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WHO DISCOVERED AMERICA? What is your definition of the concept of discovery?
I. Original inhabitants - The first Americans
A. They apparently came from Siberia in Asia as nomadic hunters
Recent evidence suggests the possibility that even they may not have been the first inhabitants
B. Bering Strait
Extent of eventual settlement indicates a "Land Bridge"
People of Old World there long before Columbus
(15 - 20 million years)
C. Technological deficiencies ruled out long sea trips for large groups
D. Duration of Immigration suggests Geographical continuity
1. Migration began an estimated 35,000 - 25,000 years ago.
or as late as 14,000 to 12,000 years ago
2. Migration of similar groups continued until approximately 2000 B.C.
E. All evidence on this issue is subject to debate
New theories are constantly being developed
New evidence is constantly being discovered
Therefore any conclusions discussed above could be out of date by the time you read this!
F. Bering Strait only about 45 miles wide today
II. Steady migration over a long period
produced widely diverging cultural patterns
A. Physical appearances suggest the evolution of many distinct cultural groupings
B. Over 400 major tribal groups have been identified
10 million in South America by 1500
by 8000 BC reached tip of SA
(40 - 60 million total by some accounts)
(compared to 70 - 90 million in Europe and 40 - 70 million in Africa)
4 million in present U.S. (500,000 on east coast)
C. Identifiable languages are complex
as in the Southern Americas, where...
1. 160 basic language stocks existed, with
2. over 1,700 separate language variations.
D. Conflicting values, beliefs, and practices frequently caused conflict
E. Varieties of societies emerged, from urban to nomadic
III. Hunters and Farmers
A. Our knowledge of Indian civilizations remains limited
1. Even the term "Indian" constitutes a European perversion of fact.
2. 35,000 and more years of development produced
marked cultural diversity
limited evidence for anthropological and historical investigation.
B. Indian civilizations developed in Isolation from simultaneous developments elsewhere
1. Ancient "cradle of civilization" cultures of the Middle East and Africa.
2. Greco-Roman civilization and advancement of knowledge.
3. Renaissance Europe.
C. Development went through several phases
1. Beringian epoch - till 14,000 years ago
a. ended with the development of spears
b. lead to kill sites and more settled pattern
2. Archaic era - 10,000 to 2,500 years ago until around 500BC
a. agricultural revolution
b. process developed in Africa, Europe, and the America's at roughly the same time
c. process developed independently
3. Post-archaic Period
a. complex adaption to environment
D. Europeans in North American had little basis for relating to Indian civilizations
1. First confrontation not until fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
2. Cultural gaps were immense.
3. Europeans tended to reject Indian cultures and race as inferior.
IV. Native Americans in 1600
A. 10 million people
spread over a vast area from Mexico to the tip of South America by 1500
B. 100s of separate civilizations
C. Most Indians had moved south of the North American continent.
D. Among the high civilizations were:
1. Mayas of Central America, (2500 B.C. - 1697 A.D.)
2. Aztecs of Mexico, (1100s to the 1600s) - human sacrifice
3. Both were destroyed by Spanish invaders
4. Incas - Peru (6 million)
E. Examples of high civilization as reconstructed from artifacts
1. urban centers with complex arrangements.
2. Architecture and ornamentation compared favorably with that of other civilizations
functionally and esthetically.
3. Calendar systems utilized mathematics and astronomy.
4. Hieroglyphic writing was used.
5. Agricultural Revolution - Archaic era - 10,000 to 2,500 years ago
Economic diversification was evident.
a. Indications of effective division of labor of millions of people.
b. Subsistence Agriculture - main economic activity blended with weaving and metalwork.
c. Stone wheels utilized.
d. Carried on commerce
6. Political centralization established.
a. Established on hierarchical plan.
b. Often based on religious stratification.
c. Provided effective means of control.
d. Proved useful in self-defense.
7. Advanced agricultural techniques based primarily on corn
V. Northern American cultures
generally less culturally sophisticated.
recent archaeological evidence suggest more complex-stratified societies than previously thought
A. Tended to be economically and politically decentralized - lacking in unity
1. Individualism and self-reliance became hallmarks.
2. Thinly spread population permitted atomization over vast spaces
(4 to 10 million total?) by 1500
3. Absence of centralized tribal authorities a corollary feature.
4. Sophisticated division of labor failed to develop in most tribes.
5. General reliance emerged on hunting and fishing, and on agriculture.
6. Factors that tended to work against development of powerful civilizations
Absence of outside threats over centuries
availability of vast spaces
B. Knowledge of North American Indian civilization remains rudimentary
1. Cochise (10,000 B.C. - 500 B.C.)
a. lived in general area of southern Arizona.
b. Evolution suggests extent of civilization of thousands of years, gradual sophistication of tools is one such proof.
c. Gathered nuts, roots, and edible plants.
d. Used primitive stone tools.
e. Laid the basis for such succeeding civilizations as:
2. Pueblo (1050 - 1300)
a. Lived in general area of American Southwest.
b. Direct descendants and continuers of Anasazi civilization.
Ancestors of current day Hopi and Zuni Indians
c. Developed novel architectural techniques.
1. carefully planned cliff villages
2. "Apartment houses" of stone and adobe each with many rooms.
d. Economically diversified.
1. Weaving of cloth.
2. Harvesting of corn, beans, and pumpkins.
3. Elaborate irrigation systems
3. Fishing tribes of the Northwest.
a. Salish, Tillamook, Chinook, and many others.
b. Prospered through great catches of salmon, herring, clams, halibut and marine game.
c. Later turned to fur trade with European colonization.
4. Hopewell Culture (400 B.C. - 500 A.D.)
a. Centered in Ohio, extended west to Kansas and Wisconsin extended east to Pennsylvania
and New York.
b. Economically diversified.
1. Farmers and hunters.
2. Produced fine metalwork.
3. Ornamentation distinct from southwestern cultures.
5. Mound Builders
a. lower Mississippi and Ohio River Valleys
b. Settlements around rectangular plazas
c. Used iron tools, woven fabrics, and collective burial mounds
d. Destroyed by Indian enemies around the time of Columbus
e. Cahokia - largest town in North America before the arrival of Europeans
constructed giant earthen temple
developed an urban center, with outlying farms
manufactured products for local consumption
engaged in long distance trade
located near present day East St. Louis
e. Discovered by Europeans in the 17th c.
b. democratic style of government
a. military confederacy in the Northeast - League of Iroquois
b. fought both Indians and Europeans.
(Six Nations - Mohawks, Oneidas, Cayugas, Senecas, Tuscaroras, Onondagas)
c. built longhouses.
d. hunting, fishing, farming (corn, beans, squash)
e. land owned by tribe - inalienable community property.
f. Somewhat matriarchal - choose men who served on tribal councils.
g. Split during the American Revolution
2 sided with colonies.
4 on losing side moved to Canada.
VI. Contrasting World Views
A. Understanding the scope of development of Indian civilizations essential
a. Involved millions of people.
b. comprised vast areas of two continents.
c. produced rich diversity of cultural patterns.
d. unfolded without interruption over centuries.
a. Strong cultural heritage.
b. Disrupted by European colonization.
c. Continues in attenuated forms.
B. Eastern Indians developed similar languages
1. Were developing rapidly
b. social customs
c. agricultural revolution
2. considered Europeans a dangerous threat like any tribe would be to their tribe.
C. Differences large
It is sometimes said that the Europeans who came to the Americas settled a "virgin land" that was unused and unspoiled; is this or is
this not an accurate description of what happened?
Define savage. Then use this definition to demonstrate that the pre-Columbian Indians of the Americas were or were not savages.
1. Europeans considered differences as defects
2. Native Americans sought to live in harmony with the environment
a. Indians viewed every part of the environment as sacred
land = source of common sustenance rather than wealth
Native Americans showed remarkable respect for and adaptation to their environment. Example: Use of "dry farming" and irrigation
in the arid Southwest.
b. land ownership - communal
this limited social stratification
stressed group rather than individual
more concerned with personal valor than personal wealth - more egalitarian
c. matrilineal pattern among the Iroquois was not uncommon
family membership determined through female line
shared power in the economy
divorce woman's choice
Women played a secondary role lobbying and instructing politically
leaders could be removed if they ignored the council of women
Division of labor was based on gender.
Male activity stressed warfare and hunting
female emphasized nurturing of children, planting and gathering of crops, and preparation of food.
d. Religious differences
no written tradition
worship of spirits similar to pre-Christian European beliefs
Native American technology had some crucial gaps (use of iron, the wheel).
3. Europeans sought to subdue nature - the enemy
a. A resource to be used and conquered
source of wealth
very destructive uses of the environment
b. Land should be privately possessed - created inevitable conflict
courts to settle disputes
social structure built around these concepts
mass of propertyless individuals at the bottom of the pyramid
Europeans less egalitarian
c. Traditional roles of men and women - challenged by native concepts of greater equality
d. religion - Christianity
Protestant Reformation influences - those not like us serve the devil
3. nomadic vs. permanent settlements and other differences were of lesser importance
D. Three main colonizers - each with its own distinct pattern
Europeans: Were initially welcomed and Native Americans often assisted in their adjustment to an alien environment.
