• Glass infiltrated alumina
• Procera all ceram
• Pressable ceramics
• Machinable ceramics
• CAD CAM
Though conventional ceramics provide
esthetically pleasing retorations they have many
drawbacks which limit their use.With more and
more studies coming in the field of ceramics and
with the advent of digital technology newer and
better products are flooding the market these
days.The “chinese clay” of olden days have
become the unavoidable product in esthetic
•* reinforced ceramic core systems
• metal-ceramics •resin-bonded
Since the stone age ceramics have been
important for humans.
1789-de_chemant & Duchateau.
1825-commercial production by Stockton.
1903-Dr.Charles Land-first ceramic crown
1962-Patents by weinstien and wenstein.
1965-Mclean & Hughes
PURE ALUMINA CENCY
FIRING TEMP. MICRO
P.ZIRCONIA SINTERING STRUCT OPAQUE
LOW FUSING URE TRANSLUCENT
P.SILICA GLASS PARTIAL SINT TRANSPARENT
LEUCITE.G.CER GLASS INFIL.
HIGH FUSING CRYTALLINE
LITHIA BASED CAD-CAM
WHY DO WE NEED ADVANCED
• One of the most serious drawbacks with the early dental
porcelains were their lack of strength and toughness, which
seriously limited their use. In order to overcome these
problems, there are two possible solution.
1. One solution is to provide the dental porcelain with
support from a stronger substructure.
2. The other option is to produce ceramics, which are stronger
Metal free ceramic systems
All ceramic systems can provide better esthetics.
Wide range of tranlucency opacities are available
Soft tissue health
No over contouring
Glass infiltrated alumina
Supplied as one of the three core ceramics.
In - ceram
A slurry of material is slip cast on porous
refractory die and heated in a furnace to produce
a partially sineterd coping.
This coping is infiltrated with glass at
Indication-anterior and posterior crowns and
anterior 3-unit FPDs.
The final ICA core consists of 70wt% alumina
and 30wt%sodiumlnathanum glass.
Moderately high flexural strength and fracture
A metal free structure
An ability to be used succesfully with
conventional luting cements
Marginal seal is not as good as procera-all ceram
or IPS Empress.
High degree of opacity
Inability to be etched
In ceram spinnel
Indications-anterior single unit
creowna,inlays,onlays & veneers.
It is the most translucent among the three .
It was introduced as an aletrnative to ICA
Improved translucency.....better esthetics.
single anterior single posterior Inlays onlays veneers
anterior bridges posterio bridges
In- X X X X
In- X X X
In- X X
In ceram zirconia
Not recommended in anteriors due to the high
degree of opacity
But has good modulous of elasticity and fracture
Though it has better strength its use is limited to
posteriors due to its greater opacity.
Castable and machinable
When used in posteriors ceramic crowns are
succeptible to fracture.
First commercially available castable ceramic-
dicor,developed by corning glass works.
Dicor is a castable glass.
Indicated for onlays,facial veneers,full crown
Procera all ceram
Composed of densely sintered high purity
Aluminium oxide core+all ceram veneering
Contains 99% alumina.
It is one of the hardest among the ceramics.
Indications-anterior & posterior
Procera scanner is used.
It is developed through CAD-CAM processing.
Computer aided designing and computer aided
The internal surface of inlays or crowns is ground
with diamond discs according to the scanned image
of the praparation
No wear of the opposing tooth
They are zirconia based products.
First the milled prosthesis is removed from the
The zirconia frame work is placed in the cercon
furnace and fire at 1350*C for 6 hours.
The purest tetragonal zirconia has got the greatest
fracture toughness and flexural strength.
Contra indicated in patients with bruxism.
Only minimal occlusal reduction of 2mm needed.
Finesse all ceramic
It is a new product patended to dentsply.
• Finesse All-Ceramic achieve an ideal bond
without the need to create a wash layer
• Thus saving time and enhancing the strength of
• It is a leucite reinforced ceramic glass material.
• Flexural strength- 125mPa
• "Pressing" - lost wax injection molding
• At 930°C, for 20 min
• Inherently fluorescent
• Ideal transparency range from (clear) to
Introduces by MAC CULLOCH IN 1968
Here,the glass is formed into the devised
Then it is subjected to partial devitrification.a
presssure moulding technique is followed.
• IPS empress-is a glass ceramic avialable as
• Which can be heated and pressed until the
ingots flows into a mold.
• It contains higher concentration of leucite
crystals that increase the resistance to crack
• It can be tained ,glazed or built up by layering
No metal component
• Translucent ceramic core
• Moderately high flexural strength
• Excellent fit
• Excellent esthetics
Potential to fracture(in posterior)
Requires a resin cement to micromechanically
bond to the tooth structure.
Y - TZP...??
Yttrium tetragonal zirconia
• One the latest advacements in the field of all
• Phase transformation from monoclonal to
tetragonal on firing.
• Adding zerconia stablizes the core during this
• Also the presence of water causes crack
propagation and stress corrosion reactions.
• But Y-TZP substructures are independent of
• In vitro studies show a flexural strength of 900-
Hydroxy apatite based ceramics
• Cera pearl,developed by Kyocera co. in CA.
• Here the main ceystalline phase is oxy apatite which
can be tranformed to hydroxy apatite on hydration.
• Commonly used in implants...for better flexural
strength and bonding.
• Dimensions of color
• Advances in the field of ceramics gives hand
full of newer products for the dentist.
• Which will surely enhance the esthetic and
• A carefull selection of these products are
essential for successful outcome.
• Text book of dental materials-Anusavice.
• Dental technitian news letter-2009 march
• Text book of ceramics fabrication-Naylor.
• Recent advances in ceramics-