Management of small and medium scale reservoirs and irrigation schemes at Giruwapattuwa through the existing co-operative system in Sri Lanka

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					Title:

Management of small and medium scale reservoirs and irrigation schemes at Giruwapattuwa
through the existing co-operative system in Sri Lanka
Author/s:
C.P.Gunasena, Department of Agric. Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of
Ruhuna, Mapalana.
1.     Introduction

1.1     Historical Background of Giruwapattuwa
Management and manipulation techniques of water resources were evolved and developed
with the human colonization among streams. This ancient hydrological modeling had very
distinct relationship with religious and cultural background of natives. Based on the
relationships two different civilizations could be identified in Sri Lanka. People lived in hilly
areas adapted different hydrological models when compare to people who lived in low land
areas.

Even though there were two different hydrological technological procedures, some technical
and technological linkages might be existed to control flood and dry spells in low land areas.
According to the archeological evidence a king named Dutu Tissa, who came to the Deep
South from Anuradhapura during the King Devanampiyatissa era, was able to trace the
“Urubokka Oya” and the catchment area.

Geologically most of the hilly areas of Giruwapattuwa are belongs to Hambantota district.
There is a huge rock at the north central part of this pattuwa and it is named as Mulkgirigale.
Giruwa Pattu means the region around the hill or the rock (Giri). Demarcations can be given
as Katuwana on the north, Beliatta on the south, Hakmana and Denegama on the west, and
left bank of the Walave Ganga on the east side.          (Annex 1: Map of Giruwapattuwa by
Sabatier.J.L 2001) Mulgirigala is an old Buddhist monastery with a strong historical
influence on different temples and farmer communities, which is believed to be a massive
construction done by the king Dutu Tissa during king “Dutugemunu” era. (Sabatier J.L 2001)

1.2     History of the Irrigation network in Giruwapattuwa
Small tanks were built at the dead end of a small branch of the Main Urubokka Oya and rice
was cultivated under permanent water logging conditions. This type of cultural practices
helped to keep the stream alive and ground water table up for highland cultivation.
Settlements could be observed from the up steam with small tanks and large tanks with low
land areas. This type of hydrological model could be identified as a typical model, which
persists all most all parts of the country. Presently it is identified as a cascade system.
(Sabatier J.L, 2001)
1.3     Rehabilitation work and present situation
During the Dutch period a channel had been constructed to divert Urubokka Oya water to
“Nilwala” river Since colonial period several rehabilitation programs had been carried out.
The major one was conducted during 1957.
Principal feeders in Urruboka channels were enlarged and Muruthawela dam with storage
capacity of 48 million m3 was constructed in 1965. The Urubokka Oya comprises eight
anicuts, six small tanks, one medium sized tank called Udukiriwela tank, with storage
capacity of 3.8 million m3, and a network of canals and myriad field canals with the
commanding area of 2,175 ha. However, leakage occurs both upstream and downstream




                                                                                               1
portions of anicut structures; flooding has damaged gates; and water distribution works, bank
revetments and spillway facilities have deteriorated. (JICA report, 1996)

Irrigation Department has been made themselves responsible for issuing irrigation water for
the Urubooka Oya Command areas as follows:

Name of Scheme                            Anicuts        Command          Yala          Maha
                                                         Area (ha)        Season        Season

Kirama Oya                                18             2001

Urubokka Oya                              8              1700
Raluwa Nawaratne                                         101              Full          Full

Kinchigune                                               107              Do            Do

Udukiriwela                                              183              Do            Do
Wakamulla                                                248              Half          Full

Hunna Kumbura                                            169              Do            Do

Hakuruwela                                               396              Do            Do

Andupelena                                               375              Do            Do

Ranna                                                    192              Do            Do

High Level Canal Command Area             7 Tanks        405              Do            Full


Muruthawela LB                            Tract-1        415
                                          Tract-2        614
                                          Tract-3        669

Muruthawela RB                            8 Tanks        275

Source : JICA Report 1996

Anicuts in each of the schemes were mostly constructed in 1940’s nevertheless the main
structures of anicuts seem to be deteriorated slightly at the first sight. But most of anicut gates
are so bad that they cannot maintain the FSL during dry season except for ones of
Udukiriwela Anicut. Absence of poor condition of gates at the intake lease to flow excess
water into canals. (Annex 2 : Schematic Diagram of Muruthawela Reservoir Scheme JICA
1996)

1.4     Co-operative System and Agriculture

Co-operative system has been defined by the International Co-operative Alliance. According
to that, definition co-operative can be defined as an autonomous association of persons united
voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations




                                                                                                 2
through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise. Further, Values of co-
operatives were also given based on the values of self-help, self-responsibility, democracy,
equality, equity, and solidarity. In the tradition of their founders, co-operative members
believe in the ethical values of honesty, openness, social responsibility, and caring for others.

