Management and manipulation techniques of water resources were evolved and developed with the human colonization among streams. This ancient hydrological modeling had very distinct relationship with religious and cultural background of natives. Based on the relationships two different civilizations could be identified in Sri Lanka. People lived in hilly areas adapted different hydrological models when compare to people who lived in low land areas.
Title: Management of small and medium scale reservoirs and irrigation schemes at Giruwapattuwa through the existing co-operative system in Sri Lanka Author/s: C.P.Gunasena, Department of Agric. Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Mapalana. 1. Introduction 1.1 Historical Background of Giruwapattuwa Management and manipulation techniques of water resources were evolved and developed with the human colonization among streams. This ancient hydrological modeling had very distinct relationship with religious and cultural background of natives. Based on the relationships two different civilizations could be identified in Sri Lanka. People lived in hilly areas adapted different hydrological models when compare to people who lived in low land areas. Even though there were two different hydrological technological procedures, some technical and technological linkages might be existed to control flood and dry spells in low land areas. According to the archeological evidence a king named Dutu Tissa, who came to the Deep South from Anuradhapura during the King Devanampiyatissa era, was able to trace the “Urubokka Oya” and the catchment area. Geologically most of the hilly areas of Giruwapattuwa are belongs to Hambantota district. There is a huge rock at the north central part of this pattuwa and it is named as Mulkgirigale. Giruwa Pattu means the region around the hill or the rock (Giri). Demarcations can be given as Katuwana on the north, Beliatta on the south, Hakmana and Denegama on the west, and left bank of the Walave Ganga on the east side. (Annex 1: Map of Giruwapattuwa by Sabatier.J.L 2001) Mulgirigala is an old Buddhist monastery with a strong historical influence on different temples and farmer communities, which is believed to be a massive construction done by the king Dutu Tissa during king “Dutugemunu” era. (Sabatier J.L 2001) 1.2 History of the Irrigation network in Giruwapattuwa Small tanks were built at the dead end of a small branch of the Main Urubokka Oya and rice was cultivated under permanent water logging conditions. This type of cultural practices helped to keep the stream alive and ground water table up for highland cultivation. Settlements could be observed from the up steam with small tanks and large tanks with low land areas. This type of hydrological model could be identified as a typical model, which persists all most all parts of the country. Presently it is identified as a cascade system. (Sabatier J.L, 2001) 1.3 Rehabilitation work and present situation During the Dutch period a channel had been constructed to divert Urubokka Oya water to “Nilwala” river Since colonial period several rehabilitation programs had been carried out. The major one was conducted during 1957. Principal feeders in Urruboka channels were enlarged and Muruthawela dam with storage capacity of 48 million m3 was constructed in 1965. The Urubokka Oya comprises eight anicuts, six small tanks, one medium sized tank called Udukiriwela tank, with storage capacity of 3.8 million m3, and a network of canals and myriad field canals with the commanding area of 2,175 ha. However, leakage occurs both upstream and downstream 1 portions of anicut structures; flooding has damaged gates; and water distribution works, bank revetments and spillway facilities have deteriorated. (JICA report, 1996) Irrigation Department has been made themselves responsible for issuing irrigation water for the Urubooka Oya Command areas as follows: Name of Scheme Anicuts Command Yala Maha Area (ha) Season Season Kirama Oya 18 2001 Urubokka Oya 8 1700 Raluwa Nawaratne 101 Full Full Kinchigune 107 Do Do Udukiriwela 183 Do Do Wakamulla 248 Half Full Hunna Kumbura 169 Do Do Hakuruwela 396 Do Do Andupelena 375 Do Do Ranna 192 Do Do High Level Canal Command Area 7 Tanks 405 Do Full Muruthawela LB Tract-1 415 Tract-2 614 Tract-3 669 Muruthawela RB 8 Tanks 275 Source : JICA Report 1996 Anicuts in each of the schemes were mostly constructed in 1940’s nevertheless the main structures of anicuts seem to be deteriorated slightly at the first sight. But most of anicut gates are so bad that they cannot maintain the FSL during dry season except for ones of Udukiriwela Anicut. Absence of poor condition of gates at the intake lease to flow excess water into canals. (Annex 2 : Schematic Diagram of Muruthawela Reservoir Scheme JICA 1996) 1.4 Co-operative System and Agriculture Co-operative system has been defined by the International Co-operative Alliance. According to that, definition co-operative can be defined as an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations 2 through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise. Further, Values of co- operatives were also given based on the values of self-help, self-responsibility, democracy, equality, equity, and solidarity. In the tradition of their founders, co-operative members believe in the ethical values of honesty, openness, social responsibility, and caring