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TAMS Technical Report June 2009 R5

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TAMS Technical Report June 2009 R5 Powered By Docstoc
					                     SAARF

Television Audience Measurement Survey




 S A A R F T A M S® JUNE 2010


     TECHNICAL REPORT                                                        Revision: 5
  ............................................................................31 June 2010
                                                         TABLE OF CONTENTS

COPYRIGHT ......................................................................................................................... 1
EXCLUSION OF CLAIMS ...................................................................................................... 1
SAARF OBJECTIVES AND BUSINESS................................................................................. 1
SAARF MANAGEMENT ........................................................................................................ 2
SAARF COUNCILS ............................................................................................................... 2
SAARF WEBSITE ADDRESS ................................................................................................ 2

1.        BRIEF HISTORY OF SAARF TAMS® ................................................................... 3 - 8

          1.1       Before PeopleMeters ................................................................................. 3
                     st
          1.2       1 SAARF Tender and AC Nielsen Dis-Invests 1986 ............................... 3
          1.3       Mark 1 PeopleMeter 1989 ......................................................................... 3
          1.4       Industry Acceptance .................................................................................. 3
          1.5       Mark 2 PeopleMeter 1991 ......................................................................... 3
          1.6       Black Market Meter Panel 1991 ................................................................ 4
          1.7       Limitation of Coverage .............................................................................. 4
          1.8       The Next Generation of PeopleMeters 1998 ............................................. 4
          1.9       Eurometer 1999 ......................................................................................... 4
          1.10      PC Tips and Eurometer Panel 2000.......................................................... 4
          1.11      2001 ........................................................................................................... 4
          1.12      Measuring Digital Satellite Channels 2001 ............................................... 4
          1.13      Measuring DSTV Satellite in Total – 2001 ................................................ 5
          1.14      Measuring DSTV Satellite – by Channel 2002 .......................................... 5
          1.15      OATS Augmented Satellite Panel 2002 .................................................... 5
          1.16      Nielsen Media Research Established........................................................ 5
          1.17      Only Multichoice DSTV Measured 2001 – 2008 ....................................... 5
                                                            ®
          1.18      SAARF Universal SU-LSM ..................................................................... 5
          1.19      Merger between AGB Italia and Nielsen Media Research and the New
                                        ®
                    SAARF TAMS Contract 2005 .................................................................. 5
                                                                        ®
          1.20      Recent Changes to SAARF TAMS Panel 2005 – 2009 .......................... 6

2.        CURRENT METHODOLOGY AND PROCESSES – 2009 ................................... 9 - 11

          2.1       Universe .................................................................................................... 9
          2.2       Sample Design .......................................................................................... 9
                                     ®
          2.3       SAARF AMPS : the Establishment Survey.............................................. 9
          2.4       Coverage of Satellite Households 2009 .................................................. 10
          2.5       Panel Turnover and Renewal .................................................................. 10
                                                            ®
          2.6       Growth of the SAARF TAMS Panel ....................................................... 11

3.        DEFINITION OF TERMS ................................................................................... 12 - 26

          3.1       Adult ........................................................................................................ 12
          3.2       AQH ......................................................................................................... 12
          3.3       ASO ......................................................................................................... 12
          3.4       ASR ......................................................................................................... 12
          3.5       ATS .......................................................................................................... 12
          3.6       Audience Share ....................................................................................... 12
          3.7       Avail ......................................................................................................... 12
          3.8       BARB (UK) .............................................................................................. 12
          3.9       Bouquet ................................................................................................... 12
          3.10      Break Position ......................................................................................... 12




                                                                                                                                         i
3.11   Cable TV System..................................................................................... 12
3.12   CAPI ........................................................................................................ 13
3.13   CATI ........................................................................................................ 13
3.14   Children ................................................................................................... 13
3.15   Churn (Rate) ............................................................................................ 13
3.16   Commercial and Programme Logs .......................................................... 13
3.17   Concurrent Viewing ................................................................................. 13
3.18   Consolidated Audience ........................................................................... 13
3.19   Consolidated Viewing .............................................................................. 14
3.20   Content Provider / Supplier ..................................................................... 14
3.21   Cost Efficiency ......................................................................................... 14
3.22   Cover ....................................................................................................... 14
3.23   CPP/CPRP .............................................................................................. 14
3.24   CPT/CPM ................................................................................................ 14
3.25   Criterion of Viewing ................................................................................. 14
3.26   Daypart .................................................................................................... 14
3.27   Decoder ................................................................................................... 15
3.28   DSO ......................................................................................................... 15
3.29   Disaggregated Viewing Data ................................................................... 15
3.30   Disproportional Sampling ........................................................................ 15
3.31   Effective Frequency ................................................................................. 15
3.32   Effective Reach ....................................................................................... 15
3.33   Enforced (panel) Turnover ...................................................................... 15
3.34   Engagement ............................................................................................ 15
3.35   Event Types ............................................................................................. 15
3.36   Exclusive Reach ...................................................................................... 16
3.37   Fragmentation (Audience) ....................................................................... 16
3.38   Frequency................................................................................................ 16
3.39   Gold Standard ......................................................................................... 16
3.40   Good Households or Respondents………………………………………… 16
3.41   GRP ......................................................................................................... 16
3.42   Home Language ...................................................................................... 16
3.43   Household Purchaser .............................................................................. 16
3.44   Housewife ................................................................................................ 16
3.45   HUT ......................................................................................................... 17
3.46   Individual Viewing Statements ................................................................ 17
3.47   Lead-in / Lead-out ................................................................................... 17
3.48   Linear TV ................................................................................................. 17
3.49   Live Audience .......................................................................................... 17
3.50   Main Purchaser ....................................................................................... 17
3.51   Makegood ................................................................................................ 17
3.52   Media Dependent .................................................................................... 17
3.53   Media Independent .................................................................................. 17
3.54   Net Daily Reporting Sample (in-tab sample) ........................................... 18
3.55   OTS ......................................................................................................... 18
3.56   Out of Home Viewing............................................................................... 18
3.57   Overnight Viewing Data ........................................................................... 18
3.58   Panel Balance ......................................................................................... 18
3.59   Panel Fatigue .......................................................................................... 18
3.60   Panel Maintenance .................................................................................. 18
3.61   Patronage ................................................................................................ 18
3.62   Penetration (medium / channel) .............................................................. 18
3.63   PeopleMeter ............................................................................................ 19
3.64   Personal Meters ...................................................................................... 19
3.65   Person Viewing........................................................................................ 19
3.66   Picture Matching ...................................................................................... 19




                                                                                                                          ii
     3.67    Podcast .................................................................................................... 19
     3.68    Polled Sample ......................................................................................... 19
     3.69    Polling ...................................................................................................... 19
     3.70    Pollux ....................................................................................................... 19
     3.71    Position in Break...................................................................................... 20
     3.72    Post (campaign) Evaluation .................................................................... 20
     3.73    PPM ......................................................................................................... 20
     3.74    Primetime ................................................................................................ 20
     3.75    Processed Viewing Statements ............................................................... 20
     3.76    Product Placement .................................................................................. 20
     3.77    Profile (adhesion) .................................................................................... 20
     3.78    Programme Genre ................................................................................... 20
     3.79    Programme Loyalty ................................................................................. 20
     3.80    PUT ......................................................................................................... 20
     3.81    PVR ......................................................................................................... 21
     3.82    Random Sample ...................................................................................... 21
     3.83    Rating [TV] ............................................................................................... 21
     3.84    Reach (or Cover / Cume) ........................................................................ 22
     3.85    Reporting Homes..................................................................................... 22
     3.86    Response Bias ........................................................................................ 23
     3.87    Return Path ............................................................................................. 23
     3.88    Return Path Data (or ‘Click Stream’ Data) .............................................. 23
     3.89    RIM Weighting ......................................................................................... 23
                                                   ®
     3.90    SAARF Universal LSM’s (Living Standards Measure) .......................... 23
     3.91    Sales House ............................................................................................ 23
     3.92    Sample .................................................................................................... 23
     3.93    Sample Error ........................................................................................... 23
     3.94    Sample Size ............................................................................................ 23
     3.95    Sample Frame ......................................................................................... 24
     3.96    SI ............................................................................................................. 24
     3.97    Slave Meter ............................................................................................. 24
     3.98    Solo-Viewing ............................................................................................ 24
     3.99    Standard Error ......................................................................................... 24
     3.100   SAP ......................................................................................................... 24
     3.101   STB .......................................................................................................... 24
     3.102   Stratification ............................................................................................. 24
     3.103   Target Market (or Target Audience) ........................................................ 24
     3.104   TSV .......................................................................................................... 25
     3.105   Trick Mode ............................................................................................... 25
     3.106   TVEvents System .................................................................................... 25
     3.107   Uncovered Viewing / Set Use .................................................................. 25
     3.108   Unidentified Channel Viewing ................................................................. 25
     3.109   Visitors (also known as Guest Viewing) .................................................. 25
     3.110   VOD ......................................................................................................... 25
     3.111   VOSDAL .................................................................................................. 25
     3.112   Wearout ................................................................................................... 25
     3.113   Weight Factor .......................................................................................... 26
     3.114   Within Programme Break ........................................................................ 26
     3.115   Zapping .................................................................................................... 26
     3.116   Zipping ..................................................................................................... 26

4.   HARDWARE DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION .............................................. 27 - 30
                                   ®
     4.1     SAARF TAMS Panel Uses 2 Different PeopleMeters ........................... 27
     4.2     Eurometer ................................................................................................ 27
     4.3     An ‘Intrusive’ Installation .......................................................................... 27




                                                                                                                                   iii
      4.4       Eurometer Function ................................................................................. 27
      4.5       TVM 5 System Description ...................................................................... 28
      4.6       TVM 5 Principles of Measurement .......................................................... 29

5.    SOFTWARE ...................................................................................................... 31 - 33

      5.1       Pollux Processing Software:                Overview................................................... 31
      5.2       Pollux Processing Software:                Architecture .............................................. 31
      5.3       Pollux Processing Software:                Production Process .................................. 32
      5.4       Pollux Processing Software:                Production Process Flow Chart ................ 33

6.    DAILY PROCESSING CYCLE .................................................................................. 34

      6.1       Data Collection ........................................................................................ 34
      6.2       Daily Polling Record ................................................................................ 34
      6.3       Validation Report Log .............................................................................. 34
      6.4       TVEvents and Independent Broadcast Log ............................................ 34

7.    DAILY WEIGHTING AND PANEL BALANCING ................................................ 35 - 36

      7.1       Daily RIM Weighting: Household Pre-Weight ........................................ 35
      7.2       Daily RIM Weighting: Individuals ............................................................ 35
      7.3       RIM Weights and the Disproportionate Sample ...................................... 36
      7.4       Universe Updates .................................................................................... 36
      7.5       Role of Phone Counselors and the Monthly ‘Update’ ............................. 36

8.    DAILY REPORTING CYCLE .................................................................................... 37

      8.1       Overview .................................................................................................. 37

9.    THE EDIT RULES .................................................................................................... 38

      9.1       Current Edit Rules ................................................................................... 38

10.   REPORTS TO INDUSTRY ....................................................................................... 39

      10.1      Weekly Report ......................................................................................... 39
      10.2      Monthly Cume Channel Reach Report ................................................... 39

11.   COSTS REFERENCE FOR TV BROADCASTERS AND 3RD PARTY
      PROCESSORS ................................................................................................. 40 - 43

      11.1      Overview .................................................................................................. 40
      11.2      LCA Levy Collection ................................................................................ 40
      11.3      TV Broadcasters Requiring Additional Services ..................................... 40
      11.4      Current TVEvents Channel List which the system is Identifying
                June 2009 ................................................................................................ 40
                 rd
      11.5      3 Party TV Analysis Software Companies (incl. media Auditing
                Companies) ............................................................................................. 42

12.   “GOLD STANDARD” METHODOLOGY ALGORITHMS .................................... 44 - 47

      12.1      Overview .................................................................................................. 44
      12.2      General Principles in Regard to the Reach Algorithm ............................. 44




                                                                                                                                 iv
         12.3     TV Rating (also known as ‘AMR’, Average Minute Rating) ..................... 45
         12.4     ATV (Average Time Viewed) ................................................................... 45
         12.5     ATS (Average Time Spent) ..................................................................... 46
         12.6     TVR (Total Television Rating) ................................................................. 46
         12.7     SHR (Share) ............................................................................................ 46
         12.8     RCH (Reach) ........................................................................................... 47
         12.9     Coverage [Synonyms: Reach 1+, Cumulated audiences] ..................... 47
         12.10    Effective Reach (n+, n-m) [Synonyms: effective reach, reach n+] ......... 47

13.      POST EVALUATION ......................................................................................... 48 - 49

         13.1     GRP (Gross Rating Point) ....................................................................... 48
         13.2     GRP per Spot .......................................................................................... 48
         13.3     Reach [Synonyms: reach 1+, cume reach] ............................................ 48
         13.4     OTS (Opportunity to see) ........................................................................ 49
         13.5     Cost / GRP – Cost per 000 ...................................................................... 49
         13.6     30” CPP (Equivalent Cost per Point) ....................................................... 49

ANNEXURES

Annexure 1        Recruitment Questionnaire
Annexure 2        Monthly Updates Questionnaire
Annexure 3        Recruitment Show Cards
Annexure 4        Monthly Cume Channel Reach Report



Prepared by AGB Nielsen Media Research South Africa




                                                                                                                                v
Copyright
The copyright of this report is reserved under the Copyright Act of the Republic of South Africa.

No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means or used in any form by persons or organisations other than
members of the South African Advertising Research Foundation (SAARF) without the prior written permission of the
Chief Executive Officer of the Foundation.

Any person who reproduces or publishes information from any SAARF report should make clear reference to the source
of such information and should lodge a copy or details of the material reproduced or published with the Chief Executive
Officer of the Foundation at the time of its release.

No use or attempted use of data published in or derived from any SAARF report in a court of law is permissible. SAARF
data may not be used in governmental proceedings except with the explicit permission of SAARF; such permission shall
be sought in advance for clearly defined purposes separately in every instance.