Native Americans were soon, however, conquered, exploited, and sometimes enslaved.
Indo-European racial mix (Mestizo) and Indian-African blending were most common in Central and South America.
Native population was decimated by epidemics of European diseases
(especially small pox and measles).
Native economies were shaken by European trade.
IV. Earliest North American settlements
differed from Portuguese, and Spanish Colonies
A. Portuguese and Spanish Colonies Initially More Successful
1. Established a century prior to European North American colonization.
a. Able to operate freely without distracting Great Power rivals.
b. Quickly subjugated the native populations.
c. Maintained tight restrictions on everything.
2. Most interested in easy economic return.
a. Able to export substantial quantities of gold and silver.
This retarded long-term economic development.
b. Lost interest in North American explorations when no precious metals found.
c. few people went...planned to return home.
3. Supported and controlled by strong united political and religious institutions.
a. Centralized monarchies.
b. Roman Catholic church.
B. Early French, Dutch, and English Colonies enjoyed less success
1. Powers always conscious of global power balance.
a. Chronic political, economic, and religious strife.
b. Each continental war had colonial counterpart.
2. North America less susceptible to easy economic exploitation.
3. Relationships with Indians more complicated.
a. Indian population spread out rather than concentrated and politically centralized.
b. Encroachments not concentrated.
1. No slavery owing to the nature of the land and its natural economic development.
2. Land conflicts localized.
3. General westward movement delayed until 19th c.
c. European powers vied to secure diplomatic alliances with Indian tribes.
4. Mother countries disunited.
a. Continental wars.
b. Civil wars.
c. Religious strife.
d. Minimal allocation for overseas ventures.
C. European colonizers brought cultural elements eventually destructive of Indian civilizations
1. Varieties of messianic Christianity that refused to tolerate Indian religious beliefs.
b. Pilgrim Separatism.
c. Roman Catholicism.
d. Other Protestant dispensations.
e. All eventually forced to tolerate one another
but at same time felt driven to "save" the Indians.
2. More sophisticated weapons of destruction, especially firearms.
3. Domesticated horses.
5. New strains of diseases.
6. Discriminatory behavior based on preconceived racial assumptions of inferiority
also manifested toward Africans.
7. Economic growth that fostered Indian dependency.
8. British experiences in Ireland led them to believe that they should stay separate from the Indians
unlike Spanish and French colonists
SPAIN IN THE NEW WORLD
Consider how the Spanish, French and Dutch patterns of settlement differed from that of the English. What were the social, economic,
and political differences? Were the British more or less humane?
I. SPANISH MOTIVATION
DESIRE TO COUNTER PORTUGUESE POWER
AND TO FIND PRECIOUS METALS
A. Christopher Columbus (c.1451-1506) and his contributions
1. Italian by birth, but Spanish by culture and choice.
2. Itinerant sailor and navigator throughout most of his life.
3. Laid plans for reaching Far East by western route.
o a. Little sense of distance involved.
o b. Plans rejected by Portuguese.
4. Approval and patronage of Ferdinand and Isabella secure.
o a. Underwrote Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria - first two were caravel-type ships.
o b. Authorized Columbus to claim all lands discovered in the name of the Spanish throne.
o c. Presented Columbus with letter to Emperor of China.
5. Saga of the voyage remains thrilling.
o a. Columbus showed great skill during 2 month journey.
o b. Epic struggle of men testing the unknown.
o c. always believed he had reached the Orient or Asia - never knew significance
6. Landing data.
o a. October 12, 1492, on Guanahani Island in the Bahamas.
o b. Named San Salvador Island by Columbus.
o c. Probably present-day Watlings Island.
o d. 500 year anniversary
7. Accomplishments of Columbus' four voyages: 1492-93; 1493-96; 1498-1500; 1502-04.
o a. Discovered "New World" for Europe.
1. Bahamas Islands group in 1492.
2. Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and Jamaica, among others in 1493.
3. Hispaniola and Cuba in 1493 before ending first voyage.
3. Venezuela and the mouth of the Orinoco in 1498.
4. Honduran coast in 1502.
o b. Accomplishments tarnished by Columbus' personal inadequacies.
1. Cruel and barbarous in the administering of several islands
2. Stubborn to the point of resisting all authority.
3. Determined personally to control all the West Indian islands.
4. Died in some degree of disgrace.
o c. New lands named "America" in 1507.
1. Derived from cartographer's error.
2. Mistaken belief that the first explorer had been Amerigo Vespucci
a Florentine merchant (vivid description).
3. First to recognize discovery as a new continent.
B. Political Importance of Columbus' Explorations and Discoveries
1. Line of Demarcation of 1493 drawn.
o a. Forced on Pope Alexander VI by Spain.
o b. Illustrated Spain's fear of Portuguese intentions in New World
(Cabral - 1500 - reached Brazil).
o c. Papal authority divided the New World.
1. To Spain - all non-Christian lands to south and west toward India beyond line
100 leagues west of the Azores and Cape Verde Islands.
2. To Portugal - all lands to east of the line.
o d. Spain and Portugal granted exclusive sovereignty.
o e. allowed Spanish to dominate exploration for 100 years
2. Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494 - divided the New World.
o a. Line of demarcation moved 270 leagues farther west.
1. 1,100 miles west of Cape Verde Islands.
o b. Portugal granted exclusive rights east of the line.
1. Included: Brazil; Africa; and Asia
o c. Spain granted exclusive rights west of the line.
o d. Ignored by those countries shut out by the agreement
3. Spanish political authority flooded the region.
C. Reasons for voyages of exploration which followed Columbus (3G's).
1. seek a passage through or around the Americas to the Far East.
2. secure gold, silver, precious gems, and other valuable products (sugar and indigo - blue dye)
3. establish claims to new lands.
4. convert the Indians to Christianity.
5. Satisfy the spirit of adventure and intellectual curiosity.
6. Pave the way for trading outposts and settlements.
D. The Conquistadors (1500 - 1540)
1. Spanish generals with mercenary armies.
2. Ranged over vast areas in search of gold and conquest.
o found more silver than gold
3. Easily overpowered Indian civilizations, including
o a. Aztecs.
o b. Mayas.
o c. Incas
4. Superior war capability compensated for numbers.
o a. Firearms wreaked devastation.
o b. Horse cavalry permitted little military opposition.
5. Exploited endemic weaknesses.
o a. Existing tribal divisions.
o b. Totalitarian rule.
6. Hernando Cortes (1485-1547) conquered the Aztecs and won Mexico for Spain.
o a. Received by Emperor Montezuma as descendant of deity.
o b. Later quarrels and struggles produced all-out Spanish assault.
o c. Cortes received support from some peoples subordinated by Aztecs.
o d. Conquered and destroyed Aztec Empire in 1521.
o e. Established Spanish control for over three centuries
7. Francisco Pizarro (c.1476-1541) conquered the Incas of Peru - established Spanish control.
o a. Sought wealth and professed friendship for Incas.
o b. Killed Emperor Atahualpa and assumed control in 1532.
o c. Pizarro later killed in internecine Spanish struggles.
o d. Spain dominated area for over 300 years.
o e. Enslaved natives to mine gold / silver (Potosi, Bolivia).
E. Other Spanish Explorers Expanded Spain's Power over Vast Areas:
1. Diego Velasquez invaded Cuba in 1511.
2. Vasco Nunez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama and became, in 1513, the first known
o European to view the Pacific Ocean.
3. Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba explored the Yucatan in 1517.
4. Alonzo Alvarez de Pineda explored the Mississippi Gulf coast in 1519.
5. Francisco de Gordillo sailed the Atlantic coast as far north as the Carolinas in 1521.
6. Esteban Gomez.
o a. Portuguese under Spanish flag.
o b. Sailed from the Strait of Magellan to Nova Scotia in 1525.
o c. Completed Spanish exploration of Atlantic coast.
F. Spanish rule north of Mexico (New Spain) was third in importance
1. successive expeditions failed in search for gold.
o a. Juan Ponce de Leon (c.1460-1521) - first in North America.
1. Discovered Florida in 1513, landing near St. Augustine.
2. No evidence that he sought "fountain of youth"
3. Conducted serious search for gold.
4. Attempted to fund permanent settlement on return in 1521
but driven off by Indians.
o b. Panfilo de Narvaez (c.1480-1528).
1. Landed at Tampa Bay in 1528.
2. Hunted unsuccessfully for gold in interior.
o c. Hernando de Soto (c.1496-1542).
1. Explored southern part of present-day United States, 1539-42.
2. Discovered Mississippi River in 1541.
3. Learned of various Indian cultures - including the Creeks.
o d. Francisco Vasquez de Coronado (1510-54).
1. Ranged throughout southwest (New Mexico and Arizona)
as far east as Kansas in 1541.
sought Seven Cities of Cibola
2. Discovered the Grand Canyon and buffalo herds.
3. Expeditions brought numerous contacts with various Indian tribes.
2. Settlements did serve useful functions.
o a. St. Augustine fortress established in 1565.
