertial
space to accelerate towards itself at
a=GM/r2, then all the Newtonian aspects of
a gravitational field are explained
No need for an added gravitational “force”
Inertial space flows!
What’s its velocity at a given height outside
The velocity at any height will be the sum
of the accelerations experienced from
infinity to that radial distance r.
v 2GM / r
This is equal to the Newtonian escape
velocity -- 11.2km/s at the Earth’s surface
Can this velocity explain other aspects of
A clock held stationary at any given height
in a gravitational field should slow just as if
it were moving at the escape velocity from
v 2GM / r
The formula for the gravitational redshift is:
/ 1 1 2GM / rc 2
since 2GM / r v 2
/ 1 1 v / c 2 2
Which is the SR/Lorentzian formula for the
redshift due to velocity.
Unified Theory of Redshift
Atoms in motion in space or held stationary
in gravity are both redshifted by their
velocity in space.
Unification: Instead of two causes—
velocity and gravity—there is one cause.
The mathematics of Flowing Space
mathematics work and are much simpler
Expanded Principle of
FS expands Einstein’s principle of
equivalence of gravitational and inertial
acceleration to include the equivalence of
gravitational and inertial velocity, and
adds a causal hypothesis!
This expanded POE unifies Newtonian,
Lorentzian, and Einsteinian physics.
Inertial and electromagnetic ether-space that
flows into or out of all matter with
a=GM/r2 (Newtonian acceleration) and
v 2GM / r (Newtonian escape velocity)
This yields both the Newtonian and the
“relativistic” effects of gravity and of
If space flows into a mass with the velocity
of light, then light itself cannot escape:
c 2GM / r
This is the known formula for the
Schwarzschild radius of a black hole:
RS GM / c 2
General Relativity formula for angle of
a 4GM / c r 2
Since v 2GM / r
the angle of deflection is:
a 2v / c
It’s a simple spatial velocity effect!
Flowing space reproduces GR’s
successes—much more simply
Herbert Ives, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 29, 183 (1939).
Herbert Ives, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 38, 413 (1947).
Robert Kirkwood, Phys. Rev., 92, 1557 (1953).
Robert Kirkwood, Phys. Rev., 95, 1051 (1954).
Tom Martin, General Relativity and Spatial
Flows: I. Absolute Relativistic Dynamics,
Tom Martin, On the Motion of Free Material Test
Particles in Arbitrary Spatial Flows,
arXiv:gr-qc/0411060 v1 12 Nov 2004
Mainstream physicists have not applied the model to
weak gravity situations where it works equally well.
Newtonian/Einsteinian physics contradicted
by apparent excess gravity within and
between galaxies and star clusters
Ad hoc hypothesis—“dark” matter in a halo
outside the galaxy.
Universe is 90-99% dark matter
Soooo-Why is there no dark matter in our
Nick Strobel's Astronomy Notes.
Inertia and Gravity—2 Aspects
of the Inflow Process
Matter is a field of acceleration within
Matter interacts dynamically with its
surrounding space—this tethers mass in
space so that any additional acceleration is
To accelerate matter wrt space, one must
apply a force—creating opposing
accelerations in space and thereby tension
Attach suction hose to sphere
Immerse in body of water
Harder to accelerate with
hose on than off
Analogous to tension created in massless
ether by dynamic interaction of opposing
Two sinksattraction (gravity)
More sinksincreased attraction
Opposing accelerations in space—causing
spatial tension that pulls the masses together
To relieve tension, space must flow into the
system from outside. Increased density of
FS and Excess Gravity
In small flat system space easily flows into
the plane of the system from above and
below alleviating tensionNewtonian
multiplication of sink accelerations
F GM a M b / r 2
In dense star groupings or among galaxies,
spatial inflow into region from outside is
insufficient to reduce tension
F GM a M b / r 2
A celestial body creates a uniform radially
symmetrical field of spatial flow in its
As it moves through space, every celestial
body must sweep a large volume of
surrounding space into its own free-fall
motion—its gravitational field completely
conditions the surrounding spatial “frame”
No experiment on Earth can detect motion
Space is entrained into the Earth’s freefall
motion but not spun into rotation
465m/s E-W ether wind at equator
Stellar aberration NOT eliminated by
CMB Doppler shift NOT eliminated
Provides the physical mechanism for
GR assumes entrainment (non-physically)
FS and Galaxial Rotation
All galaxial stars are entraining space into
their revolutionary motion
Much of the space/ether of the galaxy is
rotating with the stars—the galaxial inertial
“frame” is rotating.
Stars require higher velocity in rotating
frame to avoid collapse.
Our solar system is flat and less denseno
rotational frame dragging.
Not an ideal fluid:
vspace 4GM / 2r
videal 4S / 4r ::Different sink flow velocity
4S has units L3T –1. 4GM has units L3T –2.
4GM represents a volume rate that changes with
time—it decreases as space approaches Earth.
There is volume loss!
Is space compressing? Condensing?
Unlike GR, predicts that a falling clock will run
fast—the fastest clock falls with the escape
velocity at any r.
Vertical light velocity anisotropy (+/- escape
velocity) may be detectable astronomically—
implied by black hole
Anomalous motion and clock-slowing effects at
the gravitational saddle point of the Sun and Earth
and at other parts of the boundary between the
solar and terrestrial flows. (Martin)
FS superior to SR/GR
Much simpler—conceptually and mathematically
No twin paradox—ether velocityslower clock
Unites acceleration and velocity—both relative
to the ether—no disconnect.
Unifies transverse Doppler redshift—always
caused by velocity in ether
A physical theory—provides a foundation for
Cosmology and for theoretical physics:
Macrocosm and Microcosm
Beyond Consciousness to
Cosmos: Beyond Relativity
and Quantum Theory to
Why We Have No Physical
Cosmology, and How to Start