Exclusion of claims

Despite all reasonable efforts to ensure accuracy in the assembling of information and data or the compilation thereof,
SAARF is unable to warrant the accuracy of the information, data and compilations as contained on its website, as well
as contained in any database, electronic report or publication for which it is responsible. Accordingly, no guarantee or
representation is given by SAARF as to the accuracy or validity of such information, data or compilations. Users of its
website or any of its databases or electronic reports as well as readers of any SAARF publication are deemed to have
waived and renounced all rights to any claim against SAARF, its officers, servants or agents for any loss or damage of
any nature whatsoever arising from any use or reliance upon such information, data or compilations.

SAARF Objectives and Business

The Main Business of the Company:

SAARF is tasked with facilitating, coordinating and determining the joint industry research needs of its stake holders and
to ensure that these needs are met within the limitations of the funding available for this activity.

SAARF is an independent authority, acting as the custodian of the currency and a clearing house for industry research.

To carry out this mandate, SAARF must keep track of local and international developments, ensure that new approaches
are explored and developed, and that the necessary joint industry research programmes, which accurately reflect South
African society, are implemented, managed and monitored.

The Main Object of the Company:

To provide tools for targeting and segmentation of markets as well as to establish, commission and manage
comprehensive, valid, reliable, continuous media audience and product usage research, surveys, investigations and
reports, that provide comparable multi-media and multi-product / brand usage information that reflect the totality and
complexity of the South African society.

The Ancillary Objects of the Company:

1.     To co-ordinate joint industry research amongst the advertising, marketing and media industries.
2.     To investigate any research techniques whether in practice or proposed and to establish the degree of validity and
       reliability of the results obtained thereby ; to seek improved methods in media audience and product usage
       research and to provide improved tools for targeting and segmentation of markets.
3.     To act as a liaison between the advertising, marketing and media industry and universities, government and other
       official bodies involved in any form of education or research related to media audience, demographic and product
       usage research as well as tools for targeting and segmentation of markets.




                                                                                                             Page 1
4.     To arrange seminars and courses directly or indirectly sponsored by the South African Advertising Research
       Foundation on any or all aspects of advertising, media or market research as well as tools for targeting and
       segmentation of markets.
5.     To act as mouth piece of the industry on matters pertaining to media audience and product usage research as well
       as tools for targeting and segmentation of markets.
6.     To promote and maintain fair, reasonable and proper standards of media audience and product usage research as
       well as for tools for targeting and segmentation of markets.
7.     To maintain and augment a library containing information concerning media audience, product usage, and related
       research as well as on tools for targeting and segmentation of markets, and to make it assessable to members,
       students and the general public.
8.     To do all such other acts, including the publication in print or electronic format, of books, memoranda journals,
       magazines, circulars, reports and any documents or databases as the South African Advertising Research
       Foundation may consider expedient to promote the interests of members.
9.     Likewise to do all things and carry on any activity related, connected or associated with any of the above objects
       and purposes.
10.    To finance the operations of the company by engaging in any lawful activity, which may generate funding for the
       company.

SAARF Management
Responsibility for the management of SAARF affairs rests with a Board of Directors, representing the members of the
Foundation - The Marketing Association of South Africa; Print Media SA; the National Association of Broadcasters;
Cinemark; Out of Home Media South Africa; the Association for Communication and Advertising and the Advertising
Media Forum; OPA (Online Publishers Association) - together with the Chief Executive Officer, Paul Haupt, under the
independent chairmanship of Sarel du Plessis.

SAARF Councils
“The SAARF board of directors is the highest SAARF authority. It consists of directors nominated by all SAARF stake
holders namely media owners, advertisers and advertising agencies.

Much of the work done by SAARF is guided by a series of councils. The SAARF advisory council is involved with all
aspects of the operation of SAARF. With the exception of the permanent staff members of SAARF who serve on the
council, it also consists of representatives of the marketing, media, advertising industry and SAARF’s contractors. The
councils mandate is to advise the SAARF board on what research should be undertaken and in instances where the
necessary authority has been delegated to it, to decide on details. In addition, a number of research experts serve on this
council to advise on how research should be carried out.

Because of the complexity of media audience and the product purchasing and usage research, a series of councils for each
medium and for product research exists to advise the SAARF management on details of research in the relevant area.
The SAARF Demographic Research Committee of the Bureau of Marketing Research (BMR) of the University of South
Africa (UNISA) advises on demographic aspects of the population and annually adjusts the estimates of the size and
composition of the South African Population, which are used in the SAARF surveys.

The SAARF board and all the SAARF councils operate on a voluntary basis.”

SAARF Website address
To view further information regarding SAARF, please log on to our official website: www.saarf.co.za




                                                                                                             Page 2
1.       Brief History of SAARF TAMS®
1.1      Before PeopleMeters

Prior to TV audiences being measured via meters in South Africa, quarterly TV Diaries were used in the same way as
radio diaries are used to measure radio today.

During June/July 1986 SAARF conducted discussions with the principle hardware manufacturers and also with suppliers
of ‘Peoplemeter’ research in the USA, the UK and Europe. SAARF decided that existing systems could cope with the
requirements of estimating the size of TV audiences rapidly, reliably and validly using electronic meters. Significantly,
SAARF also came to the conclusion that further technical improvements of a revolutionary nature were unlikely in the
short to medium term.

1.2      1st SAARF Tender and ACNielsen Dis-Invests 1986

SAARF prepared a comprehensive specification for the AMPS™ Meter System [now the SAARF Television Audience
Measurement Survey: SAARF TAMS®] and the contract was awarded to ACNielsen during the mid 1980’s. However,
after political unrest during 1986, ACNielsen dis-invested and IBIS, the company that reverted back to ACNielsen a few
years later, took over their local interests, including the television metering contract. Because of international sanctions,
SAARF and IBIS had no other choice but to develop a meter locally, and the software to operate it.

1.3      Mark 1 PeopleMeter 1989

The initial hardware could only be used in households with mains electricity and a telephone served by an automatic
exchange: because of a relatively low penetration of telephones in black households, this Mark 1 meter panel therefore
consisted of White, Coloured and Indian TV households with mains electricity and automatic telephones. As a result the
total TV coverage was as follows:-

                   %
Whites            81,5
Coloureds         62,8
Indians           75,0
Blacks             0,0

The first weekly report was cleared for release in July 1989.

1.4      Industry Acceptance
This new TV currency was quickly grasped by the media planning industry and the broadcasters. Soon SAARF was
asked to look at extending the AMPS™ Meter System to black TV households.

1.5      Mark 2 PeopleMeter 1991
In 1991 the Mark 2 meter was locally developed. This could operate not only with automatic telephone exchanges but
also via radio transmitters in households without telephones. The daily viewing data in non-telephone households was
transmitted by radio to a ‘host’ meter in an automatic telephone household. The ‘host’ telephone line would then send the
viewing data for both the ‘host’ and any linked non-telephone household. The ‘host’ meter could be as far as 25 km
away, depending on the terrain.




                                                                                                               Page 3
1.6     Black Market Meter Panel 1991
The Mark 2 meter was an important breakthrough as it enabled SAARF to go ahead with the establishment of a Black
meter panel. In addition, SAARF was able to extend the Coloured, Indian and White coverage to include households
without automatic telephones.

1.7     Limitation of Coverage
However, in the case of Blacks, a decision was made to limit coverage to metropolitan areas, cities, large towns and small
towns. This was due to the low incidence of Black households with TV sets and mains electricity in villages and rural
areas, as well as the practical difficulties of finding suitable automatic telephone households to act as ‘hosts’.

1.8     The Next Generation of PeopleMeters 1998
By 1998 it had become clear that the Mark 1 and 2 meters had reached the end of their usable lifespan. Age, as well as
damaging electrical storms, had taken its toll and the declining number of usable meters was inhibiting the number of
reporting households. The problem was made worse by ACNielsen’s inability to source spares for the old technology
meters. Also, Y2K was looming, and this was in any event going to force ACNielsen to move off the mainframe software
to Y2K-compliant PC-based software. A decision was taken to switch to more modern meters in the awareness that they
would probably have to be sourced overseas. The whole process of moving off the old meters and changing to PC based
software was helped by the new dispensation in South Africa, the dropping of sanctions and the return of ACNielsen,
who bought back the IBIS operation.

1.9     Eurometer 1999
By early 1999 the necessary desk research had been completed and the decision taken to use the Finnish Eurometer from
Mitron and PCTips software from ACNielsen’s Systems Asia Pacific to collect and process the viewership data from the
SAARF TAMS® panel.

1.10 PCTips and Eurometer Panel 2000

By September 1999 ACNielsen had moved off the mainframe software and migrated to PCTips – at this time the old
Mark 1 and 2 meters were still in use. At the beginning of 2000 a separate panel of Eurometer households was
established for monitoring purposes. By mid March 2000 this panel of 200 reporting Eurometer households was merged
into the panel of existing Mark 1 and 2 households. At this time the old meters were failing quickly and by September of
2000 the decision was taken to remove all the old meters and to equip the whole panel with Eurometers.

1.11     2001

By early 2001, there were no old meters left in the system.

1.12     Measuring Digital Satellite Channels 2001

The advent of digital satellite TV posed worldwide measurement problems. This was new technology, and the developed
world was struggling with the challenge of measuring this service. SAARF took an early decision that SAARF TAMS ®
would not measure satellite households in South Africa until a technical solution had been found. Consequently, the
universe definition specifically excluded satellite households up to the end of 2000. The problem was that as DSTV
became more popular, the SAARF TAMS® universe was becoming more and more skewed away from the real TV
universe in South Africa.




                                                                                                            Page 4
1.13     Measuring DSTV Satellite in Total - 2001
During 2000 it was realized that DSTV could be measured as a single channel by recognizing the DSTV frequency in a
satellite household. Establishing this undifferentiated data from SAARF TAMS ® households with satellite reception was
termed Phase I, and was completed by week 01 of 2001. Phase 2 was achieved in July 2001 when ACNielsen was able to
separate out the various component channels making up DSTV, in order to merge the satellite ratings of all of the
terrestrial channels with their terrestrial ratings. Thus the MNET rating became a composite of the satellite rating added
to the terrestrial rating, and so on for SABC 1, SABC 2, etc.

1.14     Measuring DSTV Satellite – by Channel 2002

Phase 3 was achieved when the more robust commercial DSTV channels (those with larger audiences) could be reported
on separately. This took place from and including week 13 of 2002

1.15     OATS Augmented Satellite Panel 2002
Since satellite households were a small percentage of the total SAARF TAMS ® panel [11,4% January 2002] few
channels were sufficiently robust to be separately reported. Hence, in July 2001, Oracle Airtime Sales implemented
ACNielsen’s proposal to augment ‘naturally’ occurring satellite households on the panel, with a ‘booster’ panel of
randomly located satellite households to create a satellite ‘sub-panel’ of 300 households. During processing the enlarged
DSTV sample was down-weighted to its natural incidence.

1.16     Nielsen Media Research Established
By May 2002 ACNielsen and Nielsen Media Research had merged into a single global media measurement company,
under the original name of Nielsen Media Research.

1.17     Only Multichoice DSTV Measured 2001 – 2008
The current SAARF TAMS® Satellite panel refers to Multichoice DSTV households only [this is now in the process of
changing to all satellite households, as per SAARF TAMS® Council decision]. The universe excludes other satellite
delivery systems [such as Sentech’s Vivid system]. The SAARF AMPS® survey is the establishment survey for SAARF
TAMS®, and is used to define the SAARF TAMS® universe, and when this is done only Multichoice DSTV households
are allowed into the SAARF TAMS® universe at this stage.

1.18     SAARF Universal SU-LSM®
Finally, the old 8 point LSM scale from 1993 has given way to the new 10 point SAARF 2001 Universal LSM™ scale.
Over the years SAARF TAMS® and SAARF AMPS® had diverged in terms of their LSM definitions. SAARF TAMS® is
based on a survey of households; therefore only LSM variables based on household and not personal variables could be
used. The last time that the SAARF AMPS® LSM definitions had been defined in terms of household variables was in
1993, for this reason the SAARF TAMS® LSM definitions remained based on SAARF AMPS® 1993.

Now, the SU-LSM® definitions have reverted back to household criteria only, and therefore there is again complete
correspondence between SAARF AMPS®/RAMS® and TAMS® in terms of SU-LSM’s®. The 10 point SU-LSM® scale
was launched with the release of SAARF AMPS® 2001A.

1.19 Merger between AGB Italia and Nielsen Media Research and the SAARF TAMS®
     Contract of 2005

The previous SAARF TAMS® contract was to terminate in March 2006. Prior to that happening SAARF issued a 6 year
tender both locally and internationally. During this period, Nielsen Media Research and its major international TAMS®
competitor, AGB Italia, concluded a deal to merge their TAMS® interests, outside of North America.




                                                                                                             Page 5
The new company, AGB Nielsen Media Research is the major international research company specializing in and
focusing on measuring TV audiences. AGB Nielsen Media Research operates in 30 countries around the world, South
Africa being one of these.

The new company entered the race for the new SAARF TAMS ® contract and this was awarded to AGB Nielsen Media
Research during 2005.

This contract will terminate in March 2011.

1.20     Recent Changes to SAARF TAMS® Panel 2005 – 2009

The new SAARF TAMS® contract and the availability of world class TAMS® hardware and software made significant
changes possible to the way that the panel is managed and the way the data is reported.

1.20.1 Metering System

During the last half of 2005, the AGB TVM5 meter was installed in all DSTV satellite households on the panel. This
meter was probably the most advanced PeopleMeter in the world at the time, and was specifically chosen to meter the
more advanced households in terms of their TV viewing equipment, the availability of digital satellite and also the
myriad of ancillary equipment such as PC games, VCR’s and Video recorders.

1.20.2 Independent Broadcast Log

During 2005 the proprietary “TVEvents” system was installed. This system manages the download and capture onto
computer of all commercial TV broadcasts – the system runs 24x7, as all programmes and advertising spots must be
captured into the integrated database for a complete independent broadcast log.