for others. Seven principles have also been developed by the said alliance. These principles are guidelines by which co-operatives put their values into practice. Membership is open and voluntary. Co-operatives are democratic and control by members in every aspects. Economic Participation is also done by a democratic way and capitol is a common property. Co-operatives are autonomous and independent. They are capable of conducting education, training and information technology. Co-operation among members as well as other co-operatives is entertained. Co-operatives are concern about community as well as the country. (International Co-operative Alliance, United Nations, 1995 ) 1st Principle: Co-operatives are voluntary organizations, open to all persons able to use their services and willing to accept the responsibilities of membership, without gender, social, racial, political, or religious discrimination. 2nd Principle: Co-operatives are democratic organizations controlled by their members, who actively participate in setting their policies and making decisions. Men and women serving as elected representatives are accountable to the membership. In primary co-operatives, members have equal voting rights (one member, one vote), and co-operatives at other levels are organized in a democratic manner. 3rd Principle: Members contribute equitably to, and democratically control, the capital of their co-operative. At least part of that capital is usually the common property of the co-operative. Members usually receive limited compensation, if any, on capital subscribed as a condition of membership. Members allocate surpluses for any or all of the following purposes: developing their co-operative, possibly by setting up reserves, part of which at least would be indivisible; benefiting members in proportion to their transactions with the co-operative; and supporting other activities approved by the membership. 4th Principle: Co-operatives are autonomous, self-help organizations controlled by their members. If they enter into agreements with other organizations, including governments, or raise capital from external sources, they do so on terms that ensure democratic control by their members and maintain their co-operative autonomy. 5th Principle: Co-operatives provide education and training for their members, elected representatives, managers, and employees so they can contribute effectively to the development of their co- 3 operatives. They inform the general public – particularly young people and opinion leaders - about the nature and benefits of co-operation. 6th Principle: Co-operatives serve their members most effectively and strengthen the co-operative movement by working together through local, national, regional, and international structures. 7th Principle: Co-operatives work for the sustainable development of their communities through policies approved by their members. One of the objectives identified in respect to achieving the full involvement of farmers themselves in the transformation of rural economies to a sustainable condition was to enhance the participation of farmers, women and men, in the design and implementation of policies directed toward these ends, through their representative organizations. The role of farmers' organizations is to act as guarantor of the interests of small-scale, resource-poor farmers, articulating and transmitting their concerns and viewpoints in a regular manner to governments and participating in the formulating and implementation of sustainable agricultural and rural development policies and programs. Top-down programs cannot achieve this: only through full recognition of farmers' representative organizations and regular dialogue and consultation with them, from grassroots to national level. International Federation of Agricultural Produces states in its policy document adopted at its 31st General Conference at Istanbul, Turkey in May 1994 that: "Farmer-owned businesses such as agricultural co-operatives and farmer associations can invigorate the rural environment. These contribute both income and stability to the rural population by providing essential services to the rural areas, furnishing environmentally-sound inputs, generating employment opportunities, and encouraging agro-processing which raises the value-added going directly to the farmer. Co-operatives are a practical organizational vehicle whereby farmers may strengthen their absolute and relative economic position and status within national society: they are an organizational means for farmer empowerment. Having a stronger economic base lends force to the representational and policy determining capability of farmers' organizations. Conversely, success in representation and participation in policy development establishes an environment within which both farm enterprises and farmer-owned enterprises such as agricultural co-operatives are able to operate effectively and viably. (International Co- operative Alliance, United Nations, 1995) Because of the growing solidarity and operational integration between producer and consumer co-operatives in many countries, it is possible for agricultural producers on the one hand, and both industrial consumers and household consumers of agricultural outputs on the 4 other hand, to establish a common position whereby the concerns of the latter for environmentally-friendly commodities can be transmitted