1. First permanent European settlement in the present-day U.S.
2. Became home base for expeditions as far north as Chesapeake region.
3. Spanish Florida a later source of constant friction with English in North America
from first assault by Sir Francis Drake in 1586 onward.
o b. New Mexico - Arizona area settlements established,1598 - 1608.
1. Sante Fe - founded 1605 - second oldest city in U.S.
2. Basis for further exploration and settlement.
3. Temporarily driven out by Indian uprising in 1680.
4. 17th c colonization of Texas.
5. 18th c colonization of California.
II. SPANISH IMPERIALISM:
SHORT AND LONG-TERM EFFECTS
OVERVIEW When Europeans sailed westward for Asia they encountered the Americas. Exploitation of resources enriched
some Europeans but brought tragedy to Native Americans and enslavement for African Americans.
o • The first African slaves were brought to Europe by the Portuguese in the 1440s.
o • Columbus's voyage set in motion a vast westward migration of peoples and
o significant cultural interchange.
o • Indians (and later, African slaves) were coerced to work in mines and on farms.
o • Some Catholic missionaries denounced treatment of Indians.
o • The flow of wealth to Spain led to inflation and eventual economic decline.
Describe the impact of Europeans on Native American (Indian) cultures and the impact of Native cultures on Europeans.
Then explain why it was or was not a good thing that European culture prevailed. How did the Spanish, French, and English
vary in their treatment of the Indians? Which was better? Why?
A. Spanish Power - Tremendously Increased in the 16thCentury
1. Came into control of vast areas and millions of subjects. One of the largest empires in history
2. Enhanced position in the European balance of power - #1 till 1588
3. Gained tremendous sources of wealth - created dependency.
o a. Gold and silver mines actually weakened Spain
o b. Ranches, farms, and extensive real estate holdings (little reinvest).
o c. Tax base which yielded about 20 percent of private profits.
o d. 10 x as much gold and silver as all other mines combined
4. Benefited from efficient vehicles of control.
o a. Roman Catholic church - missionaries were very successful.
1. Useful emphasis on "next world" for subjugated peoples.
2. Theological certainty backed by political force.
3. Allowed only R.C. - no haven for those escaping persecution
Pope's Revolt - 1680
Pueblo leader named Pope led an uprising
to protect Indian religious practices in New Mexico
R.C. forced to integrate practices
o b. Tight control maintained by the Spanish monarchy - poor leadership
1. allowed no self-rule
2. Common law bound native peoples to serve the whims of Spanish landholders.
3. Same lack of freedom as home - life more unappealing.
4. Mercantilist restrictions left colonial economy strangled
o c. Brutality and slavery - Indians became the principal labor source.
5. Price Revolution
o vast sums of silver created inflation
o led to major redistribution of wealth
o Inflation created conditions which drove other Europeans to the New World
increased the number of people living at the margins of society
6. The first of the European colonizers, spurred later efforts.
o 200,000 Spanish in New World before the British showed up
7. Spain in the West Indies Set Pattern for Later Colonizers
o a. Larger and more successful than British as a colony lasted longer.
o b. Joined in the seventeenth century by English, French, and Dutch colonial invasions.
o c. Original interest in gold quickly frustrated.
1. Tobacco culture the first economic mainstay.
2. After 1650, most islands relied on plantations and sugar.
o d. Black Legend - Conditions of brutality and impoverishment the rule
1. first overran and destroyed Indian civilizations
2. then tried to enslave survivors - cheap labor
3. finally adopted one of two attitudes
a. left them alone to live in isolated forests, mountains, and deserts
b. created mission communities to convert Indians to Christianity
(then taught farming)
c. African slaves imported by Portuguese traders.
B. Spanish Rule in Southern Americas Had Mixed Effects
1. Wretched conditions produced decline of native population.
o a. Brutal overwork common on ranches and plantations introduced by the Spanish.
o b. Rise in disease and mortality stunning.
o c. Population diminished in Mexico from approx. 25 million to approx. 1 million.
2. Basic elements of Spanish culture hybrid endured through centuries.
o a. Language and education - Church-run universities (85 years before).
o b. Religion - Catholicism.
o c. Architecture - Cathedrals.
3. Intermarriage created mestizo class.
o a. few immigrants from Spain - outnumbered by natives
o b. many singles rather than families.
o c. Spanish merged with Indians to a larger extent than did the British.
4. Left legacy of concentrated land ownership and wide class distinctions.
5. Spanish culture absorbed some Indian social customs
III. Impact of European colonization on the American Indians
A. Interrupted centuries of isolation and cultural evolution of100s of societies
B. Introduction of the Horse and Firearms
by the Spanish early in the 17th century produced the most fundamental changes
1. Some tribes deserted traditional sedentary agricultural ways.
2. Marauding bands developed in the 17th century
o a. Comanches.
o b. Arapaho.
o c. Kiowa.
o d. Cheyenne.
o e. Dakota Sioux.
o f. Apache
3. By 1660 many North American Indian tribes were economically dependent upon the fur trade.
4. New hunting tribes of the Plains emerged, like the Blackfoot. (buffalo)
C. Hostility between Europeans and Indians
present from the beginnings of colonization, have continued
1. cultural patterns and value systems markedly different.
2. steady encroachment on Indian lands.
o a. appropriation of land more important than sanctity of treaties.
o b. Indian concepts of property ownership and sale antithetical to laws of capitalism.
3. European assumptions of racial and cultural superiority.
4. Material objectives and behavior of colonizers.
o a. Desire for quick wealth through discovery of gold and silver.
o b. Tendency to plunder and disregard Indian rights.
o c. Messianic attempts to Christianize and "civilize" the Indians.
o d. Frequent resort to barbarism and slavery.
o e. Unquestioned assumption that the rights of discovery transcended the rights of
D. Advantages of European settlers over the Indians
1. Weapons - firearms vs. spears and arrows.
2. Agricultural Output - Europeans could support larger population
3. Manufactured Goods
4. Immunity to certain diseases such as smallpox which destroyed entire tribes.
5. Political organization - unity vs. individual tribes play one tribe against another.
IV. Cultural Diffusion
A. From the New World to Europe
1. Plants and Agricultural methods
o a. tobacco
o b. corn - more important than gold
o c. beans
o d. tomatoes
o e. potato
1. revolutionized the international economy.
2. fed the rapid population growth of Europe.
o a. Syphilis
B. From Europe to the New World
1. Plants and animals
o a. cattle, swine, and horses
o b. seeds of Kentucky bluegrass
o c. dandelions, daises
o a. Types.
2. yellow fever
o b. Killed 67% - 90% of Indian population (Example Hispaniola)
1. Population - 5 million in 1492.
2. disease, enslavement, and armed aggression by the Spanish.
3. Population - 250 in 1592.
o c. Between 1500 - 1800 over 50% of immigrants to the New World were Africans
most were taken to the Caribbean to replace the Indian population as laborers.
First slaves - 1502
slavery had been primarily for criminals and prisoners of war not laborers
NORTH AMERICAN SETTLEMENTS
TRENDS AND COMPARISONS
I. The establishment of French claims
A. Giovanni de Verrazano (c.1480-c.1527)
1. Florentine navigator sponsored by Francis I of France.
2. Explored the Atlantic coast from Nova Scotia to North Carolina in 1524.
3. Provided a tenuous basis for France's original claim to North America.
B. Jacques Cartier (1491-1557)
1. Made three voyages under commission of Francis I.
2. Sailed into mouth of St. Lawrence in 1534 and discovered the river.
3. Sailed up the St. Lawrence on 1535-36 voyage to sites of Quebec and Montreal
o claimed territory for French king.
4. Failed in 1541 to establish permanent settlement at Quebec site.
o a. Discouraged by harsh climate and failure to discover precious metals.
o b. Ended serious French colonization attempts until the 17th c.
C. Failure of French Huguenot Ventures
1. Port Royal settlement (South Carolina) failed in 1562.
2. Settlement of Fort Caroline on St. John's River in Florida destroyed by Spanish in 1565.
D. Edict of Nantes
1. St Bartholomew's Day - 1572 - over 10,000 men, women, and children butchered (Huguenots)
2. 1598 - Edict of Nantes granted limited toleration of French Protestants.
o Restricted their travel to New World
DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT
OF THE NEW WORLD
1492 - 1607
EUROPE IN THE 16TH CENTURY
Impulses to European exploration
OVERVIEW As Europe emerged from the feudal Middle Ages, fundamental changes stimulated interest in overseas exploration and
exploitation. Adventurous navigators sought new routes to Asia around Africa and across the Atlantic.
WHY DIDN'T EUROPE DISCOVER AMERICA SOONER?
I. The Middle Ages 500 - 1500 Primary Concerns Provincial
A. Fall of the Roman Empire - Dark Ages
destroyed social, economic, and political structure
1. Spiritual control by the Catholic Church strained just to retain rituals of Christianity
discouraged other thought or investigation
stress order over liberty
a. time of little change - the Dark Ages
traditional beliefs, institutions, and behaviors frozen in time
b. people born to three jobs: father's, priesthood, military
c. people born, lived, died in one location - travel dangerous
d. preparing for life beyond the grave - Job
2. Books were scarce and few people could read
movable type not yet invented, few records kept...little curiosity evident.
