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The-Land-Development-Paradigm Powered By Docstoc
					Bahan Kajian MK. Dinamika Pengembangan WIlayah


              Prof Dr Ir Soemarno MS
              pdip pps fpub 2011
                      Land Development
As our population increases and available land becomes more scarce,
        land development becomes increasingly challenging.
 There are more government regulations and impact fees today than
 ever before, plus a host of local restrictions that make development
Use the resources in this section to explore land development topics
 like Smart As our population increases and available land becomes
    more scarce, land development becomes increasingly complex.

There are more government regulations and fees than ever before, plus
 a host of local restrictions that make development more challenging.

 Use the resources in this section to explore land development topics
 such as infrastructure finance, sustainable development and Smarter
  Growth, discover new techniques like FPSFs, or just browse related
                     land development materials.
           land development

 Conversion of raw land into construction ready housing,
        commercial, or industrial building sites.

 Land development process involves improvements that
have indefinite life, such as draining, dredging, excavating,
                 filling, grading, paving, etc.

                See also land improvement.
                          Raw Land in Batangas — Batangas City
Raw land
  Land in its
 natural state,
 with no man-
 as cleaning,
digging, filling,
 grading, etc.

 Development Regulations & Approval

As the land development industry faces
  more development regulations and
unwieldy approval procedures, ways of
 removing barriers are more important
               than ever.
Green & Sustainable Development

The growing trend towards green and
sustainable development offers many
 opportunities for builders and land
    Learn more about the issues,
     challenges, and solutions.
            Growth/No Growth

While most people see Smart Growth and
growth management as legitimate ways to
 help communities make sound decisions
about growth, some see it as a way to limit
Learn more about the growth debate here.
Infrastructure                . Rumah Bogor KPR BTN, BCA, BNI, Mandiri
  Finance &

A growing reliance
 on impact fees is
pushing up the cost
of housing in many
   But innovative
  alternatives are
available to forward-


     design or
 universal design
is about creating
  a home for all,
regardless of age
     or ability.
                    Model Cluster permukiman dengan
                             universal design

                                          Foto . Marno-2011
               LAND DEVELOPMENT

Land development refers to altering the landscape
         in any number of ways such as:

   1. changing landforms from a natural or semi-
  natural state for a purpose such as agriculture or
2. subdividing real estate into lots, typically for the
              purpose of building homes
3. developing property or changing its purpose, for
       example by converting an unused factory
             complex into condominiums

    With our
growing and land
resources limited,
   planning for
 future growth is
 more important
    than ever.

  That’s why         Pembangunan jembatan dapat mengarahkan
Smarter Growth is          perkembangan wilayah kota

                                                 Foto . Marno-2011
               Climate Change

Communities across the country as well as the
Federal government are considering legislation
    and regulations to address this issue.
 NAHB is staying on top of this issue through
research and review of federal, state and local

    National Association of Home Builder
           Housing Affordability

  The recent economic downturn has had a
 silver lining lower housing prices. However,
many homeowners continue to struggle with
the cost of housing and remain priced out of
                 some markets.
 Learn the facts about housing affordability
            issues and solutions.
Foto . Marno-2011

  Kenyamanan lingkungan dan aksesibilitas menjadi pertimbangan utama dalam
                       pengembangan permukiman
 Kenyamanan lingkungan udara dan keindahan “view” menjadi faktor hedonik
                        dalam property pricing.

Foto . Marno-2011
                     A house
 is a home, building or structure that is a dwelling
      or place for habitation by human beings.
The term includes many kinds of dwellings ranging
 from rudimentary huts of nomadic tribes to free
          standing individual structures.
In some contexts, "house" may mean the same as
    dwelling, residence, home, abode, lodging,
    accommodation, or housing, among other
The social unit that lives in a house is known as a
A ranch style house in Salinas, California, United States
               Lingkungan binaan jalan raya

Foto . Marno-2010
        Land development: Urban park and its Facilities

Foto . Marno-2010
           Land development : Campuss green openspace

Foto . Marno-2010
                        REAL ESTATE
   Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with
improvements to the land, such as buildings, fences, wells and other
     site improvements that are fixed in location—immovable.

In some situations the term "real estate" refers to the land and fixtures
together, as distinguished from "real property", referring to ownership
 of land and appurtenances, including anything of a permanent nature
   such as structures, trees, minerals, and the interest, benefits, and
                         inherent rights thereof.