Once the transmissions are captured, an independent broadcast log for each commercial channel is created, categorising
all programmes and the contents of each advertising break, along with the material flighting code of each spot.

A major advantage of this system is that it contains “Automatic Spot Recognition”. As every new advertising spot is
picked up by the system, a digital audio and visual signature is created for the spot. Every time this spot is flighted on
any TV channel, the ASR recognizes the spot and the system then includes the new flighting of the spot into the database
of transmitted spots, automatically.

The end result is an independent broadcast log which is the guarantee that each spot has either been broadcast correctly,
not broadcast or not properly broadcast [interrupted transmission etc.].

TVEvents went live in March 2006.

1.20.3 Move to Random Iterative Method (RIM) Weights

Also during 2005, at the urging of SAARF, SAARF TAMS® moved off the cell weight methodology to the RIM
methodology, for the daily weighting of the SAARF TAMS ® panel data.

Cell weights had traditionally been used in the research industry as this methodology was sound and had the advantage of
requiring little computing power at a time when computers were not powerful. The major disadvantage of the Cell system
is that it cannot re-weight a substantial set of variables since sample sizes of the individual cells reduce very quickly as
the number of variables increases.

With the coming of powerful PC’s and the need to re-weight samples by a substantial list of variables, the RIM
methodology recommended itself.

The methodology sequentially iterates through the various variables and re-weights these, coming ever closer to the best
weights for the sample for that day. The iterative process stops when the “fit” is closest to perfect.




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By early 2005 and after substantial testing, the SAARF TAMS® data was weighted daily by RIM methodology.

1.20.4 Move to Overnight Delivery of Ratings

During the 1970’s and 1980’s internationally, the switch was made from the 7 day Diary to measure TV, to a
“PeopleMeter” system. Almost all countries moved directly from the 7 day Diary to the delivery of Overnight TV ratings.

South Africa did not, we moved to a PeopleMeter system in 1989, but issued the data in weekly tranches, not Overnight.
The reasons were mainly due to indifferent telecommunications infra-structure [requiring more than 1 day to recover the
data from panel households] and the problems in maintaining panel households in a large country such as South Africa
[i.e. distance and time required to visit households].

However, it’s important to realise that whilst the data was issued weekly, in all other respects it was Overnight data i.e.
the data was processed daily and each day’s data was kept separate and not averaged into a week. In other words we were
issuing Overnight data, released a week at a time.

The new TAMS® contract changed all that:
     Advances in hardware and software made Overnights possible.
     GSM polling technology was much better than copper landline (GPRS proving even better than GSM).
     Broadcasters wanted Overnight data to track and respond to competitive programme lineup changes.
     Ad agencies wanted to track the progress of their campaigns and adjust advertising weight as the campaign
        progressed.
     The market wanted to respond to competitive advertising activity much quicker than possible under the weekly
        data regime.

Since July 2006, the TAMS® data has been issued on an Overnight basis.

It’s important to understand that Overnight delivery is not guaranteed: there have been instances where data has been
withheld for 1 day, because polling was not entirely successful [because of something out of the control of the contractor]
resulting in a low sample and possibly skewed data. Leaving 1 day extra to poll “late reporters” brings the sample back
up to acceptable levels, therefore no data is lost. (See 3.55 Overnight Viewing Data on page 18)

1.20.5 TV Broadcast Logs

The move to and availability of Overnight ratings lead to another improvement in the TAMS® service to the industry.
The post transmission “as run” broadcast logs were available too late for Overnight ratings delivery.

Two major things are required in delivering a TAMS® service:
    the audience ratings of the various TV channels, and
    the database of “events” that the channels broadcast, i.e. spots, programmes, sponsorships etc.

When these two things are merged, the data user then knows what the channel audience was at a point in time, but
crucially also what the audience was watching at that time.

Since 1989 the Event database was provided by the broadcasters and this was manually captured by the contractor. In
other words there was no independent audit of the veracity of the Event log or how accurate in time, it was.

More recently, it became clear that the major advertisers [and their media auditors] wanted an independent log of events,
so that they knew that spots were in fact broadcast, and that the independent broadcast log verified that the spot had in
fact been transmitted.

The output of TVEvents is therefore an independent and verified broadcast log, correct to the milli-second.




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                                                                    ®
1.20.6 Introduction of the Rural Component to the TAMS Universe

There had always been one omission from the SAARF TAMS® Universe, rural Black people.

The reasons were that the telecommunications infra-structure was neither robust enough nor widespread enough to
support daily polling of the market. Also, initially, the incidence of in-home TV sets was not widespread enough, nor was
the provision of mains electricity, which PeopleMeters require to operate.

By 2005 it was recognized that all of the problems had now disappeared. GSM mobile technology made daily polling
possible, Eskom had done a superb job in electrifying the rural areas, and therefore the incidence of in-home TV sets was
strongly increasing.

212 rural Black households were therefore recruited and installed, with the objective of having 180 good reporting
households, on a weekly basis.

The viewing data from this new market was extensively tested, found to be good, and the data was released to the
industry from early April 2006. Because the rural black households are under sampled [lack of choice of TV channel
justifies a smaller sample] the data are weighted back up to represent the universe accurately.

1.20.7 Inclusion of 4-6 Year Panel Members

Since 1989 the SAARF TAMS® panel had included all members in panel households from 7 years of age.

Children younger than 7 were captured in the processing software, but not for their viewing data but rather to identify
their mother.

Various SAARF stakeholders indicated that viewership 4-6 year olds was also needed. On investigation it was found that
the international protocol was in fact to measure all household members from 4 years and up [The contractor supplied
data to support this].

The decision was taken to also include the viewership of these children in panel households in the viewing data.

Training and counseling of all panel households who have young children commenced, their demographic data was
verified on the household master database and demographic member data was updated in each PeopleMeter in the
affected households.

Viewing data from the 4-6 year olds was thoroughly tested, and over time found to be good and representative.

As from early June 2008, the SAARF TAMS® Universe was updated to include 4-6 year olds and the viewing data from
the panel included all viewing data for members 4+ years of age.




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2.       Current Methodology and Processes – 2009
2.1      Universe

The daily SAARF TAMS® data comprises adults 16 years and older, and children in the panel households between the
ages 4-15. All panel households must be private with Eskom mains electricity and a working TV set/s.
The panel is fully national and reflects the TV viewership of all people in private households in metro areas, cities, towns,
villages and rural areas.
Out-of-home TV viewing is specifically not covered since the meter is not portable, as is the case in all international
TAMS® panels at this time.
Both telephone and non-telephone households are covered, each household is polled for the daily TV data either by
Telkom landline, FastNet or GSM / GPRS cellular.

2.2      Sample Design
The SAARF TAMS® panel sample is drawn via an area stratified probability design, names and addresses as well as
demographic data are sourced from AMPS® which is the establishment survey.
Substitution (with alternate addresses) is necessary in the following instances:-
     Refusals
     TV equipment beyond repair
     Dwelling structure precludes the installation of an outside aerial
     Electricity supply erratic or below required voltage

In these instances the nearest qualifying household in the area is recruited.
When recruiting a household, certain household information and demographics of all the household members is collected.
A suitable adult household member is interviewed for this purpose.
Constant updating of the Pollux household master database takes place through collection of required personal
information during servicing visits or phone counseling. In addition, systematic updates of the household data on one
twelfth of the panel households takes place monthly on a rotating basis, so that at any point in time household
information is never older than one year. The Recruitment Questionnaire1 and the Monthly Update Questionnaire2,
together with the Recruitment Show Cards3 [the Update Show Cards being essentially the same], and the Counseling
Report4 are attached as annexures 1, 2, 3 and 4.

During June 2009, it became apparent that panel household demographics were not being updated quickly enough,
particularly in times of economic change.

Consequently, the contractor has recommended interviewing the entire panel every six months. This process is being
piloted for CATI, the assumption being that ± 20% of households will still require a personal, face to face interview.

2.3      SAARF AMPS®: the Establishment Survey
Every television panel worldwide requires an ‘establishment survey’ which estimates the universe and sets down the
parameters under which the sample is designed.

SAARF TAMS® uses SAARF AMPS® as its establishment survey. This is released every 6 months and the SAARF
TAMS® Universe is adjusted each time, so remaining in sync with SAARF AMPS ® [i.e. the TAMS® Universe estimate
from SAARF AMPS®].




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2.4      Coverage of Satellite Households 2009
Currently, the satellite TV viewership data reflects the DSTV Multichoice platform only. All other satellite viewership is
specifically excluded, and is also not included in the universe i.e. the satellite universe is slightly smaller and the non-
satellite universe slightly larger than it would be if all satellite broadcasters were included.
Currently, there are + 460 satellite households installed on the panel, of which over 90% are good reporting households
on a weekly basis.

The above estimates include the SAARF DSTV panel of 173 installed DSTV households.

SAARF has taken the principal decision that the SAARF TAMS® panel universe will be expanded to include all satellite
broadcasters, thereby meeting its remit to establish and maintain the buying and selling “currency” for all TV
broadcasters.

The satellite universe will therefore be expanded to include the Sentech Vivid platform and the other new satellite
broadcasters as they begin broadcasting [Telkom Media, On Digital media and Walking on Water].

This means, in effect, that the universe estimates will be changed to reflect those universes of households that have access
to any satellite broadcaster in South Africa.

Whilst it has been the practice to use audited sales figures from Multichoice to update and adjust the SAARF AMPS ®
satellite universe estimates, this practice has now ceased: firstly because SAARF AMPS® is released twice a year
[meaning that more regular SAARF TAMS® universe updates are done], and secondly that having to use audited sales
figures from the other satellite broadcasters simultaneously, would soon degenerate into an unworkable situation in the
calculation of the total satellite universe.

Currently, digital satellite is measured in the following two ways:
     Service Information [SI] protocols from the contractor are integrated into the “firmware” running on the satellite
         decoders. The SI outputs the channel being viewed to the PeopleMeter [explaining why the decoder must be
         connected to the PeopleMeter].
     Secondly, ‘Banner Recognition’ enables the meter to detect which DSTV channel/s the decoder is tuned to.

The following Multichoice decoder types have had SI software written and are therefore able to be measured on the
SAARF TAMS® panel:
     720i
     “DualView” 800 series
     Various 9 series decoders

‘Banner Recognition’ will work on any decoder type.

Currently there is no SI integrated into the PVR decoder, although this has been requested from the media owner,
therefore PVR’s cannot currently be measured.

The plan is to include live viewing in PVR households and then to move to the UK “VOSDAL” methodology. This is
“Viewing on Same Day as Live”, meaning that all viewership in the PVR households will be captured every day
[including all live or delayed viewing up to the beginning of daily polling starting at 02H00 daily] and this viewing will
be uploaded for processing into the daily viewing statistics for every day.

2.5      Panel Turnover and Renewal
Panel members can gradually become dissatisfied with having a PeopleMeter in-home, also repeated counseling
sometimes cannot change household behaviour to make them into a “compliant” household – their TV viewing patterns
and/or use of the remote control unit drift away from their ‘real’ behaviour – and they have to be replaced. ‘Forcible’
replacement is not often required; most countries running a television panel rely on “natural attrition” to achieve renewal,
stemming from:-




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        -     Panelists moving residential address [possibly to a location where the household is not required].
        -     Removal and replacement of households demonstrating unsatisfactory ‘button pushing’ compliance, even
              after counseling.
        -     Removal of households showing generally poor co-operation.
        -     Removal of households with a suspended electricity service of more than 6 weeks duration [households
              with suspended land line service can be provided with a GSM meter connection].
        -     Removal of household with chronically broken/damaged TV set/s.

The SAARF TAMS® panel has, in addition, an element of forced rotation, in that approximately 100 of the oldest
households are removed from the panel per annum, and replaced by newly recruited households.

2.6      Growth of the SAARF TAMS® Panel
During early 1998, Tony Twyman, technical director of the Broadcasters Audience Research Board (BARB) in the UK,
visited South Africa at the invitation of SAARF to scrutinise the SAARF TAMS ® operation. One of his findings was that
the number of households actually reporting each week was too low to give consistently stable ratings, particularly when
precise target market definitions were used.

As a result plans were put in place to grow the SAARF TAMS ® weekly reporting panel from an average 550 to 1 200
households. This was achieved as mentioned under “Coverage of Satellite Households” with the DSTV panel
contributing a further 156 reporting DSTV households.

With the inclusion of the rural panel, the current ideal panel as at June 2009 is made up as follows. These estimates are all
weekly good reporting estimates.

                    Households             Representative Panel             DSTV                 TOTAL
              Non-Satellite                            1 000                        -             1 000
              Satellite                                  230                     156                 386
              Totals                                   1 230                     156              1 386




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3.      Definition of Terms
Users of SAARF TAMS® data should have a thorough knowledge of the following definitions, which will help them in
analysis of the data.

3.1     Adult

Currently an adult is a panel member of age 16 years or older. From AMPS 2009A an adult will be 15 years or older, and
SAARF TAMS® will follow suit.
The ages of all persons in the panel are automatically updated by the Pollux processing software on the anniversary of
their recorded birth dates.

This is why all babies on the panel are routinely recorded on the household master database, so as they age and
eventually turn 4 years of age, they automatically come onto the panel.

3.2     AQH

Average Quarter Hour denotes the average audience across quarter hour unit intervals.

3.3     ASO

Analogue Switch Off denotes the cessation of analogue broadcasts, to be replaced by digital broadcasts. In Europe, the
most usual ASO has been set to be between 2008 and 2012. In South Africa it is currently set for 2011.

3.4     ASR

Automatic Spot Recognition, a proprietary solution within the contractors TVEvents system. The ASR engine scans real
time digitized TV transmissions for commercials and stores these in a database of recognitions. The ASR works with
both video and audio algorithms, to maximize the level of recognition.

3.5     ATS

Average Time Spent viewing, the total sum of all recorded time spent viewing [e.g. minutes] across a given period [e.g.
day, week] divided by the number of individuals in the universe / population being measured. Also known as ATV
[Average Time Viewed].

3.6     Audience Share

Percentage of total TV viewing across a specified time interval of a given channel or programme.