to the producers. Conversely, the factors, which determine producers’ ability to adjust to sustainable development, can be explained to the consumer. In this way the integrated national co- operative movement can act as a means whereby farmers' organizations can achieve a dialogue with consumers, particularly those in urban areas often unaware of the financial and other constraints upon agricultural producers' ability to adjust their operations. (International Federation of Agricultural Producers, Farmers for a sustainable future: the leadership role of agriculture. Paris, November 1994. pp. 12-13. ) 1.5 Co-operative system in Sri Lanka 1.5.1 Historical background Sri Lanka is experiencing the co-operative system approach, since the beginning of the Hydraulic Civilization. Otherwise such a massive constructions and irrigation projects would not have been implemented. With the colonial experience, British introduced a different institutional approach. In order to distribute food and other subsidies during the First World War, newly introduced co- operative system performed a comprehensive management of subsidies. First, it was with the Department of Agriculture and it was separated in 1931. Later in 1950, the establishment was converted in to a statutory cooperation. It was successfully directed the enhanced prices to the growers than intermediary and able to secured government loans. Co-operative federal bank transformed in to the People’s Bank and successful trade agreements were conducted with the co-operative system. Multipurpose co-operatives were established in each village to under take credit, input supply and marketing. In 1960s, these multipurpose co-operative societies were used to implement a guaranteed price scheme. (Jayasinghe.G.S.K. 2001) 1.5.2 Present situation The Department of Agric. Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna carried out resent study, to assess the services provided by the co-operatives at Okewela and Weeraketiya in Giruwapattuwa. Reseals reveled that the involvement of marketing was minimal. Data gathered from the co-operative societies showered that the involvement is about 25%, whereas data gathered from the people showered it as 12%. Further, it was showered that 73% of people commented about lack of arrangements within the co-operative system to purchase the harvest. Another 24% commented about difficulties that were confronted by them with the quality testing procedures. Less than 3% were commented about the distance to the co-operative shops and difficulties in transporting their produce. . (Jayasinghe.G.S.K. 2001) The co-operative officials and farmer members interviewed made following suggestions. 5 Agricultural inputs could be easily distributed at correct time, with a reasonable price. Produce also could be purchased from the farmers giving a reasonable price to them. Co- operative system is capable of providing training and extension facilities. Further, they have suggested reviewing the policy issues and arranging to make trade agreements within the different co-operative societies. Hundred percent of the members suggested to provide agricultural inputs through the system. Another 98% suggested having marketing channels through the co-operatives. Out of total 68% were suggested to conduct training and extension. Seventy eight percent have suggested to shire the risk and uncertain with the co-operatives. This study justifies the potential of co- operatives to handle agricultural projects successfully. . (Jayasinghe.G.S.K. 2001) 2. Problem statement (Justification) With the colonial experience, Sri Lanka tends to practice top to bottom level of decision- making and strongly influenced all the system of higher education and neglected the significance of the indigenous knowledge in technology development and transformation. During the colonial period, ancient irrigation system of Giruwapattuwa was rehabilitated. A government carder position replaced Vel vidane system. New technologies were introduced without considering the ancient social and technological aspects. Even though this system is functioning, not being able to meet the present water demands in Giruvapattuwa. Situation is aggravated due to the abundance of lots of small tanks. Most of the lands are not properly utilized due to lack of sufficient water resources. Existing water recourses are not properly managed. Government is investing lot of money for the development of irrigation systems in rural areas. Though farmers involved in management of these systems with the collaboration of government agencies like the Department of irrigation, decision-making process is more centralized and performances are not satisfactory. After the construction of Muruthawela dam, some down stream parts of Urubokka Oya system is not getting enough water for cultivation purposes. Up stream farmers starts their cultural practices at correct time, but down stream farmers get water later due to the mismanagement of water in up stream level. No proper coordination in between up stream farmers and down stream farmers for an efficient water management practice. Pre seasonal meetings are carried out separately for up streams, middle stream and down stream and there is no proper coordination in between these meetings. Up stream farmers have no idea about requirements of down stream farmers and their difficulties arise during the on