 Real property is typically considered to be Immovable property The
terms real estate and real property are used primarily in common law,
   while civil law jurisdictions refer instead to immovable property.
                 Residential real estate
 The legal arrangement for the right to occupy a dwelling is known as
the housing tenure. Types of housing tenure include owner occupancy,
  Tenancy, housing cooperative, condominiums (individually parceled
     properties in a single building), public housing, squatting, and

         The occupants of a residence constitute a household.
  Residences can be classified by, if, and how they are connected to
neighboring residences and land. Different types of housing tenure can
be used for the same physical type. For example, connected residents
might be owned by a single entity and leased out, or owned separately
    with an agreement covering the relationship between units and
                    common areas and concerns.
                       Residential real estate
Major physical categories include: Attached / multi-unit dwellings

Apartment - An individual unit in a multi-unit building. The boundaries of the
apartment are generally defined by a perimeter of locked or lockable doors.
Often seen in multi-story apartment buildings.

Multi-family house - Often seen in multi-story detached buildings, where each
floor is a separate apartment or unit.

Terraced house (a.k.a. townhouse or rowhouse) - A number of single or multi-
unit buildings in a continuous row with shared walls and no intervening space.

Condominium - Building or complex, similar to apartments, owned by
individuals. Common grounds are owned and shared jointly. There are
townhouse or rowhouse style condominiums as well.

Cooperative (a.k.a. "co-op) - A type of multiple ownership in which the residents
of a multiunit housing complex own shares in the cooperative corporation that
owns the property, giving each resident the right to occupy a specific apartment
or unit.
               Residential real estate
Major physical categories include:

Semi-detached dwellings : Duplex - Two units with one
shared wall.

Single-family detached home

Portable dwellings :
Mobile homes - Potentially a full-time residence which can
be (might not in practice be) movable on wheels.
Houseboats - A floating home
Tents - Usually very temporary, with roof and walls
consisting only of fabric-like material.
  A condominium, or condo, is the form of housing tenure
and other real property where a specified part of a piece of
 real estate (usually of an apartment house) is individually
owned while use of and access to common facilities in the
piece such as hallways, heating system, elevators, exterior
  areas is executed under legal rights associated with the
 individual ownership and controlled by the association of
owners that jointly represent ownership of the whole piece.

Colloquially, the term is often used to refer to the unit itself
              in place of the word "apartment".

A condominium may be simply defined as an "apartment"
     that the resident "owns" as opposed to rents.
 A condominium is a collection of individual home units
       along with the land upon which they sit.
   Individual home ownership within a condominium is
construed as ownership of only the air space confining the
                boundaries of the home .
   The boundaries of that space are specified by a legal
document known as a Declaration, filed of record with the
local governing authority. Typically these boundaries will
   include the drywall surrounding a room, allowing the
homeowner to make some interior modifications without
    impacting the common area. Anything outside this
boundary is held in an undivided ownership interest by a
corporation established at the time of the condominium’s
 creation. The corporation holds this property in trust on
  behalf of the homeowners as a group–-it may not have
  A condominium consists of multi-unit dwellings (i.e., an
apartment or a development) where each unit is individually
   owned and the common areas, such as hallways and
recreational facilities, are jointly owned (usually as "tenants
     in common") by all the unit owners in the building.
 A condominium also consists of bylaws that all the home
    owners are supposed to follow such as indoor noise

     It is also possible for condominiums to consist of single family
dwellings: so-called "detached condominiums" where homeowners do
      not maintain the exteriors of the dwellings, yards, etc. or "site
    condominiums" where the owner has more control and possible
   ownership (as in a "whole lot" or "lot line" condominium) over the
 exterior appearance. These structures are preferred by some planned
                  neighborhoods and gated communities.
   The Minton Condo is a new condominium in the established residential
suburb of Paya Lebar being developed by Kheng Leong. Occupies the former
  Minton Rise site off Lorong Ah Soo, near Serangoon Central MRT & Nex
 APARTMENT                      Apartment in Bali

An apartment (in American
 English) or flat (in British
English) is a self-contained
  housing unit (a type of
residential real estate) that
  occupies only part of a
  Such a building may be
called an apartment building
     or apartment house,
 especially if it consists of
 many apartments for rent.
 Apartments may be owned
  by an owner/occupier or
rented by tenants (two types
     of housing tenure).