3. Lack of knowledge of geography and navigation to make long voyage.
1. Economy based on subsistence agriculture - struggle to survive
barter system - no competition allowed - buttonhole story
2. population explosion - led to need for control of excess population
difficult for economy to support masses - no specialization
3. Middle class with money to invest and trade and nation states not yet in existence.
1. Feudal structure - Nobles and Serfs
2. System based on
static social order.
3. Life nasty, brutish and short - war to solve problems
4. Laws detailed - discouraged change
Under these conditions colonization could not occur
B. The 11th c Norsemen -discovered America
1. Chance landing and cursory exploration of "Vinland" in 1000
a. Eric the Red - Viking settlement in Greenland in 900s
b. Leif the Lucky Eriksson - 1000 - blown off course - landed in "Wineland the Good"
c. Possibly the New England coast at some point.
d. Nova Scotia or Newfoundland are other possibilities.
e. 500 years before Columbus.
2. Subsequent brief excursions dispatched - mainly for lumber.
3. Effects of the Vikings' voyages
a. No permanent settlements established - Vikings not interested.
b. Probably did not realize that they had reached a previously unknown continent.
c. The people of Western Europe heard little or nothing of voyages.
d. Under the feudal system western Europe was preoccupied with the struggle to survive.
4. The Americans left to develop in isolation for another 5 centuries
WHAT CHANGED IN EUROPE? WHAT HAPPENED TO ALLOW FOR EXPLORATION?
II. The Rise of Europe
Consider the relative importance of each of these factors as explanations for colonization. The concept of relative importance is a key
factor which you should consider as you study each THEME in US History. Which was MOST important? Why? What about the role
of economics and religion? Which was more important and why?
A. The Crusades - (1095 - 1291) 11th-l5th centuries
were attempts by European armies to reconquer areas in the Middle East and Spain that had been absorbed by expanding Islam.
1. Pope Urban II - 1095
called for Crusades
notice the religious motive for the Crusades - spreading Christianity and capturing the Holy Lands
population explosion - led to need for control of excess population
this is an economic motive
2. European armies fought Moslems for control of the Holy Lands Palestine failed.
3. Europeans came into contact with superior Arab cultures.
Soldiers who returned brought new ideas and products.
led to revival of long-distance trading
Economic or Religious? Why?
4. Marco Polo - 1295 - returned to Europe after a 20 year stay in China
His tales stimulated interest in a shorter route to Asia.
Traditional overland routes, such as the Silk Road, were slow and expensive.
The Mediterranean trade was dominated by Italian city-states.
Expansion of the Ottoman Empire Constantinople fell in 1453
affected trade, adding to the need to find alternate routes.
Economic or Religious?
5. These ideas and products led to the Renaissance.
6. Feudalism weakened.
Peasants treated better
7. Black Death - wiped out 50% of the population
a. began in Constantinople -1347 A.D. - weakened their economy
b. Black Death ended this need for population control for about 150 years
killed 1/3 of the population
by 1492 the problem had returned
c. promoted the unification of old realms into early modern states
8. Magna Carta - 1215
the English aristocracy curbed the powers of the king
Parliament gained the right to meet regularly
Parliament gained the power to pass money bills
This gave Parliament a check on the power of the king
Economic or Religious? Why?
III. Commercial Revolution - End of Feudalism and the rise of Capitalism
A. Built upon existing models
1. 13th c Flanders.
2. 14th c Florence.
B. Spurred by beginnings of Global trade - Commercial Revolution
1. Profitability of trade per se was fully appreciated due to general prosperity.
population explosion - began again by 1450 led to need for more goods
2. Power of merchants and financiers steadily expanded - creation of the growing middle class.
3. The importance of trade
a. sugar, glass, steel from Damascus and Baghdad
b. rugs from Persia
c. pepper black gold from India
d. cloves, cinnamon and nutmeg the Spice Islands
e. fine porcelain and silks from China
f. Europeans traded woolen goods, tin, gold, and silver
4. European markets developed strong demand for products
a. such as Far Eastern spices, dyestuffs, and textiles.
b. Keyed by travelers' descriptions.
c. Potential wealth of the East Asia trade foreseen.
d. Trade expansion long hampered by inefficiency of overland transportation.
5. England will see the rise of the merchant class and the creation of markets later than Italy, Portugal, and Spain
Economic or religious? Why?
C. Institutions and forms expanded to facilitate commercial growth
1. Merchants and other middlemen.
2. The shipping industry.
3. Towns as commercial centers.
4. Financiers and banks.
5. Joint stock companies provided new sources of capital
D. Early emphasis on Industrial production of and trade in woolens
2. Rooted capitalism's modes of production and distribution in England.
moved to consolidate estates for more intensive agriculture
threw peasant farmers off their plots - fewer shepards needed
homeless, jobless peasants moved to the cities to become wage laborers
this created the first stage in industrial development
Continental Europe lagged behind industrially, depending instead on foreign trade
Economic or Religous? Why?
E. Feudal structure deteriorated to be replaced by the Nation - State
1. Vast temporal and spiritual changes over the centuries steadily eroded feudal structure
from the Renaissance on.
2. Monarchical centralization tended to usurp traditional role of the nobility.
3. Land as the basis of wealth and status declined.
a. Alteration in money supply.
1. tremendous influx of gold and silver from overseas mining and from piracy.
2. Europe's money supply increased seven times over in early colonial period.
b. Consequent alteration of price level.
1. Increased between two and three times from 1540 to 1640.
2. Inflated cost of living.
3. Rents no longer able to provide traditional standard of living.
4. Economic power passing to commercial and banking groups.
5. Overseas ventures provided nobility with
a. Possibility of new wealth and status.
c. Opportunity to be of service to monarch.
6. The difficulty of trade
a. old routes difficult dangerous and expensive
b. months and years passed before goods arrived
c. camel caravans overland from China and central Asia crossed vast wastelands and high
mountains to Constantinople and Alexandria.
d. goods also moved across the Indian Ocean and then by camels across the Arabian Desert
then across the Mediterranean Sea
e. Controlled by Italian monopoly - Genoa and Venice
f. created middle class and led to creation of nation states
Are these factors economic or religious? Why?
IV. Other major changes
A. The Renaissance of the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries
Rebirth or revival of learning.
Changes in Europe spur the search for a water route to Asia
1. Began in Italian city-states
a. Italy had been a center of Greco-Roman culture.
b. Italians were in close contact with the Byzantine and Muslim worlds
c. Italy had wealthy merchants and rulers who supported literature, art, and science.
2. Encouraged temporal spiritual endeavors.
3. Celebrated human potential Optimistic self-reliance.
4. Challenged authority and established order.
5. Emphasized worldly accomplishments.
a. art, architecture and writing
b. adventure and exploration at sea
c. attempts to acquire new products discovered in the Middle East
6. Stimulated interest in geography and reintroduced technology necessary for navigation
compass and astrolabe.
a. knowledge limited to Europe, North Africa and Western Asia.
b. Scientists wanted to know more about size and shape of the Earth.
c. By 15th century educated Europeans accepted Greek idea that the world was round.
7. movable type, caravel ships
Economic or religious? Why?
B. The Reformation of the 16th century
1. Splintered Roman Catholic church and diminished the temporal authority of the pope.
Martin Luther - 1517 - Germany
Martin Luther 1483-1546: 95 Theses, 1517, [At Medieval Sourcebook]
The papal Bull which condemned Martin Luther.
Printing Press - 1450 - allowed the rapid circulation of his ideas
John Calvin - 1536
further splinter Europe
Doctrine of Predestination
even more insistent on individual godliness than Luther
Calvin Full Texts [index at Hanover]
John Calvin: Letter to the King, [On the Clergy], [At Medieval Sourcebook]
See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Calvin, John and
Richard Hooker's Introduction to Calvin
2. Countered traditional Roman Catholic teachings against materialism.
justification by faith emphasized over good works
3. Ethos of Protestantism generally related to growth of SPIRIT OF CAPITALISM.
a. Sanctioned acquisitiveness.
b. Accounted as virtues habits of hard work, efficiency, frugality, and the like.
c. Accepted the basic premise that wealth should produce more wealth.
d. Produced decline in a purely spiritual cosmology.
4. Created competition to spread the two ideologies
conflicts led to the desire to spread competing ideas
gave people a reason to escape the religious wars that developed in Europe
Economic or religious? Why?
C. Onset of Nationalism had Fundamental consequences
1. Monarchies were centralized by dynastic houses.
a. England under the Tudors.
b. France under the Bourbons.
c. Spain and Austria under the Hapsburgs.
d. Had little power during the Middle Ages.
2. Centralization of power consolidated.
a. Crusades killed many feudal lords.
b. Rising merchant-middle class supported monarchs to assure
protection of property and trade.
c. Proved more efficient in providing security.
1. Armies of dynastic houses provided protection.
2. Principalities sought protection for self-preservation.
d. Papal authority weakened by Reformation.
e. Alliances, marriages, and diplomacy aligned power centers, the nation states.
f. Awakening spirit of nationalism - monarch as symbol of unity.