set and the end of a season. Rehabilitation of distributaries is not done properly due to lack of cooperation among farmers. They tend to get water from feeder cannels in an unauthorized manner for their personal requirements, such as for washing bathing for themselves s well as their cattle. Farmers receive lesser prices for their raw materials. The intermediary does Price determination and value addition is not adequately practiced. Since agriculture is a multi disciplinary process, water management itself does not give a sound relief for the burning 6 issues of the rural farming community. Other aspects like processing, value addition, marketing and finance have to be considered. In these issues presently, farmers do not have necessary powers and rights to make decisions. Even if they have 100% efficient system for water management, it may be collapsed due to lack of other basic requirements. As such, lot of problems have come up and confronted by rural farming community and the Department of Irrigation. Hence, appropriate methodology has to be developed and farmers should have more rights and powers in decision-making process than the present system. In order to fulfill these requirements cooperative system can play a much better role. System itself has its own infrastructure facilities, which could be utilized by the rural farming community. They have island wide network of their own financial, transport, and storage, marketing and processing facilities. 3. General Objective Development of a participatory approach to manage small and medium scale reservoirs and irrigation schemes, while providing marketing, value addition, credit and other required facilities through the co-operative system. 3.1 Specific Objectives Identify watershed characteristics and conservation measures. Identify production units comprised with reservoirs, and irrigation schemes with respect to the distribution of co-operative network. Identify locations for “Postharvest Technology Service Centers” and to formulate production and marketing network with in the production unit and in between the production units. Identification of policy issues which; have to be restructured with in the co-operative system. Introduction of appropriate technologies, considering social aspects of water management with respect to the ancient irrigation technologies. 4. Conceptual Model Giruwapattuwa will be identified as a catchment area having number of production units. This is the further development of a typical “Gangoda” (Goonasekara. K, 1999) which, could be identified as the ancient production unit in an ordinary “Purana village”. Each production unit will be included series of tanks or one single tank depending on the commanding area. People who are using water for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes, from that particular water resource could be asked to become members of responsible co-operative society within the production unit. This could be a policy decision to get the maximum participation of people those who are using water for non-agricultural purposes. Marketing, value addition, credit and other facilities will be given through the co-operative society. 7 Members have the responsibility to manage the water efficiently and do the rehabilitation work when and where necessary. Proper coordination of co-operative societies and other relevant organizations will be done by trained agriculture graduates, attached to the each co- operative society under the supervision of a coordinating body appointed by the University system. This will be the research and development wing of the co-operative system. Agriculture graduates will be handled the value addition, processing, marketing, transportation and storage of rural produce with the collaboration of formal network of the existing cooperative system. Cultivation and production process will be coordinated and monitored within the production unit as well as in between the production units. In order to conduct value addition process with in the production unit, a center named “Postharvest technology service center” having milling, oil extraction, and accessories for making jams and cordials and packaging facilities will be established under the supervision of newly recruited agriculture graduates. Certificate for quality standards will be provided through the coordinating body formed under the university system. Rather than having separate organization for the water management in rural areas, this type of multi disciplinary approach would be more sustainable. Then the water management will become a service and rural farming community will receive properly planed guidelines and services throughout the year. They will be able to solve their marketing, transporting and storage problems with this new collaborative work. 5. Hypothesis Existing water management system and impact of marketing procedures will be compared with the development of a participatory approach to manage small and medium scale reservoirs and irrigation schemes, while providing marketing, value addition, credit and other required facilities through the co-operative system. 