     Apartment types and characteristics
     Apartments can be classified into several types.
In North America the typical terms are a studio or bachelor
         apartment (efficiency or bedsit in the UK).
  These all tend to be the smallest apartments with the
              cheapest rents in a given area.
These kinds of apartment usually consist mainly of a large
 room which is the living, dining, and bedroom combined.
 There are usually kitchen facilities as part of this central
room, but the bathroom is its own smaller separate room.
     Apartment types and characteristics

Large apartments often have two entrances, perhaps a door
           in the front and another in the back.
Depending on the building design, the entrance doors may
be directly to the outside or to a common area inside, such
                        as a hallway.
 Depending on location, apartments may be available for
 rent furnished with furniture or unfurnished into which a
     tenant usually moves in with their own furniture.
 A garden apartment complex consists of low-rise
apartment buildings built with landscaped grounds
                surrounding them.
The apartment buildings are often arranged around
       courtyards that are open at one end.
A garden apartment has some characteristics of a
townhouse: each apartment has its own building
 entrance, or just a few apartments share a small
   foyer or stairwell at each building entrance.
Unlike a townhouse, each apartment occupies only
                    one level.
              GARDEN APARTMENT
  Modern garden apartment buildings are never
 more than three stories high, since they typically
   don't have elevators/lifts. However, the first
"garden apartment" buildings in the United States,
  developed in the early 20th century, were five
                   stories high.
Some garden apartment buildings place a one-car
 garage under each apartment. The grounds are
more landscaped than for other modestly scaled
Konversi lahan sawah menjadi perumahan, terjadi di kawasan pinggiran kota

  Foto . Marno-2010
 Pembangunan kawasan pusat pasar di pinggiran kota dilakukan dnegan
m,engkonversi lahan sawah irigasi yang produktif. Land development yang
       mengorbankan jasa-jasa lingkungan dari ekosistem sawah

Foto . Marno-2011
                                Sebagai ekosistem alam, DAS merupakan unit hidrologi (tata air)
 Integrated Land                  yang berperan sebagai integrator dan indikator terbaik untuk
   Development                                       pengelolaan DAS.
 Project - ILD to
improve land use
     and water
 efficiency in the

 Integrated land
development is a
      key of
management and
should be tested
in a pilot project
       Lessons In Sustainable Land
Increased rates of deforestation, unsustainable agricultural
     land use, and severe soil degradation are creating
   widespread poverty and environmental degradation in
                   developing countries.
  Each day; the world loses about 125 square miles of its
That’s 34.5 million acres or 14 million hectares every year
Most of this takes place in the developing countries of the
 humid tropics. Reforestation efforts are limited to only
  about 10% of the total area and most efforts are not
      Lessons In Sustainable Land

 Every year, the equivalent of 40 billion tons
    of carbon dioxide enters the global
atmosphere, the result of the ever-increasing
              use of fossil fuels.
   This increase in atmospheric carbon, in
  combination with the loss of forests has
  combined to make global climate change
      Lessons In Sustainable Land
 The adoption of sustainable agriculture is often
   proposed as a solution to these problems.
     Sustainable agriculture is concerned with
agricultural practices that are economically viable,
 meet human needs for food, are environmentally
        friendly, and improve quality of life.
 Agroforestry is one such land use practice that
      maintains sustainability at its core.
        Lessons In Sustainable Land
 Deforestation is a major unsustainable land use practice.
     Yet little is being done to address its economic,
           environmental and ecological impact.
Clear-cut logging, uncontrolled brush and forest fires, and
 traditional slash and burn agricultural techniques have
   damaged the environment as well as the agricultural
                      resource base.
Additionally, every year, reforestation efforts that intend to
  help communities are actually assisting in planting the
wrong types of tree species, resulting in long term damage.
This concerns all of us, especially the families who rely on
  trees for the basic necessities of life: fuel, water, food,
         building materials, and the air we breathe.
        Lessons In Sustainable Land
 Deforestation is a major unsustainable land use practice.
     Yet little is being done to address its economic,
           environmental and ecological impact.
 Clear-cut logging, uncontrolled brush and forest fires, and
   traditional slash and burn agricultural techniques have
     damaged the environment as well as the agricultural
resource base. Additionally, every year, reforestation efforts
  that intend to help communities are actually assisting in
 planting the wrong types of tree species, resulting in long
                        term damage.
This concerns all of us, especially the families who rely on
  trees for the basic necessities of life: fuel, water, food,
         building materials, and the air we breathe.
 Cutting trees is NOT a bad thing. Trees are
an important resource for everyone on earth.
The problem is when people cut trees but do
              not replant them.
 Trees are cut for many reasons. Industries
  based on construction and making items
 such as furniture (beds, tables) are- always
     in need of valuable hardwood trees.
 Lessons In Sustainable Land Development