3. Unity provided greater access to resources to pay for discovery, conquest, and colonization
national taxing systems took advantage.
4. Nation-states sought various means of increasing their power, such as overseas expansion.
Competition for prestige.
5. Middle class sought increased investment and trade.
6. Commercial Revolution
a. The search for new routes led to exploration and colonization.
b. Portuguese, Spanish, and later French, English, and Dutch sought to expand world trade
c. Pushed trade out of the Mediterranean and into the Atlantic Ocean
to bypass the Italian monopoly.
7. Exploration: Impulses for exploration included:
A spirit of curiosity and adventure
Prospective wealth in precious metals, in trade, and in slaves
missionary impulse the cross accompanied the sword
V. The Expansionist Impulse
A. Portuguese navigators spurred discoveries
1. Studied writings of Renaissance travelers.
2. Became brilliant cartographers and geographers.
3. Enjoyed technical advantages of "caravel"-type ship.
a. Able to sail to windward.
b. Made remarkable speeds.
c. Maneuverable and durable.
d. compass, and astrolabe
e. printing press invented in 1450 in Germany facilitated spread of scientific knowledge
4. Conducted continuous search for Far East.
a. Prince Henry 1394-1460 the Navigator
1. sent out numerous expeditions to explore the African coast slave trade began.
2. financed shipyard and school for navigators
3. spreading Christianity to aid in war against the Moors
b. Bartholomeu Diaz ? - 1500 rounded tip of Africa in 1486 - Cape of Good Hope
c. Vasco da Gama c.1460-1524 reached Calicut, India, c. 1497 - 1498
became the first European to sail around the Cape of Africa
cargo worth 60 times the cost of the voyage.
d. Portugal had broken Italy's monopoly
e. Pedro Cabral - 1500 - blown off course discovered Brazil
Columbus there first
B. Portugal established her power in the 15th c.
1. Gradually dominated lands along sea route.
a. Especially along African continent, north to south on west coast.
b. The first European colonizer of Africa.
c. The last remaining European colonizer of Africa -contemporary Angola and Mozambique
2. Spread Catholicism and Portuguese culture.
3. Achieved wealth from commercial penetration of Asia.
C. Spain soon challenged Portugal's early dominance
1. Monarchy consolidated by 1469 marriage of Ferdinand of Castile and Isabella of Aragon
became the most powerful in Europe.
2. Moors finally driven out in 1492 allowing Spain to turn to foreign trade.
3. Overseas thrust quickly begun.
D. Reasons for voyages of exploration which followed Columbus 3 G's.
1. seek a passage through or around the Americas to the Far East.
2. secure gold, silver, precious gems, and other valuable products sugar and indigo - blue dye
3. establish claims to new lands.
4. convert the Indians to Christianity.
5. Satisfy the spirit of adventure and intellectual curiosity.
6. Pave the way for trading outposts and settlements.
E. Impact on England
How did England react to these events?
Were those reactions economic or religious? Why?
F. Catholic Reform - occurred as a result of the Protestant Reformation
Women And Reformation
17th - 18th Century
By the early decades of the 18th century a distinct outline of an "American" society was discernible. A multiplying population farmed,
harvested, transported, processed, and shipped dozens of commodities in amounts of increasing value. On another level, varied styles
of life developed, along with distinctive patterns and beliefs: urban and rural, yeoman farmers and plantation lords, frontier
egalitarianism and human slavery. Further, as much as the basic societal elements emerging in the North American colonies were
influenced by English and European models, mere imitation was impossible in New World conditions. By 1670, the term "American"
was in common usage, and it had come to mean something distinct.
I. Elements of Growth and Development
A. Population Increases
* 1. Basic causes and effects.
o a. Natural growth.
+ 1. Early marriages encouraged for economic effect.
+ 2. Large families of 10 or more not unusual.
+ 3. Birth control rarely practiced.
+ 4. Divorce most uncommon.
o b. Steady immigration from abroad.
* 2. Statistical index.
YEAR ESTIMATED TOTAL POPULATION ESTIMATED NUMBER OF BLACKS
1610 350 0
1620 2,302 20
1630 4,646 60
1640 26,634 597
1660 75,058 2,920
NEW YORK 4,936 600
CONNECTICUT 7,980 25
MASSACHUSETTS 20,082 422
VIRGINIA 27,020 950
MARYLAND 8, 426 758
1680 151,507 6,971
1700 250,888 27,817
1720 466,185 68,839
1730 629,445 91,021
1750 1,170,760 236,420
1770 2,148,076 459,822
NEW YORK 162,920 19,112
CONNECTICUT 183,881 5,698
MASSACHUSETTS 235,308 4,754
VIRGINIA 447,016 187,605
MARYLAND 202,599 63,818
* 3. Population components.
o a. 17th century dominated by two major groups.
+ 1. English.
+ 2. Africans.
o b. 18th century admixtures.
+ 1. Large numbers of Germans and Scots-Irish immigrants.
+ 2. Other large groups.
# a. Dutch.
# b. Scots.
# c. French.
+ 3. English migration continued.
+ 4. African slave trade.
# a. Virginia's black population increased from approximately 3,000 in 1680 to approximately 188,000 in 1770.
# b. South Carolina's 1770 population included 75,178 blacks and 49,066 whites.
B. Economic wealth and diversity of Colonies
* 1. Value (in pounds sterling) of exports to and imports from England.
YEAR EXPORTS TO IMPORTS FROM
1700 395,021 344,341
1720 468,188 319,702
1740 718,416 813,382
1760 761,099 2,611,764
* 2. Types of materials exported to England in substantial amounts.
o bar iron flaxseed pig iron sugar
o beef and pork furs plank timber
o bread and flour indigo potash whale fins
o butter livestock poultry whale oil
o candles naval stores rice wheat
o cheese oats rum
o corn onions silk
o dried fish peas and beans skins
C. Architectural styles
* 1. Simple late Gothic prevailed until about 1700.
o a. Village houses and barns.
o b. Functional with little ornamentation.
* 2. Regional variations emerged late in 17th century.
o a. New England colonial.
o b. Dutch colonial.
o c. Log cabins, from the short-lived Swedish colony around Delaware Bay.
o d. Georgian and Pennsylvania Dutch of Pennsylvania.
o e. Southern colonial.
o f. French colonial, rarely found.
o g. Spanish colonial.
* 3. Georgian architecture predominated in 18th century England and America.
o a. Appeared in Williamsburg around 1700.
o b. Independence Hall, 1745.
D. Social Distinctions
* 1. Class divisions present from colonial beginnings.
* 2. Divisions more prevalent where headright system permitted large land accumulations.
* 3. Land availability permitted upward mobility and strong "middling" tendency to create a society of smallholders.
* 4. 18th century upper class.
o a. Gentry rather than aristocracy.
o b. Based on land and slaves in South.
o c. Based on land and commerce elsewhere.
o d. Famous families emerged.
+ 1. Rutledges and Pinckneys in South Carolina.
+ 2. Randolphs and Lees in Virginia.
+ 3. Livingstons and Schuylers in New York.
+ 4. Saltonstalls and Vassals in Massachusetts.
o e. Exerted strong influence on political and economic life.
* 5. "Middle" classes.
o a. Smallholder farmer the most typical.
o b. Others included mechanics, artisans, shopowners, teachers, and growing professional groups.
o c. Larger in numbers than in influence.
* 6. Lower classes.
o a. Landless or land-poor in rural areas.
o b. Itinerant laborers.
o c. Increasingly, those outside market economy.
o d. Permanent poor.
+ 1. Especially in South, but also in North.
+ 2. Evidence indicates permanent poverty existed in same families over generations.
o e. Virtually all blacks.
* 1. Overwhelmingly Protestant.
* 2. Few Roman Catholics.
* 3. Fewer Jews.
* 4. Traditional beliefs and practices increasingly challenged.
o a. Waning of Puritan zealousness.
o b. Ferment of Great Awakening of 1740s emphasized emotion.
o c. Skepticism produced by scientific and philosophic Enlightenment.
o d. Splits necessitated development of tolerance and live-and-let-live attitude.
o e. Discrimination nonetheless common.
F. Popular Education
* 1. Basic educational skills gradually became legally mandated.
* 2. Massachusetts and rest of New England (except Rhode Island) led.
* 3. Secondary education reserved for children of wealth and privilege
* 4. Blacks not generally allowed to learn to read and write.
G. Cultural and stylistic trends
* 1. Colonial intelligentsia thinly spread.
* 2. Generally dependent upon English models throughout colonial history.
o a. Books imported.
o b. Ideas transmitted.
o c. Personal ties established.
o d. Paucity of colonial literature.
* 3. Theater developed slowly.
o a. First full-fledged theatrical troupe came from England c. 1750.
o b. Characterization of American types first appeared after the Revolution.
* 4. Newspapers very important.
o a. Printing presses found as early as 1638 (Cambridge).
o b. Actual "newspaper" appeared in 1690.
+ 1. Benjamin Harris, editor, Boston.