Seven principles have also been developed by the said alliance. These principles are
guidelines by which co-operatives put their values into practice.

Membership is open and voluntary. Co-operatives are democratic and control by members in
every aspects. Economic Participation is also done by a democratic way and capitol is a
common property. Co-operatives are autonomous and independent. They are capable of
conducting education, training and information technology. Co-operation among members as
well as other co-operatives is entertained. Co-operatives are concern about community as
well as the country. (International Co-operative Alliance, United Nations, 1995 )

1st Principle:

Co-operatives are voluntary organizations, open to all persons able to use their services and
willing to accept the responsibilities of membership, without gender, social, racial, political,
or religious discrimination.

2nd Principle:

Co-operatives are democratic organizations controlled by their members, who actively
participate in setting their policies and making decisions. Men and women serving as elected
representatives are accountable to the membership. In primary co-operatives, members have
equal voting rights (one member, one vote), and co-operatives at other levels are organized in
a democratic manner.

3rd Principle:

Members contribute equitably to, and democratically control, the capital of their co-operative.
At least part of that capital is usually the common property of the co-operative. Members
usually receive limited compensation, if any, on capital subscribed as a condition of
membership. Members allocate surpluses for any or all of the following purposes:
developing their co-operative, possibly by setting up reserves, part of which at least would be
indivisible; benefiting members in proportion to their transactions with the co-operative; and
supporting other activities approved by the membership.

4th Principle:

Co-operatives are autonomous, self-help organizations controlled by their members. If they
enter into agreements with other organizations, including governments, or raise capital from
external sources, they do so on terms that ensure democratic control by their members and
maintain their co-operative autonomy.
5th Principle:

Co-operatives provide education and training for their members, elected representatives,
managers, and employees so they can contribute effectively to the development of their co-




                                                                                               3
operatives. They inform the general public – particularly young people and opinion leaders -
about the nature and benefits of co-operation.

6th Principle:

Co-operatives serve their members most effectively and strengthen the co-operative
movement by working together through local, national, regional, and international structures.

7th Principle:

Co-operatives work for the sustainable development of their communities through policies
approved by their members.

One of the objectives identified in respect to achieving the full involvement of farmers
themselves in the transformation of rural economies to a sustainable condition was to
enhance the participation of farmers, women and men, in the design and implementation of
policies directed toward these ends, through their representative organizations.

The role of farmers' organizations is to act as guarantor of the interests of small-scale,
resource-poor farmers, articulating and transmitting their concerns and viewpoints in a
regular manner to governments and participating in the formulating and implementation of
sustainable agricultural and rural development policies and programs.

Top-down programs cannot achieve this: only through full recognition of farmers'
representative organizations and regular dialogue and consultation with them, from grassroots
to national level.

International Federation of Agricultural Produces states in its policy document adopted at its
31st General Conference at Istanbul, Turkey in May 1994 that: "Farmer-owned businesses
such as agricultural co-operatives and farmer associations can invigorate the rural
environment. These contribute both income and stability to the rural population by providing
essential services to the rural areas, furnishing environmentally-sound inputs, generating
employment opportunities, and encouraging agro-processing which raises the value-added
going directly to the farmer.

Co-operatives are a practical organizational vehicle whereby farmers may strengthen their
absolute and relative economic position and status within national society: they are an
organizational means for farmer empowerment. Having a stronger economic base lends force
to the representational and policy determining capability of farmers' organizations.
Conversely, success in representation and participation in policy development establishes an
environment within which both farm enterprises and farmer-owned enterprises such as
agricultural co-operatives are able to operate effectively and viably. (International Co-
operative Alliance, United Nations, 1995)



Because of the growing solidarity and operational integration between producer and
consumer co-operatives in many countries, it is possible for agricultural producers on the one
hand, and both industrial consumers and household consumers of agricultural outputs on the




                                                                                            4
other hand, to establish a common position whereby the concerns of the latter for
environmentally-friendly commodities can be transmitted to the producers.