Wood (sometimes in the form of charcoal) is
  the major source of cooking fuel for over
    half of the world (FAO 1999). Because
 populations and industries in every country
   are growing, there is always a growing
        pressure on forest resources.
Slash-and-burn agriculture, characterized by
periodic burning of the land both to get rid of
weeds and to use the ash as fertilizer, is also
 contributing to the rapid loss of the world’s
Lessons In Sustainable Land Development

  Brush and forest fires not only inhibit the
regeneration of tree seedlings (though some
 grasses, trees and shrubs have evolved the
  ability to regenerate after fires), they also
destroy what little organic matter remains in
                     the soil.
   Fires are often caused by smoking and
  cigarettes, unskilled beeking techniques,
    and uncontrolled burning of fields for
            cultivation and grazing.
                                  Lahan Kritis merupakan lahan yang keadaan fisiknya
OVERGRAZING IS                 demikian rupa sehingga lahan tersebut tidak dapat berfungsi
     BAD                        secara baik sesuai dengan peruntukannya sebagai media
                                        produksi maupun sebagai media tata air.

  Overgrazing is another
    major cause of land
degradation. Communities
 all over the world rely on
animals for food, fiber, and
 Herding animals through
   grazing lands, if done
  correctly, is a viable way
to produce livestock, but it
 is seldom done correctly.
   There are always too
 many animals in too little
    space, trampling the
  ground and eating all of
 the vegetation, including
       tree seedlings.

                  OVERGRAZING IS BAD

  While animals do leave their manure in the places they
  graze (contributing something positive to the soil) the
    overall effect of overgrazing is highly detrimental.
 Especially destructive are the grazing habits of goats,
whose small lips (unlike those of a cow) can graze a plant
  or even seedling down to the soil. preventing it from
Overgrazing also results in soil erosion; stripping the most
 fertile top soil and with it much of the soil organic matter,
           further reducing the land’s productivity.
                           Sengon kami yang ditanam 3 tahun yang lalu ,akhirnya kami jual
SOME TREES CAUSE             , untuk biaya mengembangkan kebun ini. Harga borongan,
   LONG TERM                Rp.50.000/tanaman , ada 800 tanaman . Ada yang diameter 25
    DAMAGE                                cm dan ada yang diameter 15 cm .

In the global program of
  Trees for the Future,
  we provide seeds of
   multi-purpose, fast-
 growing (MPFG) trees.

In order to extend the
  program into many
climatic zones, and to
make it more beneficial
to the participants, we
are constantly looking
for promising species,
 but we approach this
  with a great of care
     when making


 Eucalyptus trees grow rapidly into true trees at a wide range of
           elevations, soils, and climatic conditions.

They sustainably produce fuelwood and timber suitable for many
  local construction needs, and they produce oil used in some
                medications and other products,

But eucalyptus trees do not lend themselves to sustainable land
   management systems (Lisanework and Michelson, 1993).
SOME TREES CAUSE LONG             . More than 4 billion Eucalyptus trees of
    TERM DAMAGE                     over 150 species grow in the different
                                              climates of Brazil.
 Farmers quickly discovered
  that eucalyptus trees are
 causing problems with their
 roots by taking all available
   water and nutrients from
neighboring trees and crops,
 and also their leaves, which
blanket the ground, inhibiting
         new growth.

 Eucalyptus trees inhibit the
 growth of other vegetation,
exposing soils to erosion, and
  causing lakes and ground
 water to disappear with their
      aggressive roots.

Pine trees which are planted throughout much of the world
for their valuable timber present a similar problem. Beneath
pine trees, you will rarely find a productive understory; you
   tend to find a blanket of acidic needles that inhibit the
                     growth of everything.
      The needles are also a great fuel for forest fires.