3.7     Avail

Availability of a commercial position / time slot in a scheduled commercial break on a given TV channel / network that is
available for purchase by an advertiser

3.8     BARB (UK)
Broadcasters’ Audience Research Board, a Joint Industry Committee responsible for TAMS® data supply in the UK.




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3.9      Bouquet

A French term referring to the selection of general and thematic TV channels that are offered as a package to subscribing
households.

3.10     Break Position

Position of a commercial spot within a break e.g. first in break / last in break.

3.11     Cable TV System

Wired transmission system serviced by a cable operator, who receives TV transmission centrally and relays them to
subscribers via a cable headend across a cable network.

3.12     CAPI

Computer Assisted Personal Interview, a method of conducting face to face interviews with the use of a PC for
prompting questions and recording answers.

3.13     CATI

Computer Assisted Telephone Interview, a method of conducting interviews over the phone with the use of a PC for
prompting questions and recording answers.

3.14     Children

A child is a person of age 4-15 [from 2009 this changes to 4-14], living in a private households as defined in “Overall
Methodology – Universe”.
The ages of children on the panel are automatically updated daily, as with adults on the panel.

3.15     Churn (Rate)

Index of turnover applied to commercial pay-TV systems as a whole or to channel packages, especially premium pay-TV
services. An important indicator of pay-TV service performance, which is defined as the number of subscriber
disconnections during a set period divided by the average number of subscribers during that period. This produces an
annualized percentage.

3.16     Commercial and Programme Logs

A record of all commercials and programmes transmitted by TV channels, this information may be provided by the TV
channel itself or by an independent source; and is matched against the processed individual viewing statements so as to
permit viewing figures for specific commercials and programmes. The logs may contain additional information such as
typology codes [genres] and commercial flighting codes.

3.17     Concurrent Viewing
Same individual registered by a TAMS® meter as a viewer for two or more TV sets at the same time.

3.18     Consolidated Audience
The consolidated audience is the sum of the live and time shift audience.




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3.19     Consolidated Viewing

Sum of live and all time shift viewing of television transmissions within a set time interval after the transmissions.
(Note: definition allows for the same viewer to be counted more than once as a viewer of a transmission).

3.20     Content Provider / Supplier

A Company or organization responsible for creating content, whether movies, TV programming or interactive games
applications, etc.

3.21     Cost Efficiency

Financial performance measure of a schedule of advertising spots that is calculated by dividing the price paid, by the
audience delivery with reference to the target audience(s) of the advertising campaign. The principal measures of cost
efficiency are Cost Per Rating point (CPR) and Cost Per Thousand (CPT or CPM).

3.22     Cover

Measure of advertising reach, derivative terms like 1+ cover and 4+ cover denote the percentage of the target audience
that has been exposed to a schedule of advertising spots at least a certain number of times (e.g. at least once, or at least
four times, etc). (See also 3.83 Reach)

3.23     CPP / CPRP
Cost Per Rating Point, the average cost of achieving one commercial rating point (i.e. advertising GRP) with a 30 second
advertising spot (or other standard unit of airtime) for a given target audience. CPP’s are widely used as a measure of the
cost efficiency of advertising campaigns or for comparing price differences across different TV channels. The alternative
widely used measure of cost efficiency is Cost Per Thousand (CPT or CPM).

3.24     CPT / CPM
Cost Per Thousand or Cost Per Mille:
     Television: The average cost of achieving 1,000 commercial impacts against a specified target audience, and
         usually adjusted to a 30 second advertising spot length. CPTs / CPMs are widely used as a measure of the cost
         efficiency of advertising campaigns or for comparing price differences across different TV channels. The
         alternative widely used measure of cost efficiency is to advertising Cost Per Rating point (CPR or CPRP).
     Internet: Cost of achieving 1,000 ad impressions.

3.25     Criterion of Viewing

Panel members are requested to use the following definition of viewing to determine when they should log in or out:

         “TV viewing is being in a position where you are able to see the screen of a TV set which is switched.”

(See also 3.62 PeopleMeter and 3.103 TSV)

3.26     Daypart

Division of the broadcast day constitution a single timeband (e.g. early morning: 06.00-09.00; peak or prime time: 19.00-
23.00, etc.). Most TAMS® systems divide the day into eight dayparts (e.g. Early morning; Mid to late morning;
Lunchtime; Early to mid afternoon; Late afternoon; Peak / Prime time; Late evening; Night). The dayparts correspond
with broad variations in audience size and composition across the broadcast day.




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3.27     Decoder

Device (also called Converter) that decodes digital transmission signals and converts them for display on to the TV set.

3.28     DSO

Digital Switchover, the process of replacing analogue with digital TV broadcast, for which prior switch-off is a
prerequisite condition (see also 3.3 ASO).

3.29     Disaggregated Viewing Data

Same as Elementary or Respondent level viewing data - processed viewing data held at the level of individual
respondents. The basic components of disaggregated viewing data are individual viewing statements consisting of
complete time records across each broadcasting day off all viewing sessions by every family member and guest on all
metered TV sets in the home.

3.30     Disproportional Sampling

Sampling in which different sub-populations have different probabilities of selection, resulting in over-sampling / under-
sampling of some groups compared with others. Disproportional sampling by selected region(s) is quite common in
TAMS® research.

3.31     Effective Frequency

The level of exposure frequency at which reach is deemed “effectively” delivered.

3.32     Effective Reach

The number or percentage of a target audience that is exposed to a schedule of advertising spots at a set level frequency.
This will typically specify a lower threshold value indicating the minimum level of exposure deemed as sufficient for
“effective” advertising purposes (e.g. 4+ reach) and an upper threshold (e.g.12+ reach) above which additional exposures
are considered as waste

3.33     Enforced (panel) Turnover

Homes dropped from a panel on the initiative of the data supplier. The principal categories of enforced turnover are:
    turnover in order to preserve / improve panel balance,
    turnover to reduce panel age as a precaution against creeping panel bias and /or panel fatigue (with some
       TAMS® systems setting a maximum length of service), or
    turnover due to faulty compliance with panel viewing instructions.

3.34     Engagement

Broad terms / buzzword referring to user involvement in the media consumed.

3.35     Event Types
Classifications of broadcast types found in the TV environment. They can be major, like commercial and non-
commercial, or detailed like spot, sponsor, announcement or programme.




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3.36     Exclusive Reach

Individuals who, during the period of analysis, have watched only one channel for at least one minute.

3.37     Fragmentation (Audience)
When broad television audiences break into smaller segments due to multiple viewing choices and niche programming
that targets particular demographics.

3.38     Frequency
The average number of times that members of a target audience who have been counted at least once as viewers to a
schedule of advertising spots (or sequence of programmes), have counted as viewers.

3.39     Gold Standard

Industry declared correct audience value, most often used in connection with viewer ratings. The object of laying down
“gold standards” is to prevent disputes between buyers and sellers of commercial airtime over the correct audience
figures that have arisen on account of them using different software yielding estimates of viewing.

3.40     “Good” Households or Respondents

Every day the entire installed base of the SAARF panel is polled [to upload all meter data]. All of the polled households
are then subjected to the validation & edit rules, to make absolutely certain that all households in the released data for
that day, are “good”. IE: that they have been validated as providing good data that can be used to calculate the TV
audiences for that day. It follows that all members of a “good” household, are also “good”.
Its important to realize that a “good household” could be one with no viewing data for the previous day, as when that
household is away on holiday, or simply when no-one viewed TV.

3.41     GRP

Gross Rating Point, a unit of audience volume, which is based on the percentage of the target audience population that
has viewed a transmission across a unit interval [based on the second by second audience]. e.g. a GRP of 10 implies an
audience size that is equal to 10% of the audience being measured.

Meanwhile the total GRP delivery of a schedule of advertising spots is equal to the sum of commercial GRP / ratings
across all of the spots contained in the schedule.

GRP totals or averages may be estimated for a wide range of different time periods, programmes or commercial
selections. For the purposes of calculating GRP’s and making comparisons, commercial GRPs for each advertising spot
are typically adjusted to a standard 30 second spot interval [the so called 30 second equivalent]. (See also 3.82 Rating
[TV])

3.42     Home Language

For the purposes of the SAARF TAMS® panel, home language is a household variable, the classification resting on the
claim of the responsible adult being interviewed:
     English / Other              English or some non South African language
     Afrikaans / Both             Afrikaans or Afrikaans and English equally
     Sotho languages =             Sotho [North and South Sotho, Tswana, Venda, Tsonga]
         Nguni languages =          Nguni [Zulu, Xhosa, Swazi, Ndebele or other]




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When a guest registers viewership, the guest is deemed to be of the same language group as the household he / she is
viewing in.

3.43    Household Purchaser

Any respondent of either gender who claims to be solely or partly responsible for the day-to-day purchases of the
household, is described as a household purchaser.

There may be more than one person who could claim to be a “household purchaser” within any given household,
although only one would be interviewed.



3.44    Housewife

In previous SAARF AMPS™ reports, a housewife was defined as a female member of a household who claimed to be
solely, mainly or partly responsible for the household purchases. Since SAARF AMPS™ 93 “Female Housewives” have
been replaced by “Household Purchasers”.
NOTE: Data users, however, are able to apply a gender filter to “Household Purchasers”.

3.45    HUT

Homes Using TV, a term mainly used in the US that refers to the percentage of homes using (tuned in to) TV at a
particular time (see also 3.78 PUT).

3.46    Individual Viewing Statements

Converted meter records (raw data) after data processing (i.e. after editing, validation and assignment of weights into
summary statements of individual viewing over time. Each statement contains information concerning:
    start and end time of viewing session,
    identification of signal source and TV set being viewed,
    identity of viewer,
    coded demographic and other information about the individual’s identity, and
    the individual’s daily weight

Processed individual viewing statements constitute the basic components of disaggregated viewing data.

3.47    Lead-in / Lead-out

A programme preceding / following the time period of the programme being analysed.

3.48    Linear TV

Umbrella term for a real time television services that transmit programme schedules. Almost all broadcast TV services
count as linear TV, the main exception being Near Video-On-Demand (NVOD) transmissions of pay-per-view
programmes over a large number of channel feeds. The alternative non-linear TV covers all on-demand programming,
which is available to view at any time the user decides and not constrained by the real-time broadcast schedules. The
linear versus non-linear TV distinction may also be applied to the nature of viewing, whether it is live (linear) or time
shift (non-linear).

3.49    Live Audience

The audience of a commercial, daypart or programme at the time of its actual transmission.




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3.50     Main Purchaser

An adult claiming sole or main responsibility for the household shopping.

3.51     Makegood

Extra advertising spots in compensation of a scheduling error / alteration by the TV channel or failure to deliver an
audience guarantee target during the campaign period.

3.52     Media Dependent

Media planning / buying specialist dependent on a creative agency with common ownership.

3.53     Media Independent

Media planning / buying specialist on behalf of creative agencies under separate ownership.

3.54     Net Daily Reporting Sample (in-tab sample)
The final sample yielding audience measurement data on a given day after polling and validation is equal to the in
production sample, less households that were not successfully polled and households that were successfully polled but
rejected during validation for technical or behavioral reasons. (See also 3.84 Reporting Homes)

3.55     OTS
Opportunity To See, a commonly used term in Europe denoting frequency of media exposure. For television it is
synonymous with frequency.

3.56     Out of Home Viewing
All viewing that takes place outside the home (e.g. viewing at a friend’s house or at a public venue, such as in pubs,
clubs, hotels or work places). Out of home viewing may be particularly important for some broadcasters, e.g. niche
satellite channels.

3.57     Overnight Viewing Data
Viewing data delivered the next day [specifically the Viewing data and not the Event data]. The term is sometimes used
in a narrower sense to refer to initial data output covering a restricted selection of key target audiences that is delivered to
clients at the earliest opportunity the next day (i.e. during the morning). (See also table on page 37 for Release Timetable
of ratings and events data)

3.58     Panel Balance
Conformity of actual panel allocation to the ideal panel allocation for selected panel control variables.

3.59     Panel Fatigue
Deterioration in quality of panel measurement that may occur as a function of the length of time that households /
individuals have belonged to a panel (e.g. possible increased levels of measured nil or uncovered viewing as panel
members cooperate less with their button-pressing instructions over time).




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3.60     Panel Maintenance
Panel staff functions of preserving panel balance over time and likewise accuracy of panel classifications and quality of
panel response through the exercise of regular and periodic quality control procedures.

3.61     Patronage
Patronage is the ‘unduplicated’ proportion of a selected universe [such as adults, females 16-34 etc.] which views a given
TV channel during a specified time period for a minimum session of 16 consecutive seconds. [‘Unduplicated’: a person is
counted only once, irrespective of the number of times they have viewed that channel].

Example:      If the weekly patronage for TV channel Y for target market X is 43: then 43% of target market X viewed
              channel Y at some time during the week in question [each individual having at least 1 viewing session of
              longer than 15 seconds].

3.62     Penetration (medium / channel)
The percentage of people (or homes) within a defined universe that are physically able to be exposed to a medium /
receive a particular TV channel.

3.63     PeopleMeter
Generic name for the electronic measurement system which monitors the channel that a TV set is tuned to and the
individuals present in the room while the TV set is switched on. Individual demographics are measured through a
complimentary specialized remote control. (See also 3.25 Criterion of Viewing)

3.64     Personal Meters

Portable metering devices that permit the measurement of an individual’s overall exposure to Radio and TV (and possibly
print media) both inside and outside the home. Designed to be worn or carried by selected individuals, Personal Meters
can potentially capture viewing / listening in all types of out of home locations. The channel / station identification
technique may be based on either audio comparison or recognition of a broadcaster code.

3.65     Person Viewing

SAARF TAMS® panel data is reliant on each member of every household logging into the system when viewing, and
logging out when ceasing to view, this also includes visitors.

In this regard see the comprehensive counseling procedures and data checks to root out ‘bad button pushers’ [see
counseling report annexure].

3.66     Picture Matching
Technique of signal identification in which the meter collects sample visual data from the image displayed on the TV
screen, which it matches against an array of known signals from a central reference source in order to establish the
identity of those measured signals.