# Publick Occurences both Forreign and Domestick.
+ 2. Suppressed after one edition.
o c. Perilous implication of free speech prior to Zenger case (1734-35)
o d. Boston News-Letter (1704) the first continuous newspaper.
o e. Newspapers gradually spread to urban centers.
o f. Common size was four pages, 10 by 15 inches, including advertising.
o g. Nature.
+ 1. English and other colonial newspapers the major sources of information.
+ 2. Editorial comment generally intermixed with news.
+ 3. Political preferences common.
* 5. Dress.
o a. Completely under English influence in the 17th century.
+ 1. 17th century Puritan and Cavalier styles.
+ 2. Some adaptations necessary in New World conditions.
# a. Working clothes more durable, warmer.
# b. Skins tanned to chamois consistency by Indian process.
o b. Later adaptations.
+ 1. Traditional doublet, jerkin, and cassock gradually transformed after mid 17th century.
+ 2. Coat, vest, cravat, sash garters, wigs, and buckle shoes.
+ 3. 18th century periwig, tricorn hat, throat and wrist
+ ruffles, long waistcoats, and tight breeches.
o c. Gentry fashions imitated English aristocracy.
o d. Womens' fashions included:
+ 1. Fashionable sacque.
+ 2. More common full-skirted, long-waisted dress.
+ 3. Infinite variations and ornamentations appeared and disappeared.
H. Colonial legal trends
* 1. New and flexible codes built upon base of English common law.
* 2. Divergent practices marked 17th century period of great flux and transient innovation.
o a. Few law textbooks or trained lawyers.
o b. Judiciary untrained.
o c. Common-sense equity prevailed.
* 3. Independent judiciary began to emerge in the 18th century.
o a. Closer English controls forced more attention on legal procedures.
o b. Professional bar emerged.
o c. American legal profession well developed and included distinguished clique by Revolutionary period.
o d. Decentralized procedure stemmed from frontier conditions.
+ 1. Local courts.
+ 2. Hierarchical system.
o e. Zenger case established truth as a defense in libel cases
* 4. New World conditions shaped both substance and procedure of the law.
I. Public health a function of localities.
* 1. Inspection and quarantine procedures.
* 2. Sanitary legislation.
* 3. Inoculation procedures introduced by mid 17th century.
J. Post Office Services
* 1. Postal delivery systems.
o a. Established in Massachusetts in 1639.
o b. Route between New York and Boston.
+ 1. Established in 1672.
+ 2. Ran along "Boston Post Road," later U.S.1.
o c. Philadelphia post office established in 1683.
o d. Postmaster general for the American colonies appointed in 1691.
* 2. Rates fixed and routes gradually established.
II. Prevalent styles of life
A. The Five Port Cities
* 1. 1690 population.
o a. Boston: 7,000.
o b. Newport: 2,600.
o c. New York City: 3,900.
o d. Philadelphia: 4,000.
o e. Charleston: 1,100.
* 2. Boston.
o a. Largest city of the colonies in early period.
o b. 1740 population grew too 17,000.
o c. Remained colonies' chief shipping center.
o d. Large and powerful merchant class.
* 3. Newport.
o a. Early commercial and resort center.
o b. Challenged Boston's port supremacy in 18th century.
o c. Flourishing trade declined after Revolution.
* 4. New York City.
o a. Natural outlet for diverse produce of hinterland.
+ 1. Connecticut.
+ 2. Mohawk-Hudson Valleys.
+ 3. New Jersey.
o b. Supremacy developed in 19th century.
* 5. Philadelphia.
o a. Port for Pennsylvania, Delaware Valley, Delaware Bay, inland Southern back country, and Appalachian valleys.
o b. By 1776 population of 40,000 made it colonies' largest city.
* 6. Charleston.
o a. Chief port of the South.
o b. Port for indigo and Mississippi Valley skins, and for frontier traders.
* 7. Organization and function of the early cities.
o a. Trade expansion the key to development.
o b. Merchants at the core of city life.
+ 1. Bought all colonial produce.
+ 2. Shipped it, mostly to England.
+ 3. Wealth and prosperity provided capital for development.
o c. Profitable and diversified imports.
o d. Economic satellites of merchants.
+ 1. Rum distillers.
+ 2. Shipwrights.
+ 3. Retail traders.
+ 4. Millers.
+ 5. Coopers.
o e. Infinite variety of other city types.
+ 1. Schoolmasters .
+ 2. Barbers.
+ 3. Tavern keepers.
+ 4. Skilled craftsmen like shoemakers, bakers, blacksmiths, printers, and builders.
+ 5. Specialists from clothes designers to cabinet makers.
+ 6. Unskilled workers.
* 8. Urban stereotypes established early.
o a. City as center of immorality.
+ 1. Some truth.
+ 2. Immorality often confused with contrasting ways of life.
+ 3. Crime and vice were problems.
o b. Pace of life and activity regarded as aberrant.
* 9. Early appearance of urban problems.
o a. Sanitation.
o b. Traffic.
o c. Fires.
o d. Attempted solutions underlined decentralized approach.
+ 1. Emphasis on voluntary associations, like fire fighters.
+ 2. Minimal governmental regulations and/or services.
C. Farming and the Frontier
* 1. Frontiers existed and had effect from c. 1600 to c. 1900.
o a. "West" existed in interior New England, as in New York, Maryland and Virginia, Carolinas, onto the Pacific.
o b. Hastened drift away from European modes.
o c. Patterns of settlement relatively similar.
+ 1. Explorers.
+ 2. Pioneers.
+ 3. Permanent settlements.
# a. Roads and bridges built.
# b. Homes constructed.
# c. Fields cleared and planted.
# d. Mills, stores, schools, and other permanent establishments.
+ 4. Newspapers.
+ 5. Local political and economic leadership developed.
+ 6. Professional groups moved in.
o d. Town patterns of settlement differed from planned New England towns.
+ 1. Houses farther apart.
+ 2. Central village green often not established.
+ 3. Individual houses and land, i.e., fields, sectioned off.
+ 4. Less intimacy and more isolation.
+ 5. Crossroads churches and stores served as community centers.
o e. Religious splintering.
+ 1. Settlements too widely dispersed to support parishes or regular minister.
+ 2. Decline of Anglicanism hastened.
+ 3. Proliferation of sects fostered.
o f. Nuclear family assumed central role.
+ 1. In absence of community institutions.
+ 2. Became basic economic, educational, social, and religious unit.
o g. Implications of smallholding patterns.
+ 1 . Widespread property ownership.
+ 2. Habits of self-sufficiency.
+ 3. One-family farms predominated.
+ 4. Stake-in-society fabric woven.
+ 5. Great contrast with European patterns.
+ 6. Radicalism tempered.
# a. No bound peasantry.
# b. Tenancy limited to isolated areas outside plantation South.
# c. Land availability served as political safety valve.
o h. County emerged as basic political unit.
+ 1. Illustrative of decentralizing impulse.
+ 2. County judges held administrative, civil, and criminal powers.
+ 3. Assumed former role of towns.
+ 4. Provided vital statistical services.
# a. Records.
# b. Tax rolls.
# c. Licenses.
o i. Continuous political antagonism with coastal areas over&emdash;
+ 1. Taxes.
+ 2. Protection.
+ 3. Representation.
+ 4. Religion.
+ 5. Internal improvements.
* 2. Farm practices.
o a. Indian corn especially important in early colonial history&emdash;
+ planting and techniques acquired from Indians by settlers.
o b. Gradual development of agricultural self-sufficiency.
o c. Accumulation of surplus for barter.
* 3. New England farming.
o a. Pattern of small, self-sufficient farms.
+ 1. Early absence of markets.
+ 2. Nature of soil.
+ 3. Topographical pattern.
o b. Remarkable self-dependency.
o c. Income distribution fairly even.
o d. Physical hardships of early settlement combined with nature of climate comported with religion.
+ 1. Dynamics of frugality, Spartan existence.
+ 2. Code of manners.
+ 3. Limited pleasures.
* 4. Middle colonies.
o a. Successful and prosperous.
+ 1. Land distribution attempted to provide proprietor with rental revenue.
+ 2. Smallholding diffusion easily accomplished.
+ 3. Immigration encouraged.
o b. Topography and soil favorable to commercial agriculture.
+ 1. Wheat especially important as cash crop.
+ 2. Dairy farms common.
* 5. Virginia-Maryland.
o a. Tobacco culture and plantation system.
o b. Reliance on single-crop production sometimes disastrous.
o c. Good market supported rich style of life.
+ 1. Leisure time.
+ 2. Travel, education, and political involvement.
o d. Most tobacco farmers operated on small scale.
* 6. Georgia-South Carolina.
o a. Rice cultivation necessitated large capital investment.
o b. Machines, construction, time, field rotation, etc.
o c. Extensive cf. intensive. agriculture practiced.
o d. Plantation-smallholder patterns.
* 7. Poor farming practices quite common.
o a. Always surprised land-poor Europeans.
o b. Surface plowing, failure to rotate crops, lack of fertilization, and heedless exploitation of
o c. Subsequent erosion.
o d. Practices fostered by availability of huge land mass.