Pine trees do have their benefits, but like eucalyptus trees,
      they do not lend themselves to sustainable land
management systems. These trees can leave soils in much
       worse condition than when they were planted.
SOME TREES CAUSE           Aneka jenis tanaman sela dapat ditanam di antara
LONG TERM DAMAGE            barisan tegakan sengon hingga umur 4 tahun

In any program of Trees
     for the Future,

      it encourage
  communities to plant
    multipurpose fast
  growing trees that not
   only produce useful
 products within a short
 but also encourage the
  growth of field crops,
 vegetables, and other
vegetation around them.

                  WATER AND SOIL
  Chemical fertilizers and insecticides are unsustainable,
 temporary solutions that rarely improve the quality of the
soil. Pesticides often kill many of the insects and microbes
       in soils that are needed for natural processes.
There are, in fact, many beneficial insects that eat many of
  the pest insects, but most insecticides kill everything
 Furthermore, insecticides get concentrated from smaller
  insects to the larger animals that eat them, ultimately
             poisoning the entire food chain.
  Alternatives to pesticide use entail (1) giving crops the
strength they need to resist infestation by adding nutrients
and organic matter to the soil, and (2) using Integrated Pest
   Management techniques that ward off and kill insects.
                WATER AND SOIL
  Fertilizers also cause long term damage, and are often
          inadequate in their nutrient composition.
    Soil need rich organic matter in the form of humus,
                   compost, manure, etc.
  Commercial fertilizers, often in the form of NPK pellets,
 contain just nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus. These
are three of the major nutrients, but there are also plenty of
other nutrients – such as manganese, iron, boron, zinc, and
   copper – that chemical fertilizers tend not to contain.
 Furthermore, rains can immediately leach these chemical
      fertilizers down through the soil, contaminating
 groundwater and forcing farmers to apply more fertilizer
                         every year.
                SOIL AND FERTILIZER
 Green manures are sustainable alternatives to chemical
     Agricultural crops which received green manure of
Gliricidia sepium (kakawate) yielded 9.5 tons per hectare of
                  corn in Oromia, Ethiopia.
  A similar yield was obtained from plots which received
 green manure of ipil-ipil and Leucaena diversifalia, but a
   significantly ‘reduced yield was obtained from plots
   receiving recommended levels of chemical fertilizer.
  This implies that the use of multipurpose fast growing
agroforestry species as a green manure can boost grain
 production over levels obtained from chemical fertilizer.
Additionally, the multipurpose species provide the farmer
   with fruit, fuelwood, fodder and construction wood.
Penutup tanah memberikan
 berbagai keuntungan yaitu
 meningkatkan kesuburan
      tanah, melindungi
    permukaan tanah dari
 bahaya erosi, memperbaiki
    sifat-sifat tanah akibat
  pembakaran, mendorong
   pertumbuhan tanaman,
menekan serangan penyakit
  jamur akar, dan menekan
biaya pengendalian gulma.
Nilai lahan sawah dipengaruhi oleh rencana tata    The effects of potential
                 ruang daerah
                                                    land development on
                                                   agricultural land prices

                                                  We conduct a national-scale analysis
                                                   of the determinants of agricultural
                                                               land values.
                                                    The empirical model of agricultural
                                                  land prices is estimated with a cross-
                                                      section on approximately three
                                                  thousand counties in the contiguous
                                                   The results provide evidence that
                                                     option values associated with
                                                    irreversible and uncertain land
                                                   development are capitalized into
                                                        current farmland values.
                                                  For each county, we decompose the
                                                   current agricultural land value into
                                                   components measuring rents from
                                                    agricultural production and rents
Foto . Marno-2011
                                                     from future land development.
 Agricultural Land Values
   the Value of Rights to
 Future Land Development
Effects of future land development
on current agricultural land values.
 From a theoretical model of land
markets, we derive a reduced-form
 expression for agricultural land
   values in terms of observable

The estimated model, together with
a spatial interpolation algorithm, is
   used to generate a surface of
   estimated development rights
     values for Orange County.
                                         Pembangunan jalan telah meningkatkan
This approach overcomes several           harga lahan sawah di sekitarnya dan
problems that arise with the use of         mendorong konversinya menjadi
  standard appraisal methods to                     penggunaan lain
  value conservation easements.
                                        Foto . Marno-2010

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