3.67     Podcast
Is a series of digital-media files which are distributed over the Internet using syndication feeds for playback on portable
media players and computers. The term podcast, like broadcast, can refer either to the series of content itself or to the
method by which it is syndicated; the latter is also called podcasting.




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3.68     Polled Sample
In production meter sample that has been successfully polled by the central processing base of the data supplier and is
available for inclusion in the net daily reporting sample.

3.69     Polling
Procedure for collecting data from meter panel homes, usually by means of a telephone call from the central processing
base of the data supplier ,which downloads in the early hours of the morning meter data from the previous broadcast
day(s) via a modem connection with the central meter data storage unit in the home. Alternative cellular radio or one-way
connection methods may be used in order to collect data from non-telephone households and are becoming increasingly
common as an alternative to the standard fixed line modem connections. At the same time polling takes place in a few
systems via telephone calls from the household to the central processing base of the data supplier rather than from the
data supplier to the home.

3.70     Pollux
Pollux is proprietary software of AGB Nielsen Media Research. The Pollux System is a compact software package to
collect, validate weight and calculate television audience data.

Audience events are collected by PeopleMeters positioned in participating families’ houses and connected to their
television sets and telephones.

3.71     Position in Break
Refers to the running order of a commercial break and where a specific advertisement fell within that e.g. 2/8.

3.72     Post (campaign) Evaluation

Evaluation of a media schedule at the end of a campaign, with audience delivery data in the case of TV advertising.

3.73     PPM
Portable PeopleMeter carried by the survey participant, this was originally developed to measure radio listener ship.
There is an ongoing debate as how successfully it may also be used for purposes of measuring television viewing. These
devices are not used in South Africa (see also Personal Meters).

3.74     Primetime
Evening day part associated with largest audiences, generally between 19.00 and 23.00, though precise times may vary
slightly by country.

3.75     Processed Viewing Statements
Processed individual viewing statements after editing, validation and conversion of raw meter records into basic units, for
calculating ratings and reach, as per the algorithms for assigning ratings.

3.76     Product Placement
Paid for placement of an advertiser’s product within a programme.




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3.77     Profile (adhesion)
The composition of a channel / programme audience, as defined by the proportionate contribution of different
demographic categories against one or more variables, such as age and sex (e.g. a channel profile of 26% for Adults 15-
34 means that 26% of the total audience for that channel was aged 15-34).

3.78     Programme Genre
The classification of programme by type, e.g. sport, drama, chat show etc.

3.79     Programme Loyalty
The measure of a constant programme audience across a series of episodes. Numerous different operational definitions
may be used to define programme loyalty.

3.80     PUT
People Using TV, a term mainly used in the USA to denote average percentage of people using TV across all channels
within a set time period (see also 3.44 HUT).

3.81     PVR
Personal Video Recorder, a device also called Digital Video Recorder (DVR), which uses a hard drive to record and store
digital video content. An important feature of the PVR is that it allows viewers to pause, fast-forward and rewind live
programmes. Some PVR appliances also have the capability to suggest programmes for users by recognizing their
viewing behavior.

3.82     Random Sample
A sample in which every element in the population has an equal chance of being selected.

3.83     Rating [TV]
In line with international convention, the old, but in every way identical, AMPS Rating [AR] has given way to ‘TV
rating’. This is only a terminological and not a methodological change. For the purposes of this report the convention is
to use ‘TV rating’ or ‘GRP’. (See also 3.40 GRP)

3.83.1 Definition of TV Rating
A TV rating is the proportion of viewers, averaged across some time period [a commercial spot or break, a ¼ hour or a
programme] and percentaged on the total number of individual panel members in the relevant group [e.g. ‘all adults’ or
‘females’].

Ratings are calculated by summing the products of numbers of viewers and relevant times spent viewing [within the
period concerned] and dividing by the product of the total number of potential viewers and the duration of the period
concerned. A TV rating is thus, in effect, a time-weighted average of audience size, indicated by an index which varies
between 0 and 100 (the ‘TV rating’).

However, because visitors to panel households are included, a maximum rating greater than 100 is theoretically possible
as visitors are not included in the base, but are included in the TV ratings. Visitors to metered households compensate in
part for panel members who view in non-metered households. Informant numbers and universe sizes in the printed
reports exclude visitors.

The above explanation is summed up in the following formula, which is used to calculate a rating.




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A practical example of this calculation is detailed below.

                       30 second spot with 4 viewers:

   Viewer Number         Time Viewed (secs)        Duration of Event (Secs)
         1                      20                            30
         2                       0                            30
         3                      30                            30
         4                      10                            30
         _______                 ________                    ________

                                  60                         120



3.83.2 Persistence
Persistence is used both here and internationally, to suppress ‘noise’ in the data without dispensing with good viewing
data.

Both the Mitron Eurometer and the AGBNMR TVM5 meter have been set up here to use persistence in an identical
manner:
     when a person logs in for less than 15 seconds, that viewing is discarded,
     when a person changes TV channel for less than 15 seconds, that viewing is allocated to the       TV     channel
        viewed immediately prior to the change [this is known as the “persistence” setting, expressed in seconds],
     when a person changes a TV channel for a period longer than 15 seconds, the viewing is allocated to the new
        TV channel as from the time of the change. The change is only made after he / she has viewed for 15 seconds,
        but back-dated to where he / she was first found at the new TV channel

Whilst the PeopleMeters continuously scan the status of TV sets and individuals in time intervals of less than a second, it
ignores any viewing session of less than 15 seconds.

The purpose of this filter is to eliminate momentary viewing that lacks ‘persistence’. The advantage of this international
convention is to strip ‘noise’ out of the data.

At present, all ratings refer to real time, off-air viewing only. Viewing of VCR pre-recorded tapes or ‘tuning through the
VCR’ is not captured for inclusion in the published ratings.

Those panel households having a Multichoice “DualView” decoder have their viewing on both decoder channels fully
recorded on the panel.

3.83.3 Measurement of the PVR
At this time there are no Multichoice PVR’s on the panel, as Service Information [SI] protocols from the contractor have
not been integrated into the “firmware” of the PVR, as has happened with the older model decoders. However, so called
“Banner recognition” has been set up so as to measure live viewing on both channels on a PVR, whilst the Time Shifted
Viewing cannot be allocated back to the channel where it occurred, the system does accumulate this TSV, and will report
on total TSV. So the extent of TSV will be available, but not the source as at June 2009. Eight PVR households have
been installed.




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The plan is eventually to include live viewing in PVR households and to move to the UK ‘VOSDAL’ methodology. This
is ‘Viewing on Same Day as Live’, meaning that all viewership in the PVR households will be captured every day
[including live or delayed viewing up to the beginning of daily polling starting at 02H00 daily] and this viewing will be
uploaded for processing into the daily viewing statistics every day.

3.84    Reach (or Cover / Cume)
The cumulative percentage or total (usually expressed in thousands) of a population that has been counted as viewers at
least once during a specified interval. Examples of commonly used reach measures are TV channel daily / weekly /
monthly reach, advertising campaign reach programme reach / programme series reach, daypart reach and so on.
Commonly used synonyms are Cume and Cover. (See also 3.22 Cover)

3.85    Reporting Homes
The number of panel homes that contribute to the daily ratings. Where failure to meet quality control standards or
communications related problems occur, such installed homes are eliminated from the reporting panel (also known as In-
tab homes). (See also 3.53 Net Daily Reporting Sample)

3.86    Response Bias
Bias in survey data due to measurement methods (e.g. recall bias in diary or day after recall TAMS® research, or panel
fatigue in PeopleMeter measurement).

3.87    Return Path
A data link that goes from a digital television system subscriber back to the system head-end. For a cable system, this
may be the same cable. For a satellite or IPTV system, it may be a telephone landline or a GPRS link.

3.88    Return Path Data (or ‘Click Stream’ Data)

Any information sent via a Return Path, including system information such as subscription and pay per view request, also
user interactivity, and potentially research information on audience size by channel.

3.89    RIM Weighting
Random Iterative Method Weighting that puts selected non-interlocking and grouped interlocking variables in isolation
through an iterative sequence of weighting adjustments. The sequence adjusts for each RIM in turn and then repeats
itself as many times as is required in order to obtain a convergence, in which the sum of the weighted RIMs matches the
target population estimates, or is as close as it is possible to achieve. (See also 3.112 Weight Factor)

3.90    SAARF LSM’s® (Living Standards Measure)

The set of standard questions applied to the SAARF AMPS® sample to determine SAARF LSM® status is similarly
applied to the SAARF TAMS® panel.

All the variables in the SAARF LSM® index are household variables, therefore all members of a specific household fall
into the same SAARF LSM® group.
                                         ®                                  ®
The SAARF TAMS® panel SAARF LSM status is based on SAARF AMPS and is adjusted to always be comparable.

3.91    Sales House
Separate organization or department within a TV channel responsible for selling commercial airtime.




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3.92     Sample
One or more elements (individuals or households) selected from a universe to represent that universe.

3.93     Sample Error
Statistical measure of the possible deviation of a sample estimate from the true population value, assuming the sample to
be representative of the population from which it has been drawn. The sample error is normally expressed as a margin of
difference either side of the reported value within specified confidence limits (i.e. “there is an X% probability that the
true population value lies within Y units either side of the sample estimate”). Sample error is wholly distinct and not to be
confused with sample bias, for which no parametric statistical assumptions can be made.

3.94     Sample Size

The number of households or individuals selected for a research sample.

3.95     Sample Frame

Source of addresses / household telephone numbers from which a pre-selected probability sample of identified
individuals or households is drawn for interview. Usually the sampling frame is external (e.g. official population register
of households / individuals, telephone list, list of postal addresses, electoral lists). Where such pre-existing sources do
not exist, data suppliers may create their own sampling frames by means of conducting a micro-census or by carrying out
a prior enumeration study of households in areas selected for the establishment survey fieldwork. Alternatively they may
work without a sampling frame, but in that case it would not be completely random.

3.96     SI

Service Information, proprietary information about the applications software in a set-top box, which can be used to
facilitate the measurement of non real-time broadcast viewing (e.g. PVR use) and on-demand viewing, but relies on the
co-operation of the service provider.

3.97     Slave Meter
Meter installed on a TV set or other equipment that is “subservient “ to another “master” meter in the household, which
controls some of its functions (e.g. time synchrony) and collects data from it for temporary storage and delivery to the
central processing base of the data supplier during polling.

3.98     Solo-Viewing
Defines the condition where the members of a reference target are the focus of an analysis only when they are watching
television alone.

3.99     Standard Error
Standard deviation of the sample error distribution of a sample estimates. 1.96 standard Errors denotes the upper and
lower bound margins of sample error that correspond with 95% confidence limits.

3.100 SAP

Station Average Price, estimated cost of unit audience delivery on a TV channel based on advertising Cost Per Rating
point (CPRs) or advertising Cost Per Thousand (CPTs or CPMs). SAP is normally calculated with reference to specified
time periods (usually calendar months) and selected target audience(s).




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3.101 STB
Set Top Box, a device that receives, processes and converts incoming TV signals, for display on TV sets. The Set Top
Box may be designed to receive signals in analogue or digital form and from cable, satellite and terrestrial sources.

3.102 Stratification

A means of improving the quality of a probability sample by selecting sample elements according to population variables
with known distribution profiles in order to determine a proportional or disproportional allocation of the survey sample.
Examples of commonly used stratification variables are ‘region’, ‘type of settlement’ and ‘household size’.

3.103 Target Market (or Target Audience)
Core TV audience which an advertiser is aiming to reach, typically specified in terms of sex, age, socio-economic grade
and housewife / main shopper categories. In many countries, airtime prices are negotiated with respect to specified target
audience.

3.104 TSV
Timeshift Viewing, later viewing of video recordings of live television transmissions (i.e. Playback of recorded live
transmissions). (See also 3.25 Criterion of Viewing)

3.105 Trick Mode
Pausing, rewinding and fast forwarding live or stored video content.

3.106 TVEvents System
TVEvents is the broadcast monitoring system of AGB Nielsen Media Research that offers a complete, highly reliable and
easy to use suite of tools for the creation, collection and maintenance of high quality TVEvents databases.

3.107 Uncovered Viewing / Set Use
Meter statements indicating that the TV set is switched on, but without any persons registered as present.

3.108 Unidentified Channel Viewing
The viewing of an unknown frequency as ascertained by DFM [Direct Frequency Measurement] or tuner meters. The
frequency is usually presumed to belong to a channel, although it may indicate a separate output source (e.g. a video
games console).

3.109 Visitors (also known as Guest Viewing)
A visitor is anyone from the age of 4 upwards, who is not normally resident in the panel household and whose name is
therefore not registered on the system. Every time a visitor logs in a new record is created. If the same visitor views in
the same household on three different occasions, three different visitors will be recorded. Visitors are not and cannot be
taken into account when reach is calculated. Data on each visitor’s gender and age is recorded on each occasion, but they
are automatically assigned the income and home language of the hosting household.

3.110 VOD
Video On-Demand, a programme service where the content is not broadcast, but stored in a library which users can
access on-demand. Typical VOD content offerings include recently aired television programmes (as in catch-up TV),




                                                                                                             Page 25
popular series, selected categories of thematic programming (e.g. music, children’s programmes), and movies. There are
three models of VOD:
      content-free VOD,
      pay-per-title, where the user pays an individual fee per programme or event, and
      subscription VOD, where the user pays a flat fee for access

3.111 VOSDAL

Viewing On Same Day As Live, when South Africa moves to measuring viewership in satellite households, the plan is to
follow the UK and use the VOSDAL methodology i.e. to measure all viewership on each day [live and time shifted] up to
the time that polling begins at 02H00.

3.112 Wearout

A level of frequency or a point in time when an advertising message loses its ability to effectively communicate.

3.113 Weight Factor

Multiplication factor for converting the size of a sample to the population estimate for the survey universe. (See also
3.88 RIM Weighting)

3.114 Within Programme Break

Commercial break within a programme.

3.115 Zapping

Flicking through different TV channels, often to avoid a commercial break.