6. Research Method Methodology of this research study will provide an opportunity to understand the following parameters. Available secondary data will be collected and processed to understand the watershed characteristics and conservation measures. GIS model will be developing to illustrate the watershed parameters including the distribution of co-operative network with in the Giruwapattuwa. Based on the developed GIS model production units comprised with reservoirs, and irrigation schemes will be identified with respect to the existing network of co-operative system. Reservoirs or series of reservoirs will be allocated to each production unit considering the infrastructure facilities of the relevant cooperative society. Agricultural graduates recruited, with the collaboration of relevant governmental and non-governmental agencies in an 8 efficient way will handle the water management activities. Further, they will contribute the normal routine work of the co-operative society (Gunasena. C.P., 2001) Relevant policy issues of the co-operative system will be reviewed with respect to marketing, value addition, credit, new recruitments and salaries. New policy issues will be formulated and proposed for the implementation. A preliminary survey will be conducted to access the infrastructure facilities in every production unit. Based on this information locations for “Postharvest Technology Service Centers” will be identified. Production units, which have lesser potential to have a service center, will be joined with high potential units. A detail survey will be conducted to access the existing marketing channels and “Pola System” with in the Giruwapattuwa area. Private sector participation as organizational and individual commitment will be accessed extensively. Possibilities of integration of theses privet sector participation with the co-operative system will be explored with the survey. Production and marketing network will be formulated with in the production unit and in between the production units through the co-operative system considering the private sector participation. Secondary data will also be collected when and where necessary. A detailed survey will be conducted to access problems associated with present and ancient water management principles with respect to social, cultural and technological parameters. Appropriate technologies for efficient water management will be introduced with respect to the ancient irrigation technologies considering social and cultural aspects of water management. It will be a participatory approach from both farmers and scientists. Scientific consultancies could be provided through the university system. This will be an easy task with employed agriculture graduates in each cooperative society. A center or a coordinating body will be formulated with in the university system. This will be acting as the research and development wing of the co-operative system and it will responsible for the monitoring of the formulated project with the collaboration of other relevant agencies. Set of awareness programs will be conducted to implement the model and educate people about the concept. People of Giruwapattuwa could be asked to become members of cooperative societies in their own villages. This will eliminate the problems associated with water users for non-agricultural purposes. Representatives from the co-operative system will be allowed represent all governmental and non-governmental committee meetings that are actively participating in decision-making activities relevant to water management, environmental, and Agricultural activities. Agriculture graduates who are going to be employed in the co-operative system could achieve this. Cooperative system itself will be allowed intervene the existing marketing system through purchasing, providing storage and processing facilities etc.. This could be easily achieved with its own resources like transport facilities, storage facilities and credit facilities. Even village level cooperative shops could be used to sell produces of the farmers and links could be established in between village level producing cooperative societies and urban level 9 cooperative societies having more members who are only consumers. This will helps to upgrade marketing channels, food chains etc. Village level or cottage level processing centers could also be established under the supervision of the relevant cooperative society. This will help to raise the income level of the farming community and consumers will receive fresh and quality products. In order to have a blanket program to safeguard the catchment area or the hart of the Urubokka Oya, communication links have to be established among the production units through the cooperative societies. These links will be utilized to manage and manipulate watershed and banks of the Urubokka Oya under a participatory approach. Marketing channels could also be established through these communication links. One year after implementation of the model, a detail survey will be conducted to assess the water management, rehabilitation work, pricing of raw materials, value addition and marketing aspects through the co-operative system and hypothesis will be tested. 