Conversely, the factors, which determine producers’ ability to adjust to sustainable
development, can be explained to the consumer. In this way the integrated national co-
operative movement can act as a means whereby farmers' organizations can achieve a
dialogue with consumers, particularly those in urban areas often unaware of the financial and
other constraints upon agricultural producers' ability to adjust their operations.

(International Federation of Agricultural Producers, Farmers for a sustainable future: the
leadership role of agriculture. Paris, November 1994. pp. 12-13. )

1.5    Co-operative system in Sri Lanka

1.5.1 Historical background

Sri Lanka is experiencing the co-operative system approach, since the beginning of the
Hydraulic Civilization. Otherwise such a massive constructions and irrigation projects would
not have been implemented.

With the colonial experience, British introduced a different institutional approach. In order to
distribute food and other subsidies during the First World War, newly introduced co-
operative system performed a comprehensive management of subsidies. First, it was with the
Department of Agriculture and it was separated in 1931. Later in 1950, the establishment was
converted in to a statutory cooperation.

It was successfully directed the enhanced prices to the growers than intermediary and able to
secured government loans. Co-operative federal bank transformed in to the People’s Bank
and successful trade agreements were conducted with the co-operative system. Multipurpose
co-operatives were established in each village to under take credit, input supply and
marketing. In 1960s, these multipurpose co-operative societies were used to implement a
guaranteed price scheme. (Jayasinghe.G.S.K. 2001)

1.5.2 Present situation

The Department of Agric. Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna carried
out resent study, to assess the services provided by the co-operatives at Okewela and
Weeraketiya in Giruwapattuwa. Reseals reveled that the involvement of marketing was
minimal. Data gathered from the co-operative societies showered that the involvement is
about 25%, whereas data gathered from the people showered it as 12%. Further, it was
showered that 73% of people commented about lack of arrangements within the co-operative
system to purchase the harvest. Another 24% commented about difficulties that were
confronted by them with the quality testing procedures. Less than 3% were commented about
the distance to the co-operative shops and difficulties in transporting their produce. .
(Jayasinghe.G.S.K. 2001)


The co-operative officials and farmer members interviewed made following suggestions.




                                                                                              5
Agricultural inputs could be easily distributed at correct time, with a reasonable price.
Produce also could be purchased from the farmers giving a reasonable price to them. Co-
operative system is capable of providing training and extension facilities. Further, they have
suggested reviewing the policy issues and arranging to make trade agreements within the
different co-operative societies.

Hundred percent of the members suggested to provide agricultural inputs through the system.
Another 98% suggested having marketing channels through the co-operatives. Out of total
68% were suggested to conduct training and extension. Seventy eight percent have suggested
to shire the risk and uncertain with the co-operatives. This study justifies the potential of co-
operatives to handle agricultural projects successfully. . (Jayasinghe.G.S.K. 2001)

2.     Problem statement (Justification)

With the colonial experience, Sri Lanka tends to practice top to bottom level of decision-
making and strongly influenced all the system of higher education and neglected the
significance of the indigenous knowledge in technology development and transformation.

During the colonial period, ancient irrigation system of Giruwapattuwa was rehabilitated. A
government carder position replaced Vel vidane system. New technologies were introduced
without considering the ancient social and technological aspects.

Even though this system is functioning, not being able to meet the present water demands in
Giruvapattuwa. Situation is aggravated due to the abundance of lots of small tanks. Most of
the lands are not properly utilized due to lack of sufficient water resources. Existing water
recourses are not properly managed.

Government is investing lot of money for the development of irrigation systems in rural
areas. Though farmers involved in management of these systems with the collaboration of
government agencies like the Department of irrigation, decision-making process is more
centralized and performances are not satisfactory.

After the construction of Muruthawela dam, some down stream parts of Urubokka Oya
system is not getting enough water for cultivation purposes. Up stream farmers starts their
cultural practices at correct time, but down stream farmers get water later due to the
mismanagement of water in up stream level. No proper coordination in between up stream
farmers and down stream farmers for an efficient water management practice.

Pre seasonal meetings are carried out separately for up streams, middle stream and down
stream and there is no proper coordination in between these meetings. Up stream farmers
have no idea about requirements of down stream farmers and their difficulties arise during the
on set and the end of a season.