* 8. Agricultural benefits of the mercantilist system.
o a. Huge tobacco crop marketed without competition.
o b. Indigo and naval stores production subsidized by English.
o c. Rice admitted free to English market.
o d. West Indies provided further markets for wheat, flour, corn, beef, and pork.
* 9. Frontier-farm practices and attitudes endured.
o a. Constant striving for better condition.
o b. Faith in progress, self-sufficiency, and the solvability of problems.
o c. Reluctance to submit to removed authority.
o d. Assumption regarding the superiority of rural life.
Five overlapping struggles for mastery occurred during the conflict-filled era from 1675-1715
1. Colonists struggled to build a slave labor force and establish mastery over resistant African captives
2. Settlers sought mastery over Native American tribes
Both those that stood in the way of white expansion
and those that were their trading and military partners
3. English imperial administrators sought mastery over the colonists
who resisted attempts to create a more dependent relationship
4. Within colonial societies, elites struggled to establish mastery over the political and social machinery
5. England sought mastery over French, Dutch, and Spanish contenders for North America
I. African Bondage
A. The Slave Trade
1. Africans outnumbered Europeans in the New World by 2 or 3 to 1.
2. Portuguese merchants - the first Europeans in the slave trade - obtained from other Africans
mostly criminals consigned to bondage in their own society
individuals captured in tribal wars
3. Spanish importation of Africans as slaves began early in sixteenth century - focused on sugar
European slave traders carried a large majority of the slaves to
the West Indies
2. First black men imported from Africa to Virginia in 1619.
3. Slave trade expanded over next half-century:
English and North Americans, especially New Englanders became chief slave traders.
English barely involved until 1690s
By 1790s they were the leading slave-trading nation in Europe
4. Barbarities of practice suggestive of prevailing concepts.
a. Unspeakable horrors of Middle Passage and attitude toward worth of a human life.
Traders goal - deliver alive as many slaves as possible to New World
b. Ingrained European racial prejudice.
1. Clearly indicated in Elizabethan literature and travel accounts.
2. Made slave trade an acceptable way of turning profit.
c. Theory of perpetual slavery common.
1. Right of victors in "just wars" to enslave vanquished.
2. Slaves generally losers in tribal wars.
3. Fell prey to enterprising English slavers.
B. The Southern Transition to Black Labor
1. As late as 1671 only 3,000 slaves in Virginia
2. Black laborers worked side by side with white labors - slavery concept not yet firm
3. Three Factors increased the popularity of the slave trade and the shift to dependence on black
a. Obvious profitability.
The rising commercial power of England - made slaves cheaper and easier to obtain
b. Slow decline in immigration of English indentured servants.
c. Appeal of slavery as an institution.
1. Provided permanent solution to labor problem.
white servant unrest
growing population of ex-servants
threatened white planter elite
2. Investment automatically appreciated
average cost about 1730 was between 20 and 30 pounds.
3. Human reproduction anticipated.
4. Property rights perpetually guaranteed
legal codification of permanent slavery fixed; after mid-seventeenth century.
4. Racial discrimination in English colonies was automatic.
a. Duration of servitude not fixed as with white servants.
b. Racial bias produced discriminatory patterns.
c. Different cultural traits assumed to be inferior to European cultures.
d. Assumption of inferiority had legal consequences.
1. Virginia codified slavery in 1661.
2. New York passed strong fugitive slave law in 1705.
e. Treatment of slaves left solely to master's discretion
considered as another piece of property.
5. By the early eighteenth century half of the population of held in slavery.
6. In the 17th Century all but a few whites readily accepted slavery - no intense moral debate
C. Slavery in the Northern Colonies
Slavery existed, but was never the basis of the work force
sugar, rice and tobacco would not grow in the colder climates
Economy was tied to commercial network of the Atlantic basin
depended on the slave trade
building the ships
carrying the slaves
New England seaports - centers for rum used to trade for slaves
Every colony was involved in slavery
D. The System of Bondage
First Africans brought as bound servants
served a number of years
many eventually gained freedom
children born free
Chesapeake gradually increased restrictions on blacks
II. Slave Culture
A. The Growth of Slavery
Attempts to convert the slaves into mindless workers who would obey failed to produce
1675 - 4,000 - Most were men
1760 - 185,000 - indentured servitude faded away
B. Resistance and Rebellion
C. Black Family and Religion
III. The Struggle for Land
A. King Philip's War in New England
B. Bacon's Rebellion Engulfs Virginia
IV. An Era of Instability
A. Mercantilism - Organizing the Empire
AND THE DEVELOPMENT
OF ECONOMIC RIVALRY
Elements of mercantilist theory may be found in most historic schemes aimed at the creation of capital. For most of the 16th and17th
centuries, however, as the forces of nationalism combined with dynastic centralization, the economic principles of mercantilism
enjoyed their greatest vogue. The major European nations sought to achieve power and influence through an economic system geared
to generate wealth through the application of governing principles and restrictive commercial patterns. Mercantilism per se should not
be divorced from its social, political, and intellectual milieu and viewed in a theoretical vacuum. This is well illustrated by comparing
the theoretical formulations of English mercantilism with their effects on the North American colonies. For as long as the restrictions
were leniently applied and mutual advantages accrued, the system proved effective. England's preoccupation with domestic crises and
with foreign wars produced such lenience, and the rudimentary nature of the 17th century colonial economy made most mercantilist
restrictions acceptable. Later, with mid 18th century attempts to apply severe restrictions, resistance simmered, crises developed and
I. Basic objectives of the Mercantilist System
A. Paralleled the rise of Nationalism and centralized Nation-states
B. Aimed at strengthening Nation-state through accumulation of Capital
1. General economic policy adopted (with variations) by all major European states in parts of 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries.
2. Applied by European powers to their overseas empires from the onset of colonization.
a. Spain's temporary preeminent position derived from her direct absorption of wealth from colonial gold and silver.
b. England's success followed global colonization and establishment of network of regulated commercial patterns.
1. Successful trading companies generated profits for themselves and for the Crown.
2. Restrictions governed trading patterns.
II. Elements of Mercantilist thought in England
A. English wealth was assumed to be dependent upon two basic factors
1. A favorable balance of trade, which necessitated an excess of exports over imports.
2. Payment of the favorable balance in gold and silver.
a. Spain derived gold and silver directly and did not bother to develop long-standing commercial relationships.
b. Assumed that the world's supply of wealth was finite
One could get richer only at the expense of another.
3. Every European nation competed to be # 1 by limited imports while increasing exports
4. Capitalism - government had an interest in helping merchants
5. 1550s collapse of woolen market led England to look for colonies
B. Corollary assumption that internal money flow added little to nation's wealth and development
III. North American colonies played a basic role in England's economic development according to Richard Hakluyt (1584 essay)
A. Produced and shipped to England desired raw materials – reduce dependency
1. Tobacco and other agricultural products.
2. Lumber, tar, hemp, furs, etc.
3. Cost substantially below traditional European costs.
B. Provided guaranteed markets for English manufactured goods
1. create jobs in colonies for the unemployed
2. prosperity would create jobs at home in England for others
C. Colonial Manufacturing prohibited when it competed with English
D. England claimed monopoly on colonial economy in all its transactions
IV. System proved to be mutually advantageous for a period
A. Raw materials as such had limited utility for colonists
B. Colonial economic development could not sustain much manufacturing
C. Colonists were guaranteed markets for all their produce
D. Protection afforded by the English navy
E. England enjoyed a marked advantage over her European competitors
1. In terms of raw materials supply.
2. In terms of availability of ever-expanding colonial markets.
3. In political control over colonial economic life.
V. Problems in enforcing controls inherent in the situation
A. Many illicit trade patterns were natural and difficult to monitor
1. Vast geographical distances always difficult.
a. 3,000 miles of ocean.
b. Constant spreading into American interior.
c. Inefficiencies in transportation and communications systems.
B. Great Temptations in evading regulations
1. Possibility of larger profits outside the imperial system.
2. Desire to evade taxes and other duties.
3. Forbidden trading partners readily at hand.
1. Merchant fleet plied Atlantic coast.
2. Trading posts in Hudson River Valley and adjacent areas from Connecticut to Delaware Bay.
1. Thin line from mouth of St. Lawrence to mouth of Mississippi.
2. West Indian islands; sugar and molasses.
C. Circumvention of economic regulations became traditional
1. Developed early in colonial history.
2. Endured over generations with only periodic setbacks.
3. Partially resultant from the very ease of evasion.
4. Evasion generally accepted as a way of life.
5. Bespoke modest importance of early colonial contributions to England's economy.
6. English failed to perceive danger of habitually unenforced regulations.
VI. Periodic 17th century attempts to enforce Mercantilist regulations
A. Necessity of bringing order to chaotic trading patterns
1. New England shipping engaged in freelance trade, with impunity
2. Tobacco from Virginia and Maryland seeking broadest markets.
a. Including European direct trade with England's enemies.
b. Held negative, perhaps dangerous, political implications.
3. Foreign ships regularly delivering goods to colonial ports.
B. Navigation Acts the primary restatement of Mercantilist regulations
1. Act of 1651.
a. Aimed at Holland's interference with England's global colonial trade,
including siphoning off of profits of North American colonies.
b. Mandated shipment of North American colonial imports and exports in English-flag ships.