6.1 Implementing the Postharvest Technology Service Center Agricultural production in Sri Lanka is in the hands of small and medium scale farmers who produce over 80% of the staple foods and raw material needed. Small and medium scale farmers are scattered right across the country and small scale traditional food processing and preservation unites are synchronized with these farming systems. Presently Sri Lankan government is giving priorities to develop skilled personal in the field of Postharvest Technology and Food Processing by organizing various training programs. Even though they have enough raw materials, most of the people who get trained under these programs are unable to use their knowledge due to lack of financial strength to purchase required equipment and other infra structure facilities. Marketing is also a major problem confronted by these farmers. Hence, these agricultural raw materials are wasted in rural areas without being processed. As such, proposed Postharvest Technology Service Center will help those rural farmers to process their raw materials. They will be able to use high tech equipment to a reasonable cost and at the same time, they can involve directly to process their own raw materials under a supervision of a skilled technical personal. (Gunasena. C.P, 2001) Service center will provide current technological information and equipment directly to the rural farming community at a reasonable price where real growers become real producers and increase their income and the living standard. Quality standards of products that are being developed by the rural farming community will be improved in various disciplines like self-employment, Small group level and medium level producers. Certificate for quality standards will also be issued with the collaboration of the coordinating body of the university system. Traditional technologies will be collected, developed and adopt them to suit the local and foreign demand. 6.1.1 Profile of the Postharvest Technology Service Center There are eight different sections in this center where it facilitate most of the processing requirements arise in rural areas. 10 Fruits, and vegetables processing unit with solar drying facilities. Cereals and Pulses processing, confectionery items, bakery products and oil extraction unit. Quality assurance and Packaging unit, Sales unit with showrooms and Storage facilities. Waste recycling, fertilizer production and Biogas unit. Research, development and information unit. There will be a center manager, assistant manager and one watcher as human resources. Center manager and the assistant manager will be agricultural graduates who have thorough knowledge in processing and processing equipment. Further, they should be able to repair and maintain all equipment in the center. They can work in shift basis. Watcher has to assist all the work carried out at night shift. Salaries have to be paid by the Government or any other authority, which is involved in development activities in the region. 6.1.2 Fruits and vegetables processing unit with solar drying facilities There will be well-equipped processing unit for fruits and vegetables processing, anybody who has raw materials can come to the center with his materials, and he will be able to process those raw materials according to the market requirements or his personal choice at a reasonable cost. 6.1.3 Cereals, Pulses processing, confectionery items, bakery products and oil extraction unit. Raw materials can be carried to the processing unit. There will be machinery for grinding, Flecking, Oil expelling, Hulling, Polishing, De stoning, and many other operations. Rural farmer can have direct access to these new technologies without buying this equipment. 6.1.4 Quality assurance and Packaging unit, Sales unit with showrooms Facilities will be provided to do packing at the center. Quality assurance certificate will be issued for value added products. This will automatically upgrade the products that are being produced by rural farmers and will get qualified for food cities and other higher-level marketing channels. This will facilitate the rural producer to sale his products at a reasonable price with a quality assurance provided by the service center. Negotiations can be made with village cooperative shops or CWE to have separate places for these products. A commission can be paid for this purpose to the cooperative or CWE. 6.1.5 Storage Facilities There will be facilities to store raw materials (No. 5) and processed products (No. 6) as well. This will help the manager and the customer to manage their time effectively. 6.1.6 Waste management Organic waste materials could be feed in to the biogas unit (No.13), installed at the back yard of the processing center. 6.1.7 Research, Development and Information unit 11 This unit is directly linked with a Faculty of Agriculture close by. It also provides current market requirements for the rural producer. Further, the relevant department of the Faculty will guide anybody who need to do experiments about this postharvest technology and food processing. Naval machines could be fabricated and developments of new technological procedures are also possible in this center. 