3.116 Zipping
Fast forwarding through recorded commercials when watching a home-recorded videotape.




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4.      Hardware Description and Operation
4.1     SAARF TAMS® Panel Uses 2 Different PeopleMeters

At the time of awarding the new TAMS® contract, the Finnish Eurometer was the PeopleMeter in use in South Africa.

For reasons of economy it was decided to retain the Eurometer for non-satellite households on the panel, as the
Eurometer was suited to the less demanding measurement challenges in these households.

The more advanced TVM5 PeopleMeter was introduced for satellite households, which is a more demanding
measurement challenge.

4.2     Eurometer

The hardware placed in each non-satellite SAARF TAMS® panel household in order to measure TV viewing is the
Eurometer from Mitron, a Finnish electronics company.

The Eurometer Audience Measurement Equipment is widely used throughout Europe, South America and South East
Asia. It is designed to be a flexible device that can handle the demands of different TV systems in the various countries
where it is used.

4.3     An ‘Intrusive’ Installation

In South Africa, SAARF opted for ‘intrusive’ channel measurement identification, as most broadcasters do not carry
Channel Network Identification (CNI) within their broadcast signal. [‘Intrusive’ refers to the presence of a device
connected to the TV signal receiving circuitry]

Channel measurement is achieved by having an AVPALPRE module installed inside the meter. This module comprises a
tuner which is known as the ‘pre-tuner’, a tuner inserted in the signal flow in front of the TV’s tuner and a Radio
Frequency (RF) modulator. It has Antenna Input and RF Output plus one Audio Video (AV) output.

4.4     Eurometer Function

The Eurometer takes over the tuning activity that would normally be performed by the TV. The household selects the
desired channel using the Eurometer’s Remote Control handset or the Local Keyboard [an option in households without a
remote control unit], and the Eurometer does the tuning. The TV in turn is tuned to the Eurometer’s RF modulator and
the desired channel is transmitted to the TV set by the RF modulator. The AV option from the Eurometer may also be
used for this purpose. All other off-air signals to the TV set are attenuated.

The Eurometer measures the frequency of the terrestrial channel being viewed and expresses it as a channel number. The
processing software, Pollux, identifies the broadcaster [TV channel] by using this channel number.

The Eurometer is also equipped with a Network Identification Processor (NIP) board for capturing CNI codes.
Broadcasters that carry CNI codes are identified based on their code rather than on their channel frequency. Currently,
only MNET and CSN are broadcasting a CNI signal.

The Eurometer’s Remote Control handset is also used for logging individuals ‘IN’ when viewing TV and ‘OUT’ when no
longer viewing. Each individual in the household is allocated a button on the Remote Control handset for this purpose,
and his / her personal data is linked to that button number.

The Eurometer normally sits on top of the TV set and displays the identity of the viewers as well as the program number
of the channel being viewed. Messages such as birthday greetings can be displayed. This facility is also used to prompt
viewers to log in. A feature promoting compliance is that if nobody is logged in, the household cannot make channel
changes.




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Each time an individual logs IN or OUT and / or a channel is changed, a real time record of the event is stored in the
memory of the Eurometer. This memory has battery backup to prevent erasure in the event of a power failure. A
Eurometer is connected to every TV within the household, and all other equipment linked to that set [for example VCR’s
or MNET decoders]. The convention is to connect up to three TV sets per household in non-satellite homes, and four TV
sets in Satellite homes.

When the TV is off, the Eurometer will display date and time.

A MIAMOD Telkom-approved modem is installed inside the Eurometer, which is used to download the viewing data
records every 24 hours to the collection computers at head office. Every night starting at 02H00, the collection
computers dial out to each home where, by that time, the Eurometer modem will be in answer mode. When entering the
call time window the modem disconnects the household’s telephone. The Eurometer can detect if the household picks up
the phone during this period and will then interrupt the time window or actual data flow / communication, so the
household can make a call.

In non-telephone households the viewing data records are down loaded via FastNet radio links. This is a ‘packet’ radio
system specifically designed for data transmission. A ‘Radio Pad’ connected to the Eurometer is installed in each non-
telephone household. During a set time window, the collection computers call up each installed Radio Pad and set up a
communication link to download the viewing data records to the collection computers.

4.5       TVM5 System Description

The TVM5 is a PeopleMeter designed and manufactured by AGB Lab, mainly to accommodate the measurements of
digital broadcasting. The TVM5 System consists of a TVM5 base unit, display unit, remote control, transmission unit,
and corresponding connections.

The most important features of the TVM5 System are:
     non-intrusiveness,
     reliability, and
     ease of installation

4.5.1     Display unit and Remote control

The Display unit and the TVM5 remote control are the interface between the panel members and the meter. The Display
unit has to be placed in the most convenient point that allows best visibility. Preferably on top of the TV set, this point
also being most suitable for the RF module, RF communication link from the Meter to the Transmission Unit. The RF
module is housed in the same plastic casing with the Display Unit.

4.5.2     Base Unit

The Base unit is the core of the metering equipment that detects and stores all information concerning the viewing habits
of the panel members. The TVM5 System requires that a PeopleMeter (Base Unit and Display Unit) be connected to all
the TV sets and TV equipment (VCR, Digital Decoder, DVD player, etc.) in the home. The viewing data or statements
generated, is stored in the memory of each of the PeopleMeters installed. This viewing data is progressively transmitted
via the Display RF communication link to the Transmission Unit as mentioned above.

The basic information gathered by the TVM5 is:

         On/Off time of the TV set
         the selected source of viewing i.e. TV set, VCR, Digital Decoder, or DVD player
         the selected channel
         Diagnostic Statements as motion detection, panel member interference with the installation, etc

(The above category of statements are automatically detected and stored without intervention of the panel member).




                                                                                                            Page 28
         identification of panel member viewer,
         arrival and leaving time of panel member viewer,
         identification of sex and age of visiting guest viewer,
         arrival and leaving time of guest viewer, and
         departure of the family for holiday

(The above category of statements require input action from the panel member by using the remote control which is
provided with each meter)

4.5.3     Transmission Unit (TU)

The Transmission Unit has two main functions:
     to connect to the TVM5 Meter(s) via RF communication, and
     to connect to Host Server by Land Line / GSM network / Internet Connection

The TU polls the recorded viewing data from one or more TVM5 Meters through the RF communication link and also
stores the polled viewing data.

The TU has the ability to be called by / or to call the Host Server at certain predetermined time periods (time-slots)
during the night, in order to download the viewing data statements. The connection to the Host Server is made by either
Land Line / GSM network or Internet Connection (GPRS).

4.6       TVM5 Principles of Measurement

4.6.1     Principles of measurement

Due to the variety of platforms and the need to measure all possible present and future services, various methods are
required. Currently the TVM5 uses 7 methods to identify channel and various states of the measured devices. The
expansion slot and the modular nature of the TVM5 allow adding new methods in the future if so required. Some
measurement methods can be added just by upgrading the software.

The identification of a channel is performed in two steps:
     source identification (TV set tuner, Digital Decoder, VCR, DVD, etc), and
     broadcast identification (channel number, channel name or Service Information (SI) that is related to a channel)

Some methods used for channel identification are given below. Some are used for both (Source and Broadcast ID) while
some are used just to identify a certain state of a device.

4.6.2     Phase measurement

Phase measurement method measures the phase between the sync pulses induced on the Sync sensor and the sync pulses
extracted from the video signal coming from the internal tuner of the TVM5. The method exploits the fact that
broadcasted video signals from various TV channels are not synchronized, except the one being viewed.

4.6.3     Audio comparison

This method uses the audio signal picked up by the Audio sensor and compares it with the audio coming from the
internal tuner of the TVM5 to find a match.

4.6.4     Electrostatic Video Average (EVA) comparison

Every TV set screen based on the Cathode Ray Tube generates an electromagnetic field. The EVA sensor captures the
electrostatic component of the electromagnetic field that is in correlation with the video signal of the displayed image.
This signal picked up by the EVA sensor is compared with the video signal of the TVM5 internal tuner to find a match.
Instead of using sensors, all the above signals may be derived from the Audio / Video (AV) output of the TV set.




                                                                                                          Page 29
4.6.5    Service Information (SI)

This method of channel identification requires modification of the Digital Receiver / Decoder or Set Top Box (STB)
software and sometimes hardware, so that the SI information will be available on an RS232 output immediately after
channel change and from then on periodically. This obviously necessitates co-operation from the STB manufacturer and
Broadcaster.

The TVM5 detects the source and identifies the Channel generated by the STB present on the TV screen, by capturing the
SI from the STB. The SI used to identify the Channel is known as a ‘Triplet’ and is unique for every available Channel
on the STB. The Triplet is a hexadecimal number made up of ‘Network ID’, ‘Transport Steam ID’ and ‘Service ID’.

Multichoice Decoders that have been modified to provide SI for the TVM5 Meter are:
     DSD 990
     DSD 820 Dual View

4.6.6    Image capturing or Banner Recognition

Image capturing can be divided into two layers:
     the first layer is hardware based and is used to capture the whole image even the hidden lines, and
     the second layer which is software based, processes the captured image

The fact that the second layer is software based, gives the flexibility to detect various signs and patterns in the image,
which identify a channel. Character recognition is the most used image processing to identify the channel. Beside the
character recognition, there are also other possibilities. Any permanent unique pattern present in the video image can be a
potential for channel identification.

Since no SI software is available for the latest Multichoice DSD 1110 Decoder the Banner Recognition method is being
used for measurement purposes.
         2
4.6.7    I C Bus Monitoring (Sniffer Box)

The I2C Bus Sniffer allows for non-intrusive monitoring of an I2C bus. The TVM5 Meter is equipped to interface via a
Sniffer Box to monitor an I2C Bus on any device using that technology. Since the digital tuner used on some MNET
terrestrial Decoders uses I2C bus technology for tuning purposes it becomes a convenient tool to measure encrypted
MNET terrestrial viewership. Anytime a channel change takes place on the MNET Decoder the applicable tuning
information is sent on the I2C bus. The Sniffer Box converts the information into a format accepted by the TVM5 Meter,
which in turn relates the information to the off air Channel that the Decoder is tuned to. The Decoder On / Off status can
also be derived from the I2C data.

Decoders that can be I2C bus monitored are:
    Compact 9000
    Delta 9000 Plus
    Comcrypt 4000I




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5.       Software
5.1      Pollux Processing Software: Overview
PolluxCS System is a compact software package to collect, to weight and to calculate TV audience data. Audience events
are collected by specific equipment positioned in participating families’ houses and connected to their TV sets and
telephones.

It has a Client / Server structure. The server side part of PolluxCS runs on the SCO Unix operative system; the client part
of PolluxCS runs on Windows operating systems. Client / Server communication is achieved both via ODBC (Open Data
Base Connectivity) and RPC (Remote Procedure Calls).

All the databases, configuration and viewing files reside under Unix Server, the Windows Client is the user’s interface to
access the data.

Pollux produces audience data every night from 11:30 pm to 6:45 am on the basis of parameters set by users with the
Pollux System menu as follows.

The production system contains the following elements:
     polling (handling of multiple lines) and line test,
     audience data validation and weighting,
     data quality control printouts,
     audience data printout tables,
     panel (household) management, and
     Pollux files maintenance.

5.2      Pollux Processing Software: Architecture
The Pollux menu consists of screen based components for management and control. There are 9 main menus:

1.      Recruitment:            a set of programs that allows users to carry out control and administration of the
                                recruitment phase.

2.      Panel Management: a set of programs that allows users to carry out panel control and administration,
                          engineering and equipment administration duties.

3.      Polling:                performs a set of polling analysis to check and test the quality of line dialogues and
                                results of the overnight polling.

4.      Production:             runs production and analyses audience data quality.

5.      Output:                 this option generates export files from Pollux production environment for data analysis
                                and planning tools.

6.      File Maintenance:       a set of data entry menu programs that maintains the control and reference file used
                                throughout the Pollux system.

7.      Config:                 this menu provides a set of utilities to help the system administrator to manage the Pollux
                                system.

8.      Help:                   this menu provides a help online on most of Pollux features (user’s manual, specific
                                functions, etc).

9.      Customize Menu:         it allows to dynamically configure the main menu of the PolluxCS Client application.




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5.3      Pollux Processing Software: Production Process
The daily production can be monitored and checked by users controlling the log files, one for each phase. The daily
production is split into three main phases:
     pre-poll,
     night poll, and
     post-poll phases

5.3.1    Pre-poll

The first phase needs to prepare the archives directory and parameters for the polling:
     the first archive ‘directory’, contains the list of families to be called with the telephone number, and
     the second file ‘parameters’, contains the list of parameters to be passed to the meter, home by home, during the
          parameters exchange dialogue in the poll phase

5.3.2    Poll

The second phase needs to call home by home, exchanges parameters and collects statements.

5.3.3    Post-poll

The post-poll phase starts after the communication phase, it splits in more phases:
     format,
     production, and
     quality control

5.3.3.1 Format

The format phase converts the statements collected from the meter in a format readable by the pre-validation process.

5.3.3.2 Production

The production phase runs:
     validation,
     creating channels viewing files, and
     weighting

5.3.3.2.1         Validation

The validation step first creates a binary file containing the image of HOUSEHOLD Master file; for each panel it
displays the list of installed TV sets and then creates validated statements file for all elementary channels, checks
inconsistencies in the data, creates a validation detail statistics file and eventually creates the Validation Summary and
the Accumulated Viewing files.

5.3.3.2.2         Creating Channels Viewing Files

The Creating Channels Viewing Files procedure creates the Networks, Groups, Supergroups and Totals viewing
channels, grouping elementary channels created by validation according to the relations defined in the channels file.

5.3.3.2.3         Weighting

The RIM weighting procedure tries to find a unique weight for each individual or home to ensure that the total of the
weights of all individuals belonging to a category matches the universe for that category.

The procedure is split into two phases:
     the first phase creates the individual (and home) weights file which lists each individual (or home), the initial
        weight (set to 1) and the list of RIM weighting categories that the individual belongs to; and
     the second phase of RIM weighting calculates the weight for each individual or home, balancing the universe




                                                                                                           Page 32
The RIM weighting process operates with a set of parameters, as specified by the contractor.