Rehabilitation of distributaries is not done properly due to lack of cooperation among
farmers. They tend to get water from feeder cannels in an unauthorized manner for their
personal requirements, such as for washing bathing for themselves s well as their cattle.

Farmers receive lesser prices for their raw materials. The intermediary does Price
determination and value addition is not adequately practiced. Since agriculture is a multi
disciplinary process, water management itself does not give a sound relief for the burning




                                                                                               6
issues of the rural farming community. Other aspects like processing, value addition,
marketing and finance have to be considered.

In these issues presently, farmers do not have necessary powers and rights to make decisions.
Even if they have 100% efficient system for water management, it may be collapsed due to
lack of other basic requirements.

As such, lot of problems have come up and confronted by rural farming community and the
Department of Irrigation. Hence, appropriate methodology has to be developed and farmers
should have more rights and powers in decision-making process than the present system.

In order to fulfill these requirements cooperative system can play a much better role. System
itself has its own infrastructure facilities, which could be utilized by the rural farming
community. They have island wide network of their own financial, transport, and storage,
marketing and processing facilities.

3.     General Objective

Development of a participatory approach to manage small and medium scale reservoirs and
irrigation schemes, while providing marketing, value addition, credit and other required
facilities through the co-operative system.

3.1    Specific Objectives

Identify watershed characteristics and conservation measures.

Identify production units comprised with reservoirs, and irrigation schemes with respect to
the distribution of co-operative network.

Identify locations for “Postharvest Technology Service Centers” and to formulate production
and marketing network with in the production unit and in between the production units.

Identification of policy issues which; have to be restructured with in the co-operative system.

Introduction of appropriate technologies, considering social aspects of water management
with respect to the ancient irrigation technologies.

4.     Conceptual Model

Giruwapattuwa will be identified as a catchment area having number of production units.
This is the further development of a typical “Gangoda” (Goonasekara. K, 1999) which, could
be identified as the ancient production unit in an ordinary “Purana village”. Each production
unit will be included series of tanks or one single tank depending on the commanding area.
People who are using water for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes, from that
particular water resource could be asked to become members of responsible co-operative
society within the production unit.

This could be a policy decision to get the maximum participation of people those who are
using water for non-agricultural purposes. Marketing, value addition, credit and other
facilities will be given through the co-operative society.




                                                                                              7
Members have the responsibility to manage the water efficiently and do the rehabilitation
work when and where necessary. Proper coordination of co-operative societies and other
relevant organizations will be done by trained agriculture graduates, attached to the each co-
operative society under the supervision of a coordinating body appointed by the University
system. This will be the research and development wing of the co-operative system.

Agriculture graduates will be handled the value addition, processing, marketing,
transportation and storage of rural produce with the collaboration of formal network of the
existing cooperative system. Cultivation and production process will be coordinated and
monitored within the production unit as well as in between the production units.

In order to conduct value addition process with in the production unit, a center named
“Postharvest technology service center” having milling, oil extraction, and accessories for
making jams and cordials and packaging facilities will be established under the supervision
of newly recruited agriculture graduates. Certificate for quality standards will be provided
through the coordinating body formed under the university system.

Rather than having separate organization for the water management in rural areas, this type of
multi disciplinary approach would be more sustainable. Then the water management will
become a service and rural farming community will receive properly planed guidelines and
services throughout the year. They will be able to solve their marketing, transporting and
storage problems with this new collaborative work.

5.     Hypothesis

Existing water management system and impact of marketing procedures will be compared
with the development of a participatory approach to manage small and medium scale
reservoirs and irrigation schemes, while providing marketing, value addition, credit and other
required facilities through the co-operative system.


6.    Research Method
Methodology of this research study will provide an opportunity to understand the following
parameters.

Available secondary data will be collected and processed to understand the watershed
characteristics and conservation measures. GIS model will be developing to illustrate the
watershed parameters including the distribution of co-operative network with in the
Giruwapattuwa.

Based on the developed GIS model production units comprised with reservoirs, and irrigation
schemes will be identified with respect to the existing network of co-operative system.



Reservoirs or series of reservoirs will be allocated to each production unit considering the
infrastructure facilities of the relevant cooperative society. Agricultural graduates recruited,
with the collaboration of relevant governmental and non-governmental agencies in an




                                                                                              8
efficient way will handle the water management activities. Further, they will contribute the
normal routine work of the co-operative society (Gunasena. C.P., 2001)

Relevant policy issues of the co-operative system will be reviewed with respect to marketing,
value addition, credit, new recruitments and salaries. New policy issues will be formulated
and proposed for the implementation.