7. Probable uses of findings and out come of the research Since the existing co-operative system is proposed to use as the coordinating body, new organizational structure is not necessary. With the existing infrastructure facilities general objective could be practically achieved. GIS model to illustrate the watershed parameters including production units comprised with reservoirs, and irrigation schemes with respect to the existing network of co-operative system. Postharvest Technology Service Centers coupled with co-operative network. Production and marketing network with in the production unit and in between the production units through the co-operative system considering the private sector participation. Changes in policy issues of the co-operative system, with respect to marketing, value addition, credit, new recruitments and salaries. Introduction of appropriate technologies for efficient water management with respect to the ancient irrigation technologies, considering social and cultural aspects of water management. A center or a coordinating body with in the university system to coordinate the research and development wing of the co-operative system. Increase of membership in co-operative societies. Co-operatives will have the opportunity to participate in governmental and non-governmental committee meetings that are actively involved in decision-making process relevant to water management, environmental, and Agricultural activities. Communication links among the production units through the cooperative societies will help to manage and manipulate watershed and banks of the Urubokka Oya under a participatory approach. Several agriculture graduates will be employed. Village level cooperative shops will have the opportunity to do buying and selling activities. Village level or cottage level processing centers will help to raise the income level of the farming community and consumers will receive fresh and quality products. Introduction of new technologies and procedures to the system with a view to social and cultural aspects prevail in the past. 12 8. Constrains and risk factors Without proper revision of policy issues, decision-making will be a difficult task. There is a risk in loosing jobs for some intermediary. 9. Budget Item Description Number Unit cost Total cost of RS RS units Infrastructure Facilities 1. Computer Pentium III 1 60,000.00 2. Field motorcycle XL 250 1 60,000.00 Human Resources Two Months 13 1. Field officer Agric.Graduates 5 10,000.00 100,000.00 2. Data collector A/L students 10 6000.00 120,000.00 Stationeries Photocopy, Half sheets, Tracing Papers, 25,000.00 Transparency Sheets, pens Transport Fuel cost 25,000.00 Communication Telephone 5000.00 Miscellaneous 10,000.00 Total 405,000.00 Note: Implementation of Postharvest Technology Service Center and Center for coordination with in the university system are excluded. 10. Time Frame September November December Project component February October January August March April June May July Secondary data collection x GIS Modeling for the catchment x x Identification of production units x x 14 Identification of reservoirs and irrigation schemes within each x x production unit Recruitment officials x Preliminary survey to assess the infrastructure facilities in x x each unit Detail survey to identify the marketing channels x x Detail survey to asses the present and ancient water x x management principles Reviewing co-operative policy issues x x x Data Processing x Data analysis x x Identification of locations for x x postharvest Technology Service Establishment of the coordinating body with in the x university system Centers Awareness program I : Introduction of the concept x Implementation of the Model X Observation and Monitoring x x x x x x Detail survey to assess the water management, Rehabilitation, Pricing, Value X X addition and Marketing processes in 2003 December Repot wring and submission X X X X 11. Acknowledgments I owe much to Prof. J.L. Sabatier and Prof. K.D.N. Weerasinghe for their valuable guidance provided during field visits in Giruwapattuwa. I extend my deep gratitude to Dr. B.F.A. Basnayake, for giving me an opportunity to undergo M.Phil in Integrated Water Resources Management. My sincere thanks are due to Prof. C. Siveryoganathan, Dr. W. Jayathilaka, Dr. Thiruchilwam and Dr. Wijesundara for providing correct pathway to write up the proposal. 15 Greatful acknowledgments are extended to Dr. Gunaratne, Warden Marcus Fernando Hall and Mr. Edirisinghe sub warden Marcus Fernando Hall, for their kind consideration during proposal writing. My special gratitude to my colleges especially Karuneinathen for providing me constructive criticism and support. 12. List of Reference Sabatier. J.L, Weerasinghe K.D.N, 2001, Water resources development in South for the new millennium to avoid conflict situations in water issues, unpublished data. Goonasekare. K, Gamage. H, 1999, Some indigenous technology knowledge and practices for watershed management in Sri Lanka, Participatory Watershed Management Training in Asia (PWMTA) Program, Netherlands/FAO(UN), GCP/RAS/161/NET, Kathmandu, Nepal. 16 Jayasinghe. G.S.K, 2001, An assessment of services provided by agricultural co-operatives in the Okewela and Weeraketiya A.S.C. divisions in the Hambantota district, Final year project report. Japan International Cooperation Agency, 1996, The feasibility study on the rehabilitation of the river basins of Southern Sri Lanka, Master plan study. Gunaena. C. P. 2001, Establishment of a Postharvest Technology Service Center, Unpublished data. Gunasena. C.P, 2001, Multi disciplinary strategic development of operation and management of water recourses in Sri Lanka, Unpublished data International Federation of Agricultural Producers, 1994, Farmers for a sustainable future: the leadership role of agriculture. Paris, November 1994. pp. 12-13. International Co-operative Alliance, United Nations, 1995, Agenda 21, Geneva, New yoke 17
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