5.3.3.2 Quality Control

The quality control phase runs programs to:
     build quality control poll files (telephone lines, panel calls),
     list daily and periodic poll statistics,
     dump the unidentified channels statements,
     list frequency states for each elementary channel,
     list high viewers,
     list nil viewers,
     list lazy viewers,
     list discarded by validation process

5.4       Pollux Processing Software: Production Process Flow Chart

         Pre-Poll
                                     Pre-Poll
                                      23:30
      Pre-Validation


                                        Poll
        Main Poll
                                       02:00


         Format


       Validation



  Preparation of raw                Production
         data                         07:00


      Pre-Weighting


   RIM Weighting


  Remove temporary
       files                          File
                                   Maintenance
                                     07:30
    Compress files


      Daily reports
                                      Reports
                                       08:00
       QC reports




                                                                                               Page 33
6.       Daily Processing Cycle
6.1      Data Collection

All meters are programmed to communicate with the contractor collection system at least once every 24 hours [starting at
02H00]. To reduce the probability of a functioning meter not being “polled”, the polling system will continue to cycle
through the panel until all households are polled or the window closes. There are four polling systems to cater for all
infrastructures, i.e. landline, FastNet, GSM and GPRS. Once successful polling has occurred that household is not called
again.

6.2      Daily Polling Record

A report detailing successfully polled meters is produced every weekday morning. This is analysed on a rolling 3 day
basis [except for Mondays and the first working day after every public holiday, when a period of more than 3 days could
be covered]. Meters which have not reported for 3 days in succession are listed for Call Back and a Job Card is issued for
a technician visit.

6.3      Validation Report Log

Every weekday morning all data collected from every meter called, is processed through the Pollux Validation Module.
A log file is produced that lists all rejected households, and households with warning messages covering “No Meter
Statement”, “No Data”, “Statement Overflow”, “Uncovered Viewing” etc. Corrective action is taken immediately, either
in the form of counseling the household concerned, or by issuing a Job Card for a technician visit.

6.4      TVEvents and Independent Broadcast Log
The data captured per broadcast event is set out below:
     Date of broadcast;
     The start time of the event [the broadcast day is defined as the 24 hours starting at 02H00]. Therefore the latest
        time that can be recorded in any broadcast day is in fact 25H59M59S’. The start time is recorded to nearest
        second;
     Duration of broadcast event [recorded to the nearest second];
     Title of broadcast event [taken directly from the channel log], but limited to a maximum of 25 characters;
     In the case of advertising breaks and spots, additional information is captured from separate spot schedules to
        enable identification of tariffs, advertised brand description, etc;
     Each program is coded by program genre taken from a list of codes.

Channel broadcast logs are sent to the contractor daily by all broadcasters, logs are normally received by midmorning
following the day of broadcast, except in the case of weekends where the logs for Friday, Saturday and Sunday are
received on Monday morning. The logs are used for verification of spot flighting codes.

Weekly reports cannot be processed until all channel logs, for all days in the week have been received and coded. Close
cooperation with broadcasters is therefore an integral part of the SAARF TAMS®.




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7.        Daily Weighting and Panel Balancing
7.1       Daily RIM Weighting: Household Pre-weight
Each day is treated as new survey by Pollux, and is re-weighted to population on a daily basis. The reason is that each
day inevitably sees households coming back to report after a period of non-reporting, or reliably reporting households
dropping off the panel because of meter problems, lightning strikes, telephone suspensions, or non-compliance issues etc.
Each new day could therefore potentially see skews within the panel, because the sample is deviating from the ‘ideal’.
The daily weighting process removes these skews from each of the weighting variables by weighting each RIM to the
correct population size.

The RIM method firstly weights the good reporting households to Household population; this is known as the “Pre-
weight” as it this process produces a weighted household population base, with skews removed, which becomes the input
to the second stage, the individual weighting procedure. Then Pollux performs 50 iterations of the data, to arrive at its
final ‘best fit’ for that day.

The current RIM weight structure for households is:

         RIM 1                LSM® 1-4                   LSM® 5-6                           LSM® 7-10
         RIM 2                Eng / Other                by Household size [1-3, 4-5, 6+]   by non Satellite
                                                          Main sample + Over sampled         by Satellite
                               Afrik / Both               by Household size [1-3, 4-5, 6+]   by non Satellite
                                                          Main sample + Over sampled         by Satellite
                               Nguni                      by Household size [1-3, 4-5, 6+]   by non Satellite
                               Sotho                      by Household size [1-3, 4-5, 6+]   by non Satellite
                               Nguni                      Main Sample                        by Satellite
                               Sotho                      Main Sample                        by Satellite
         RIM 3                Provinces                  All 9                              by Total
         RIM 4                Community Size             All 4
         RIM 5                Platform                   No Pay, Satellite, MNET

7.2       Daily RIM Weighting: Individuals
Current RIM weight structure for individuals is:

         RIM 1                Language [2 groups] + age
         RIM 2                Language [4 groups] + gender
         RIM 3                Non Pay TV + Pay TV Analogue
                               + Pay TV Digital + Pay TV ‘Both’
         RIM 4                LSM® + ‘Homebound’ + ‘Out & About’
                               [LSM® design: 1-5, 6, 7-8, 9, 10]
         RIM 5                All 9 provinces
         RIM 6                Community Size             All 4 [inclusion of Rural panel]




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7.3     RIM Weights and the Disproportionate Sample
To compensate for Oversample of the DSTV panel and the under-sample of the rural panel [as covered under “Brief
History of TAMS®”], it is necessary to re-weight satellite and rural households, back to their proper representation.

Consequently, the RIM weight structure specifically includes separate weights for satellite and non-satellite households,
as well as community size. The weighting procedure for Black households who have satellite is slightly different because
of sample size issues. However, with the growth in this market as a result of the Compact bouquet, this will be reviewed
in due course.

7.4     Universe Updates
The establishment survey, SAARF AMPS®, is released twice yearly. As a consequence, SAARF TAMS® universes for
weighting variables are also updated twice a year, as soon as possible after the release of the latest AMPS®.

LSM’s® are also updated when variables change in SAARF AMPS®.

7.5     Role of Phone Counselors and the Monthly ‘Update’
Correct household composition records for every panel household, is critical to producing good, reliable data. This means
that for every installed panel household, Pollux must have a complete and accurate record of every member of the
household and all demographic information pertaining to all members.

TAMS® panels in first world countries do not have much contact with their households, as household composition does
not change often or significantly. South Africa is different, and experience has taught us that composition changes often
and dramatically. For this reason we employ phone counselors to contact each household regularly, and that we have
done an annual face to face “mini recruitment” questionnaire with every household.

It has become apparent that an annual household composition and demographic check is not sufficient, particularly in
times of economic change such as South Africa is experiencing now.

AGBNMR has recommended that each panel household is updated twice each year, approximately 80% via telephonic
interview and 20% via a face to face interview (difficult or unreachable households).




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8.       Daily Reporting Cycle
8.1      Overview

Since July of 2006, the SAARF TAMS® viewing data has been issued on an Overnight basis. The Event data [comprising
programmes and advertising activity] is issued the day after the Overnight data.

In overview, the following takes place:
     the data are polled starting at 02H00 every morning, 7 days a week,
     polling finishes at 06H00

Post polling takes all the polled raw data, and runs the validation checks on all households, at this stage households are
rejected e.g. new households ‘on directory’ but not yet allowed into production, null viewers, constant viewing for 24
hours and unknown channel where a TV frequency is unrecognised by the meter.

Polling reports are accessed to establish how many good reporting households there are [from Eurometer and TVM5
polling]:
      The performance statistics of each of the polling modems is checked
      The Pollux validation summary of rejected households is checked
      Then Pollux produces the industry output files next [TX3 and D_TX3]
      A converter then produces the ratings file

Every weekday morning TVEvents supervisor completes ‘closing the day’

At 10H00 daily the TVEvents data for a particular day is exported as RF, TEL and AIS files

Batch files are run to convert the data for Arianna clients as well as the industry data

The necessary files are then put up on the FTP server for clients to access.

                                                  On the following days these files are released …
                                                           [to the bureau for processing]
                                                                                                              Saturday
      On these days:            Monday          Tuesday        Wednesday         Thursday         Friday         &
                                                                                                               Sunday
                               Full Event                                                       Full Event
      This data is released                    Full Event      Full Event      Full Event for
                                   for                                                              for
                    10H00                      for Sunday     for Monday         Tuesday
                               Thursday                                                         Wednesday

      This data is released    Ratings for     Ratings for     Ratings for      Ratings for     Ratings for
                    10H00        Friday         Monday          Tuesday         Wednesday        Thursday
                               Full Event
      This data is released    for Friday
                    11H00      Ratings for
                                Saturday
      This data is released    Ratings for
                    12H00       Sunday

      This data is released    Full Event
                    13H00     for Saturday




                                                                                                              Page 37
9.        The Edit Rules
Current edit rules have been agreed by the SAARF TAMS ® Council together with the contractor. The critical decision
was that the data must be manipulated or ‘massaged’ as little as possible in the application of the edit rules.

The edit rules being applied are therefore those that allow the ‘raw’ data to come through with as little change as
possible, with editing out or flagging only suspect viewing behaviour.

9.1       Current Edit Rules

         “Uncovered Viewing”: The permissible sum of all the gaps in viewing time [this is ‘uncovered viewing’ – where
          the TV set is switched on but no one is logged in] has been set to reject any household where total logged in
          time was less than 10% of total time switched on. The upper limit to the fatal gap and permissible logged-in
          percentage may be adjusted from time to time. (The South African situation is different from many countries in
          that TV sets are often left on for security reasons when panel members leave the house. There is also reason to
          believe that the TV is used to calm pets or babies.)

         All gaps [leading, embedded and trailing] have been disabled.

         All VCR tuning and any DVD playback is captured and recorded under ‘VCR’ or “DVD’, but none of this
          viewership is included in the daily viewing statistics.

         Invalid Channel (unknown frequency): If a household views an unknown frequency, and viewership exceeds
          the set threshold, the household is rejected from the daily in-tab.

         Constant Viewing: If a household views TV for the full 24 hours, by one or more members, the household is
          rejected from the daily in-tab.




                                                                                                          Page 38
10. Reports to Industry
10.1     Weekly Report
The standard industry weekly report, setting out TV viewing statistics for the week in question covering:

        Universe
        Headlines
        Top 10
        Patronage
        Programmes
        Sample
        Quarter Hours

N.B. this report has not been included due to large size, but can be viewed by going to www.saarf.co.za and selecting
TAMS(tv), then weekly updates.


10.2     Monthly Cume Channel Reach Report

This report lists sample sizes and cume reach (from daily to annual) for the various TV channels including satellite. The
prime reason for the report is to publish basic coverage statistics for channels too small to report, and also to track
channels reaching the 60 respondent threshold for three consecutive weeks.

This can be viewed by going to www.saarf.co.za and selecting TAMS(tv), then Cume Channel Reach. (See also
Annexure 4 for an example)




                                                                                                            Page 39
11. Costs Reference for TV Broadcasters and 3rd Party
    Processors
11.1     Overview

The situation with new satellite broadcasters [or broadcasters requiring additional measurement services], and the
emergence of additional 3rd Party TV analysis software companies has necessitated that SAARF looks at and amends the
costs charged for either additional services to broadcasters or the provision of TAMS® data to the 3rd party suppliers.

11.2     LCA Levy Collection

Since inception of the SAARF TAMS® panel, the funding has worked as follows:

        The industry in consultation with the LCA [or its predecessors] together with SAARF determines the quantum
         of the levy that the LCA will collect.
        The levy is applied to “above the line” revenue [excluding sponsorships] that each TV channel generates;
         presently this is 1.0% of revenue.

However, the methodology used to capture TV viewership has changed significantly over time, particularly with the
introduction of TVEvents to create an independent broadcast log of events [programmes and advertising activity].

The TVEvents system requires hardware and data entry staff for every additional TV channel requiring Event data to be
captured [if this does not happen, only ¼ hour viewing data is available to industry users]. There is a cost associated with
this.

This section therefore sets out these existing and any additional costs associated with measuring TV channels in South
Africa, and the provision of the viewing and event data files to the industry.

11.3     TV Broadcasters Requiring Additional Services

The collection and capture of TVEvents data for the creation of independent broadcast logs is fully funded via the
SAARF TAMS® contract, for existing TV channels.

Therefore staff were employed and trained in using the TVEvents software for the creation of the independent broadcast
log for the TV channels at the time TVEvents was installed. Any TV channels requiring their channels to also have an
independent log created [i.e. those channels not included in the list below], will need SAARF approval and will also be
invoiced by SAARF for the additional costs involved.

SAARF has taken the principle decision that the total TV market will be measured, including all commercial but also the
non-commercial channels, thereby reporting on TOTAL TV consumption in South Africa.

This highlights the funding problem, that if a non – commercial channel requires Event data to be captured, but the 1%
levy yields no revenue, how is this funded?

In principle the channel will pay an annual fee for the programme information.