A preliminary survey will be conducted to access the infrastructure facilities in every
production unit. Based on this information locations for “Postharvest Technology Service
Centers” will be identified. Production units, which have lesser potential to have a service
center, will be joined with high potential units.

A detail survey will be conducted to access the existing marketing channels and “Pola
System” with in the Giruwapattuwa area. Private sector participation as organizational and
individual commitment will be accessed extensively. Possibilities of integration of theses
privet sector participation with the co-operative system will be explored with the survey.
Production and marketing network will be formulated with in the production unit and in
between the production units through the co-operative system considering the private sector
participation. Secondary data will also be collected when and where necessary.

A detailed survey will be conducted to access problems associated with present and ancient
water management principles with respect to social, cultural and technological parameters.
Appropriate technologies for efficient water management will be introduced with respect to
the ancient irrigation technologies considering social and cultural aspects of water
management. It will be a participatory approach from both farmers and scientists. Scientific
consultancies could be provided through the university system. This will be an easy task with
employed agriculture graduates in each cooperative society.

A center or a coordinating body will be formulated with in the university system. This will be
acting as the research and development wing of the co-operative system and it will
responsible for the monitoring of the formulated project with the collaboration of other
relevant agencies.

Set of awareness programs will be conducted to implement the model and educate people
about the concept. People of Giruwapattuwa could be asked to become members of
cooperative societies in their own villages. This will eliminate the problems associated with
water users for non-agricultural purposes.

Representatives from the co-operative system will be allowed represent all governmental and
non-governmental committee meetings that are actively participating in decision-making
activities relevant to water management, environmental, and Agricultural activities.
Agriculture graduates who are going to be employed in the co-operative system could
achieve this.

Cooperative system itself will be allowed intervene the existing marketing system through
purchasing, providing storage and processing facilities etc.. This could be easily achieved
with its own resources like transport facilities, storage facilities and credit facilities.

Even village level cooperative shops could be used to sell produces of the farmers and links
could be established in between village level producing cooperative societies and urban level




                                                                                            9
cooperative societies having more members who are only consumers. This will helps to
upgrade marketing channels, food chains etc.
 Village level or cottage level processing centers could also be established under the
supervision of the relevant cooperative society. This will help to raise the income level of the
farming community and consumers will receive fresh and quality products.

In order to have a blanket program to safeguard the catchment area or the hart of the
Urubokka Oya, communication links have to be established among the production units
through the cooperative societies. These links will be utilized to manage and manipulate
watershed and banks of the Urubokka Oya under a participatory approach. Marketing
channels could also be established through these communication links.

One year after implementation of the model, a detail survey will be conducted to assess the
water management, rehabilitation work, pricing of raw materials, value addition and
marketing aspects through the co-operative system and hypothesis will be tested.

6.1    Implementing the Postharvest Technology Service Center

Agricultural production in Sri Lanka is in the hands of small and medium scale farmers who
produce over 80% of the staple foods and raw material needed. Small and medium scale
farmers are scattered right across the country and small scale traditional food processing and
preservation unites are synchronized with these farming systems.
Presently Sri Lankan government is giving priorities to develop skilled personal in the field
of Postharvest Technology and Food Processing by organizing various training programs.
Even though they have enough raw materials, most of the people who get trained under these
programs are unable to use their knowledge due to lack of financial strength to purchase
required equipment and other infra structure facilities. Marketing is also a major problem
confronted by these farmers.

Hence, these agricultural raw materials are wasted in rural areas without being processed. As
such, proposed Postharvest Technology Service Center will help those rural farmers to
process their raw materials. They will be able to use high tech equipment to a reasonable cost
and at the same time, they can involve directly to process their own raw materials under a
supervision of a skilled technical personal. (Gunasena. C.P, 2001)

Service center will provide current technological information and equipment directly to the
rural farming community at a reasonable price where real growers become real producers and
increase their income and the living standard.

Quality standards of products that are being developed by the rural farming community will
be improved in various disciplines like self-employment, Small group level and medium level
producers. Certificate for quality standards will also be issued with the collaboration of the
coordinating body of the university system.

Traditional technologies will be collected, developed and adopt them to suit the local and
foreign demand.