1. Ships must be English owned.
2. Ships' masters must be Englishmen.
3. Majority of ships' crews must be Englishmen.
c. A large factor in the outbreak of Anglo-Dutch wars and in English seizure of New Netherlands in 1664.
2. Acts of 1660 and 1663.
a. Reiterated regulations and restrictions.
b. Proclaimed "enumerated commodities."
1. Goods which colonies were absolutely prohibited from exporting except to England or under English direction.
2. List included tobacco, sugar, cotton, indigo, dyewoods, etc.
C. Economic policy established for remaining century of colonial period
1. Enumerated list gradually expanded.
a. 1705, rice added.
b. 1705, naval stores, such as turpentine, pitch, and tar, added.
c. 1721, fur added.
2. Molasses Act of 1733 placed heavy duty on imports of foreign molasses.
3. Specific forms of colonial manufacturing prohibited.
a. Competition feared.
b. Colonial markets jeopardized.
1. Wool Act of 1699 prohibited textile manufacture.
2. Hat Act of 1732.
3. Iron Act of 1750 outlawed colonial iron mills.
c. Represented piecemeal victories of special interest in England and the empire, for example:
1. English iron manufacturers.
2. West Indian sugar planters.
4. Restrictions provided great increase in England's indirect revenue.
a. Enumerated goods shipped only to and through England's ports.
b. Imports of taxable goods greatly increased - tobacco revenue averaged 100,000 pounds annually in 1660s.
D. Implications of increasing regulations
1. Colonial economy maturing.
2. Mercantilist restrictions no longer mutually beneficial after a certain point of economic development.
3. Mid 18th century attempts to apply regulations stringently would be strongly resisted.
VII. Mercantilism in theory and in reality
A. Diversions prevented rigid applications of restrictions
1. Civil war.
2. Aggressive foreign policy and continuous wars.
B. Potential Economic importance of colonies underestimated
1. Tradition of Salutary Neglect developed.
2. Habits of evasion became traditional.
B. The Glorious Revolution in New England
The tumultuous Civil War that tore England apart in the middle of the 17th century unleashed forces which have reverberated through
the ensuing centuries. The fall and restoration of the monarchy ultimately produced parliamentary ascendancy and the advance of
natural rights theory. Abroad, in the colonies, England's weakness permitted colonial economic and political challenges to go
unpunished, although strong measures were attempted. One good example was London's failure to deflate New England's independent
behavior. Despite these internal convulsions and colonial problems, the English sought throughout the 17th century to maintain and
strengthen their colonial bonds in a variety of ways. Through the establishment of a number of proprietary colonies, attempts were
made to build direct links binding powerful colonial leaders to the Crown. Yet emerging colonial styles of life, attitudes, and practices
suggested the continuation of differences and frictions between a Mother Country enmeshed in its own affairs and a group of colonies
more interested in self-development.
I. Divisions and preoccupations of the English Civil War
A. Charles I (1600-49; Ruled 1625-49)
1. Attempted to preserve monarchical absolutism against Parliament
2. Political situation exacerbated by struggles throughout the 1630s.
a. Parliament dissolved for 11 years.
b. Period of the Great Migration from England.
3. Civil War of 1642-49.
a. King militarily defeated: beheaded in 1649.
b. Monarchy usurped.
B. Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) and the Commonwealth, 1649-60
1. Concentrated on establishing and preserving internal order.
2. Conducted a succession of successful wars.
a. Irish revolt suppressed in 1649.
b. Invasion of Scots under Charles II repulsed, 1650-51.
c. Victorious war of commerce against the Netherlands, 1652-54.
d. Spanish defeat in war of 1656-59 won Jamaica for England.
C. House of Stuart restored to throne in 1660.
1. Charles II (1630-85; Ruled 1660-85) Restoration Period
2. Parliament's power continued to develop, especially in financial matters.
3. Domestic intrigues and complex and devious foreign policy absorbed most attention.
4. James II (1633-1701; ruled 1685-88)
a. Adopted a succession of disastrous policies.
b. Attempted to restore absolute monarchy.
c. Promoted Roman Catholicism.
d. Suppressed Protestantism.
D. Failure to discipline colonies effectively continued throughout the period
II. New England's unpunished challenge: fruits of neglect
A. Development of Economic competition with Mother Country
1. Paucity of resources and rocky nature of soil in much of New England.
2. Development of economic base of trade and commerce increasingly important, especially in coastal population centers.
3. Resulting competition with England.
a. Strong opposition to Navigation Acts inherent in the economic situation.
1. Lowered colonial profits.
2. Prohibited lucrative direct trade with France and others.
3. Meant higher duties and shipping costs through transshipments in England.
4. Prohibited trading in enumerated goods, especially sugar and tobacco.
b. Traditional flouting of restrictions during periods of English domestic and foreign preoccupations.
B. Dimensions of conflict broad
1. Charles I had granted religious privileges under Massachusetts Bay Charter.
2. Charles II hated Puritans.
a. Insisted on religious subservience to his version of Anglicanism.
b. Dispatched an investigatory commission to Massachusetts in 1664.
c. Royal commission's authority rejected in Boston.
3. Crisis ensued throughout 1660s and 1670s.
a. King understood the threat of economic, political, and religious independence in New England.
b. His commission advised revocation of Massachusetts charter.
c. King summoned Massachusetts representative to London.
1. Initially refused to comply.
2. Managed to delay day of reckoning.
b. King's preoccupation with more pressing affairs
4. Crackdown on New England attempted.
a. 1673 smuggling law passed by Parliament.
1. High duties imposed on inter-colonial trade.
2. Slashed profits of New Englanders.
a. Purported "inter-colonial" trade a ruse.
b. Actually direct trade with foreigners.
b. Lords of Trade established in Privy Council in 1675.
1. Attempted to perfect mercantilism.
2. Demanded appearance of Massachusetts delegation in London.
a. Delegation finally appeared.
b. Claimed it lacked negotiating authority.
3. New England's total compliance with Navigation Acts insisted upon.
c. King prevented absorption by Massachusetts of New Hampshire - created a royal government there.
5. Response of the Massachusetts General Court.
a. Emphasized Massachusetts charter's guarantee of full political authority, from time of initial settlements of Massachusetts Bay
Company in 1620s.
b. Claimed Parliament possessed no contrary legislative authority.
c. General Court did, formally, order enforcement of Navigation Acts to avert test of strength and possible break.
C. Continuation of disputes into 1680s
1. Lords dispatched Edward Randolph (c.1632-1703) to Boston.
a. Empowered as imperial customs officer.
b. His authority rejected by Massachusetts General Court.
1. Established independent Massachusetts customs office
2. Threatened and imprisoned Randolph's appointees.
2. Massachusetts charter revoked by Charles II in 1684.
3. James II attempted to obliterate colonial entities after 1685.
a. Adopted comprehensive new colonial policy.
b. Dominion of New England established in 1685.
1. Political entity that lumped together all New England colonies, New York, and New Jersey.
2. Under control of one governor, appointed by London.
3. Advisory council to governor also appointive.
4. Colonial representative assemblies abolished.
c. Sir Edmund Andros (1637-1714)
appointed Governor of Dominion of New England in 1686.
1. Served - unpopularly - as New York governor, 1674-81
2. Proceeded to dissolve the assemblies.
3. Attempted to promote the Church of England as established church.
4. Levied new taxes.
5. Denied all political rights.
a. Including land grants of Massachusetts Bay Colony.
b. Declared all land grants renegotiable at governor's discretion.
c. Fees and quitrents also held renegotiable at governor's discretion.
6. Enforced Navigation Acts rigidly.
D. Colonial opposition in New England paralleled rise of Parliament against James II in Glorious Revolution
1. New colonial policy abandoned.
2. All New England charters restored.
III. The Glorious Revolution of 1688 and the North American colonies
A. Permanently changed England's political structure
1. Forced James II's abdication.
2. Assured the permanent ascendancy of Parliament through the adoption of the Bill of Rights.
a. Rulers denied absolute rights.
1. To enforce or nullify laws.
2. To levy taxes.
3. To conduct wars.
b. Free elections and free parliamentary debate guaranteed.
c. Reasonable bail and jury trial guaranteed.
3. Elevated William and Mary to the English throne.
4. Established first constitutional monarchy in a major European country.
B. Fundamentally affected England's relationship with her colonies
1. Tradition of royal control blurred by rise of Parliament.
a. King's power over colonies now substantially reduced.
b. Parliament's historic and legal mandate remained vague.
c. Location of authority blurred relationship.
2. Expansion of rights of Englishmen naturally extended to colonies.
a. Bill of Rights of 1689.
b. Theories of natural rights and popular sovereignty well appreciated in colonies.
3. Reduced monarchical traditions continued.
a. Authority and esteem of monarch a symbolic bond.
b. Proprietary colonies' direct link to throne.
1. Theory of strengthening Crown's authority.
2. Reality of colonial drift toward autonomy.
C. Witchcraft In Salem
V. Contending for a Continent
A. Anglo-French Rivalry
B. The Results of War
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