                                                                                                             Page 40
11.4   Current TVEvents Channel List which the system is Identifying - June 2009

  ID     Channel Name
 160     Cape Town TV
  14     CSN
  77     DSTV Action TV
  2      DSTV African Magic
 150     DSTV African Magic Plus
 135     DSTV Al Jazeera
  96     DSTV Animal Planet
 140     DSTV Animax
 153     DSTV BBC Entertainment
 155     DSTV BBC Knowledge
 154     DSTV BBC Lifestyle
  41     DSTV BBC World
  44     DSTV Bloomberg
  11     DSTV Boomerang
 138     DSTV Botswana TV
  54     DSTV Cartoon
 156     DSTV Cbeebies
  63     DSTV CCTV4
 106     DSTV CCTV9
  58     DSTV Channel O
  45     DSTV CNBC Africa
  42     DSTV CNN News
 134     DSTV Crime and Investigation
  48     DSTV Discovery
 131     DSTV Disney Channel
  84     DSTV Dutch TV (BVN)
  59     DSTV DW
 151     DSTV e News
  17     DSTV E! Entertainment
  66     DSTV Ert
  34     DSTV ESPN
 149     DSTV ESPN Classic
  9      DSTV E TV
 133     DSTV Euro News
  51     DSTV Fashion TV
  91     DSTV Game Channel
  12     DSTV Guide
  27     DSTV Hallmark
  98     DSTV History Channel
 137     DSTV Home Channel
 162     DSTV Islam Channel
 158     DSTV Kowee
  25     DSTV Kyk Net
  94     DSTV Learning Channel
 145     DSTV Magic World
  3      DSTV MK89
  5      DSTV MNET
 141     DSTV MNET Stars
  26     DSTV Movie Magic 1
  29     DSTV Movie Magic 2
  7      DSTV MTV Base
  56     DSTV MTV Europe




                                                                          Page 41
  148      DSTV Nat Geo Wild
   50      DSTV National Geographic
  152      DSTV Nickelodeon
  143      DSTV One Gospel
   60      DSTV Parliament
   35      DSTV Racing Channel
   65      DSTV RAI
   68      DSTV Rhema
   61      DSTV RTPI
  130      DSTV Russian TV
  159      DSTV SABC News International
   4       DSTV SABC 1
   1       DSTV SABC 2
   8       DSTV SABC 3
  157      DSTV Saffron Indian Channel
   21      DSTV Series
   43      DSTV Sky News
  139      DSTV Sony Entertainment
  144      DSTV Soweto TV
   30      DSTV SS Blitz
   81      DSTV SS Max
  142      DSTV Style Network
   47      DSTV Summit
   32      DSTV Super Sport 1
   33      DSTV Super Sport 2
   36      DSTV Super Sport 3
  146      DSTV Super Sport 4
   37      DSTV Super Sport 5
   38      DSTV Super Sport 6
   80      DSTV Super Sport 7
   86      DSTV TBN Christian Channel
   28      DSTV TCM
   73      DSTV Trace Channel
   49      DSTV Travel Channel
   99      DSTV TV5 French Channel
   55      DSTV VH1 Music
  161      DSTV Vuzu
   10      DSTV Weather Channel
   79      DSTV Zone Reality
   9       E TV
   5       MNET
   4       SABC 1
   1       SABC 2
   8       SABC 3
  144      Soweto TV



11.5    3rd Party TV Analysis Software Companies (incl. Media Auditing Companies)

3rd party TV analysis software companies are defined as companies who receive industry media consumption data from
SAARF [i.e. AMPS®, RAMS® and TAMS®] and restructure this data and integrate it into their media analysis software,
which is then made available to industry users [i.e. broadcasters, print and radio media owners, advertisers and
advertising agencies].

3rd party TV analysis software companies would be Telmar, AGB Nielsen Media Research, IMS, Techedge etc.




                                                                                                    Page 42
When assessing the costs to be paid by these companies, SAARF took into account that they perform a valuable function
disseminating SAARF’s data, and distributing it widely to end users throughout South Africa, and in fact internationally,
to the industry’s advantage.

Consequently, these companies all pay an annual fee to SAARF. This annual fee covers the daily data dissemination from
the contractor FTP server, and other administration costs.

However, with the increase in international usage of SAARF TAMS® data, SAARF will now require a confidential
listing of all clients that these 3rd party TV analysis software companies make the SAARF data available to. The reason is
that SAARF has a duty to the industry here to make absolutely certain that all levies have been paid and collected.

It is also noted that clients who are users of SAARF data [i.e. broadcasters, advertising agencies and advertisers] do not
pay any fees to SAARF, as this has been covered via the 1% LCA levy.

Media Auditing companies that receive their own copy of the SAARF data are also invoiced annually by SAARF.

The basis for this is that the Media Auditors do not perform the function of disseminating the SAARF data to end users,
but rather integrate the SAARF data into their own in-house monitoring software which is not available to any end user,
but rather derive revenue via expert analysis of the SAARF data for the furtherance of their own businesses.




                                                                                                           Page 43
12. “Gold Standard” Methodology Algorithms
12.1     Overview

Following standard practice internationally where Joint Industry Committees establish “Gold standard” methodologies, in
order to ensure that all 3rd party TV analysis software providers supply software to their clients that will all give the same
results for identical analyses, SAARF is setting down its “Gold Standard” methodologies here.

The intention is that all 3rd party providers will embed these methodologies in their software, thereby ensuring that
analysis results are to “Gold standard” specifications.

12.2     General Principles in Regard to the Reach Algorithm
12.2.1 Weighting

Average Weights, the arithmetic average of each individual’s weights are used for the date range in question. The
advantages are that no “richness” of data is lost in the process, and that the universes remain constant & consistent.
Average Weights are used in all calculations where reach is calculated.

Questions Posed & Answers Provided:
Question:1

12.2.2 Campaign / Spot by Spot Alignments

Here we consider situations where the legitimate mathematical calculations do not appear to the lay user as correct or
legitimate.
An example is where the 1st event in an Event by event report the cumulative reach may be defined in such a way that the
weight used to calculate it, is the average of the whole campaign, whereas for the single event, it is the weight on the day
of the event. Therefore cume reach & reach for the 1 st event may legitimately not be equal.
This result may not make logical sense to the lay user, & these adjustments are designed simply to avoid these situations.

Therefore, in general the following are “made to be true”
     The cume reach of the last event always equals the campaign reach.
     In the first event (spot), cume reach will equal the differential reach.
     For the final event, the frequency distribution will equal the frequency distribution of the campaign.
     For each event “e”, the frequency distribution of “e” will equal the cume reach.

12.2.3 Reach adjustments

Negative Binomial Distribution is the standard in South Africa, and will remain so.

12.2.4 Mandated Viewing Threshold

In South Africa there is no mandated minimum reach threshold ie: once an individual appears in the TX3 file for that day
with associated viewing, that individual is counted into reach. In other words we have no minimum viewing threshold,
such as 1 minute, that the UK or Australia might apply [here we should note that Australia has minute by minute
viewing data not second by second as South Africa has].
In short, there is no viewing threshold to qualify for reach, in South Africa.

12.2.5 Required South African Configuration

                                              Post Evaluation             Viewing Behavior
         Weight mode                          Average weights             Average weights
         Single spot adjustment               On / yes                    On / yes




                                                                                                               Page 44
        Coverage Adjustment                  On /yes                     On /yes
        Effective Reach Adjustment           NBD                         NBD
        Viewing Threshold                    Off                         Off


12.2.6 FAQ’s

Inevitably questions will be posed, & answered. It seems most appropriate to keep these questions & answers in one
specific place, rather than to spread them in different areas where it will be more difficult to find answers.
This section will therefore grow through time.

Question 1:      Reach: Qualifying Respondents & Demographic Changes
                 What happens when a person’s demographic changes during the period of the of the reach analysis, &
                 thereby falls out of the target market specification ?

Answer 1:        Where Average Weights are used, on the days when the person falls outside of the defined target, that
                 person’s weight should be set to 0 [zero]


Question 2:      Exact Age: “Non-standard” Age Specification
                 In the case of an age target market being specified as “non-standard”, ie: 20-30, should “exact age” be
                 used to select respondents, rather than an age group such as 15-24 ?

Answer 2:        Age groups cannot precisely determine qualifying respondents, therefore where specific “non-
                 standard” age groups are specified, the exact age of all respondents must determine eligibility. In the
                 question above only respondents whose exact age is between 20-30 years of age should qualify.

Question 3:      Reach: Minimum Days to Qualify
                 Is there a minimum number of “good” days that each respondent must achieve, in order to be included
                 in the reach analysis ?

Answer 3:        There is no set minimum number of days that each respondent must achieve [ie: be in the database as a
                 “good” reporter] in order to qualify for inclusion in a reach analysis. If a respondent is only in the data
                 on 1 day out of a 30 day reach analysis, this respondent is included. In the “Average weights”
                 calculations, this respondents contribution to the reach calculation is proportionately diminished, & is
                 therefore in its proper representation.

Question 4:      Floating Point: Number of Decimals to carry
                 In all intermediary & final internal calculations, to what precision must the software work ?

Answer 4:        The methodology is “Double floating Point”, where each number is stored effectively to 17 digits,
                 irrespective of where the decimal point occurs.

Question 5:      Time Shifted Viewing: Calculation Description
                 How is the quantum of Time Shifted Viewing calculated ?

Answer 5:        Calculation Methodology: As used in all countries to December 2009, & all countries bar UK, 2010

                 Assuming an advertiser buys a spot on 12 April, essentially the advertiser needs to know the total
                 audience that this spot delivers, including its Time Shifted Viewing component. Therefore the
                 calculation of the total final audience is based on Transmission Date. This makes most sense.

                 In addition, the 2 requirements below, should be met by the chosen methodology
                 a.) The methodology chosen should avoid the re-issuing of previously released data.




                                                                                                              Page 45
b.) The “live & VOSDAL” audience [& respondent sample] of a spot, should not change through
    time.

The process:
On April 12, polling takes place, after all “live & VOSDAL” viewing has been captured in the meter.
During data production early morning 13 April, weights are assigned to all qualifying respondents.
During the next 7 days all additional time shifted viewing by respondents is captured – but only of
respondents “good” & in the viewing database for 12 April. Time shifted viewing by other respondents,
not “good” on 12 April, is discarded.
This time shifted viewing is added to the “Live & VOSDAL” viewing already issued for 12 April

This methodology avoids a recalculation & re-issue of the original 12 April “Live & VOSDAL”
audience.
Also, 12 April “Live & VOSDAL” data is not re-released

The final addition of all time shifted viewing to “Live & VOSDAL” audience on 12 April, gives the
advertiser what he is looking for.

All guest viewership is used, based on the Guest’s weight, on day of Playback [guests are not identified
– therefore using any guest’s weight for 12 April is not possible.]




                                                                                         Page 46
12.3     TV Rating (also known as ‘AMR’ Average Minute Rating or “AR” AMPS Rating)
Average number of individuals who have seen a specific event or daypart.

Formulas:                  Absolute (000s):                                     Percentage (%):




Where:                     i = individuals of the target
                           weighti = daily weight of individual i
                           viewingi = viewed seconds of individual i on program/daypart
                           duration = duration of program/daypart
                           Univ = daily Universe

Calculation Rules:         For calculations of TVR for a group of events or dayparts the duration of each event /
                           daypart is considered in the calculation of the Average TVR (weighted by duration). The
                           TVR% on a group of events is divided by the average daily universe (averaged by the
                           number of daily events).

                           The Average by duration is calculated as:




12.4     ATV (Average Time Viewed)

Average number of minutes seen by any individual

Formulas:                  Absolute (000s):                                     Percentage (%):




Where:                     Dur = duration of program/daypart
                           Univ = daily Universe

Calculation Rules:         On a group of events or day parts it is calculated as average weighted by duration.




                                                                                                           Page 47
12.5     ATS (Average Time Spent)

Average number of minutes seen by each viewer

Formulas:                   Absolute (000s):                                     Percentage (%):




Where:                      Dur = duration of program/daypart

Calculation Rules:          On a group of events or day parts it is calculated as average weighted by duration




12.6     TTVR (Total Television Rating)

Average number of individuals watching TV

Formulas:                   Absolute (000s):                                     Percentage (%):




Where:                      i = individuals of the target
                            weighti = daily weight of individual i
                            viewingi = seconds of individual i with TV on
                            duration = duration of program/daypart
                            Univ = daily Universe

Calculation Rules:          On a group of events or day parts it is calculated as average weighted by duration



12.7     SHR (Share)
Proportion of individuals viewing a program or day part on the total number of individuals watching TV at that time

Formulas:                   Percentage (%):




Calculation Rules:          On a group of events or day parts it is calculated as the proportion of average TVR and
                            average TTVR




                                                                                                           Page 48
12.8     RCH (Reach)
Number of individuals having seen greater than 15 seconds of an event or daypart

Formulas:                   Absolute (000s):                                     Percentage (%):




Where:                      i = individuals of the target
                            weighti = weight of individual I having seen the specified viewing threshold
                            Univ = daily Universe

Calculation Rules:          No threshold is defined
                            The reach and universe are calculated with daily weights and universe.
                            Average reach: the average reach is calculated as average by duration.
                            In Reach and Frequency average weights are used.


12.9     Effective Reach (n+, n-m) [Synonyms: effective reach, reach n+]
Number of different individuals having seen at least n or a range n-m tv-items of the schedule

Formulas:                   Absolute (000s):                                     Percentage (%):




Where:                      i = individuals of the target
                            n+ =at least n ; n-m=frequency corridor
                            weighti = weight of individual having seen exactly n items
                            Univ = target Universe

Calculation Rules:          No threshold is defined
                            The reach and universe are calculated with daily weights and universe.
                            Average reach: the average reach is calculated as average by duration
                            In Reach and Frequency average weights are used.




                                                                                                           Page 49
12.10 GRP (Gross Rating Point)

Total number of contacts

Formulas:                  Absolute (000s):                                      Percentage (%):




Where:                     i = individuals of the target
                           weighti = daily weight of spot viewers
                           Univ = daily Universe

Calculation Rules:         GRP is calculated with daily individual weights.
                           The GRP of a campaign or group of spots is the sum of each spot’s GRP (in absolute or
                           percentage).

Country Specifics:         -South Africa:



12.11 GRP per Spot

Average spot rating

Formulas:                  Absolute (000s):                                      Percentage (%):




12.12 OTS (Opportunity to see)

Average number of spots seen by the viewers

Formulas:                  Absolute (000s):




Calculation Rules:         OTS is the proportion between campaign’s absolute GRP and Reach


12.13 Cost/GRP – Cost per 000

Cost per rating

Formulas:                  Absolute (000s):                                      Percentage (%):




Calculation Rules:         For a campaign or group of spots the Cost per rating is the total investment by total rating




                                                                                                            Page 50
12.14 30” CPP (Equivalent Cost per Point)

Equivalent cost per GRP

Usage (Why):              The Equivalent cost per rating point is the estimator of Cost efficiency of campaigns

Formulas:                 Absolute (000s):                                     Percentage (%):




Calculation Rules:        For a campaign or group of spots the Eq. cost per point is calculated as the total eq.
                          investment by the total GRP




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