6.1.1 Profile of the Postharvest Technology Service Center
There are eight different sections in this center where it facilitate most of the processing
requirements arise in rural areas.




                                                                                             10
Fruits, and vegetables processing unit with solar drying facilities.

Cereals and Pulses processing, confectionery items, bakery products and oil extraction unit.

Quality assurance and Packaging unit, Sales unit with showrooms and Storage facilities.

Waste recycling, fertilizer production and Biogas unit.

Research, development and information unit.

There will be a center manager, assistant manager and one watcher as human resources.
Center manager and the assistant manager will be agricultural graduates who have thorough
knowledge in processing and processing equipment. Further, they should be able to repair
and maintain all equipment in the center. They can work in shift basis. Watcher has to assist
all the work carried out at night shift. Salaries have to be paid by the Government or any
other authority, which is involved in development activities in the region.

6.1.2 Fruits and vegetables processing unit with solar drying facilities
There will be well-equipped processing unit for fruits and vegetables processing, anybody
who has raw materials can come to the center with his materials, and he will be able to
process those raw materials according to the market requirements or his personal choice at a
reasonable cost.

6.1.3 Cereals, Pulses processing, confectionery items, bakery products and oil
       extraction unit.
Raw materials can be carried to the processing unit. There will be machinery for grinding,
Flecking, Oil expelling, Hulling, Polishing, De stoning, and many other operations. Rural
farmer can have direct access to these new technologies without buying this equipment.

6.1.4 Quality assurance and Packaging unit, Sales unit with showrooms

Facilities will be provided to do packing at the center. Quality assurance certificate will be
issued for value added products. This will automatically upgrade the products that are being
produced by rural farmers and will get qualified for food cities and other higher-level
marketing channels.

This will facilitate the rural producer to sale his products at a reasonable price with a quality
assurance provided by the service center. Negotiations can be made with village cooperative
shops or CWE to have separate places for these products. A commission can be paid for this
purpose to the cooperative or CWE.
6.1.5 Storage Facilities
There will be facilities to store raw materials (No. 5) and processed products (No. 6) as well.
This will help the manager and the customer to manage their time effectively.

6.1.6 Waste management Organic waste materials could be feed in to the biogas unit
(No.13), installed at the back yard of the processing center.

6.1.7 Research, Development and Information unit




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This unit is directly linked with a Faculty of Agriculture close by. It also provides current
market requirements for the rural producer. Further, the relevant department of the Faculty
will guide anybody who need to do experiments about this postharvest technology and food
processing. Naval machines could be fabricated and developments of new technological
procedures are also possible in this center.


7.     Probable uses of findings and out come of the research

Since the existing co-operative system is proposed to use as the coordinating body, new
organizational structure is not necessary. With the existing infrastructure facilities general
objective could be practically achieved.

GIS model to illustrate the watershed parameters including production units comprised with
reservoirs, and irrigation schemes with respect to the existing network of co-operative
system.

Postharvest Technology Service Centers coupled with co-operative network.

Production and marketing network with in the production unit and in between the production
units through the co-operative system considering the private sector participation.

Changes in policy issues of the co-operative system, with respect to marketing, value
addition, credit, new recruitments and salaries.

Introduction of appropriate technologies for efficient water management with respect to the
ancient irrigation technologies, considering social and cultural aspects of water management.

A center or a coordinating body with in the university system to coordinate the research and
development wing of the co-operative system.

Increase of membership in co-operative societies.

Co-operatives will have the opportunity to participate in governmental and non-governmental
committee meetings that are actively involved in decision-making process relevant to water
management, environmental, and Agricultural activities.


Communication links among the production units through the cooperative societies will help
to manage and manipulate watershed and banks of the Urubokka Oya under a participatory
approach.

Several agriculture graduates will be employed.

Village level cooperative shops will have the opportunity to do buying and selling activities.
 Village level or cottage level processing centers will help to raise the income level of the
farming community and consumers will receive fresh and quality products.

Introduction of new technologies and procedures to the system with a view to social and
cultural aspects prevail in the past.




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8.      Constrains and risk factors

Without proper revision of policy issues, decision-making will be a difficult task. There is a
risk in loosing jobs for some intermediary.




9.      Budget

             Item                  Description       Number      Unit cost     Total cost
                                                       of          RS             RS
                                                      units

Infrastructure Facilities

1. Computer                      Pentium III         1                        60,000.00
2. Field motorcycle              XL 250              1                        60,000.00


Human Resources                  Two Months




                                                                                             13
      1. Field officer         Agric.Graduates 5                                         10,000.00                       100,000.00
      2. Data collector        A/L students    10                                          6000.00                       120,000.00



Stationeries                   Photocopy, Half
                               sheets, Tracing
                               Papers,                                                                                   25,000.00
                               Transparency
                               Sheets, pens


Transport                      Fuel cost                                                                                 25,000.00


Communication                  Telephone                                                                                     5000.00


Miscellaneous                                                                                                             10,000.00


Total                                                                                                                    405,000.00


Note: Implementation of Postharvest Technology Service Center and Center for coordination
with in the university system are excluded.




10.      Time Frame
                                                        September




                                                                              November

                                                                                         December




        Project component
                                                                                                              February
                                                                    October




                                                                                                    January
                                               August




                                                                                                                          March


                                                                                                                                  April
                                 June




                                                                                                                                          May
                                        July




Secondary data collection       x
GIS Modeling for the
catchment                               x      x
Identification of production
units                                   x      x




                                                                                                                                                14
Identification of reservoirs and
irrigation schemes within each       x    x
production unit
Recruitment officials                     x
Preliminary survey to assess
the infrastructure facilities in          x   x
each unit
Detail survey to identify the
marketing channels                        x   x
Detail survey to asses the
present and ancient water                 x   x
management principles
Reviewing co-operative policy
issues                               x    x   x
Data Processing
                                              x
Data analysis                                      x    x
Identification of locations for                         x   x
postharvest Technology
Service
Establishment of the
coordinating body with in the             x
university system
Centers Awareness program I :
Introduction of the concept                                 x
Implementation of the Model                                      X
Observation and Monitoring                                  x    x    x   x    x    x
Detail survey to assess the
water management,
Rehabilitation, Pricing, Value                              X    X
addition and Marketing
processes in 2003 December
Repot wring and submission                                            X   X    X    X




11.    Acknowledgments

I owe much to Prof. J.L. Sabatier and Prof. K.D.N. Weerasinghe for their valuable guidance
provided during field visits in Giruwapattuwa. I extend my deep gratitude to Dr. B.F.A.
Basnayake, for giving me an opportunity to undergo M.Phil in Integrated Water Resources
Management.

My sincere thanks are due to Prof. C. Siveryoganathan, Dr. W. Jayathilaka, Dr. Thiruchilwam
and Dr. Wijesundara for providing correct pathway to write up the proposal.




                                                                                        15
Greatful acknowledgments are extended to Dr. Gunaratne, Warden Marcus Fernando Hall
and Mr. Edirisinghe sub warden Marcus Fernando Hall, for their kind consideration during
proposal writing.

My special gratitude to my colleges especially Karuneinathen for providing me constructive
criticism and support.




12.    List of Reference

Sabatier. J.L, Weerasinghe K.D.N, 2001, Water resources development in South for the new
millennium to avoid conflict situations in water issues, unpublished data.

Goonasekare. K, Gamage. H, 1999, Some indigenous technology knowledge and practices
for watershed management in Sri Lanka, Participatory Watershed Management Training in
Asia (PWMTA) Program, Netherlands/FAO(UN), GCP/RAS/161/NET, Kathmandu, Nepal.




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Jayasinghe. G.S.K, 2001, An assessment of services provided by agricultural co-operatives in
the Okewela and Weeraketiya A.S.C. divisions in the Hambantota district, Final year project
report.

Japan International Cooperation Agency, 1996, The feasibility study on the rehabilitation of
the river basins of Southern Sri Lanka, Master plan study.

Gunaena. C. P. 2001, Establishment of a Postharvest Technology Service Center,
Unpublished data.

Gunasena. C.P, 2001, Multi disciplinary strategic development of operation and management
of water recourses in Sri Lanka, Unpublished data

International Federation of Agricultural Producers, 1994, Farmers for a sustainable future: the
leadership role of agriculture. Paris, November 1994. pp. 12-13.

International Co-operative Alliance, United Nations, 1995, Agenda 21, Geneva, New yoke




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Description: Management and manipulation techniques of water resources were evolved and developed with the human colonization among streams. This ancient hydrological modeling had very distinct relationship with religious and cultural background of natives. Based on the relationships two different civilizations could be identified in Sri Lanka. People lived in hilly areas adapted different hydrological models when compare to people who lived in low land areas.