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					                    TENSES / VERBS

TENSE       POSITIVE NEGATIVE QUESTION USE
                        They don't
            I play                             Habitual
Simple                  (do not)    Does she
            tennis on                          activities -
Present                 work in     know him?
            Mondays.                           States
                        New York.
                                               Actions
                        They didn't
            She went                Where did happening
Simple                  (did not)
            to Paris                she get    at a defined
Past                    drive to
            last week.              that hat?  moment in
                        work.
                                               the past.
                                               Decisions
                                               made at the
            I'll (will)                        moment
                        He won't
            meet you                Will they  about the
Simple                  (will not)
            at the                  visit us   future,
Future                  be able to
            airport                 soon?      future
                        come.
            tomorrow.                          predictions,
                                               future
                                               promises
                                               Actions
                                               happening
                                               at the
            He's (is) They aren't
                                               present
Present     working at (are not)    What are
                                               moment.
Continuous the          coming this you doing?
                                               Near future
            moment. evening.
                                               intention
                                               and
                                               scheduling.
                                               Interrupted
                                               past action,
            I was       He wasn't
                                    What were action
            watching (was not)
Past                                you doing happening
            TV when working
Continuous                          when I     at a specific
            you         when she
                                    called?    moment in
            called.     arrived.
                                               time in the
                                               past.
            I'll (will) They won't
                                    What will Future
            be          (will not)
                                    you be     action at a
Future      cooking be living in
                                    doing next specific
Continuous dinner       Paris this
                                    week at    moment in
            when you time next
                                    this time? the future.
            arrive.     year.
            He's (is) They're                  Future
                                    Where are
Future with going to (are) not                 intent or
                                    you going
Going to    fly to      going to               planned
                                    to stay?
            Boston      invite the             action
           next         Browns.
           week.
                                                   1)To
                                                   express an
                                                   action that
                                                   was begun
                                                   in the past
                                                   and
                                                   continues
                                                   into the
           I've                                    present. 2)
           (have)       She hasn't    How long     To express
Present    seen Mick    (has not)     have you     an action
Perfect    three        been to       worked at    that
           times this   New York.     Smith's?     happened
           week.                                   in the
                                                   UNspecified
                                                   past. 3) To
                                                   express a
                                                   recent
                                                   action that
                                                   has a
                                                   present
                                                   effect.
                                                   To express
           I'd (had)    She hadn't    Had you      an action
           already      (had not)     ever seen    that
Past       eaten        been to       such a       happens
Perfect    before       Rome          crazy lady   before
           they         before that   before       another
           came.        trip.         that?        action in
                                                   the past.
                                                   To express
                                                   what will
                        She won't                  have
                                      How long
           We'll (will) (will not)                 happened
                                      will you
           have lived have                         or how long
                                      have lived
Future     here for finished                       something
                                      in France
Perfect    twenty       her                        will have
                                      by the end
           years by homework                       happened
                                      of next
           2005.        by the time                up to a
                                      year?
                        we arrive.                 certain
                                                   point in the
                                                   future.
                                                   To express
           She's       They           How long
                                                   the duration
           (has)       haven't        have you
Present                                            of a
           been        (have not)     been
Perfect                                            continuous
           waiting for been           working on
Continuous                                         activity
           over three studying        that
                                                   begun in
           hours.      for long.      problem?
                                                   the past
                                                                   and
                                                                   continuing
                                                                   into the
                                                                   present.
                                                                   To express
                         She'd       I hadn't
                                                                   the duration
                         (had)       (had not)        How long
                                                                   of a
                         been        been             had you
                                                                   continuous
              Past       waiting for sleeping         been
                                                                   activity
              Perfect    three       for long         playing
                                                                   begun
              Continuous hours       when I           tennis
                                                                   before
                         when he heard the            when she
                                                                   another
                         finally     doorbell         arrived?
                                                                   activity in
                         arrived.    ring.
                                                                   the past.
                         He'll (will)
                                                                   To express
                         have           She won't
                                                      How long the duration
                         been           (will not)
              Future                                  will you     of an
                         sleeping       have been
              Perfect                                 have been activity up
                         for a few      working for
              Continuous                              driving by 6 to a point of
                         hours by       long by 5
                                                      o'clock?     time in the
                         the time       o'clock.
                                                                   future.
                         we arrive.



                                    Auxiliary Verbs


Auxiliary verbs are conjugated depending on the subject of a sentence. Here are a few
examples of auxiliary verbs:
Tom has lived in Boston for twenty years.
They didn't come to the party last night.
I was cooking dinner when you telephoned.
What are you doing tomorrow afternoon?
Knowing correct auxiliary verb usage is key to tense usage. Every tense takes an
auxiliary form of the verb. There are three exceptions to this rule:

          1. Simple present positive: She works at a bank.
          2. Simple past positive: He bought a new TV last week.
          3. Positive imperative statements: Hurry up!

There are also a number of short forms that take ONLY the auxiliary form of the verb:

             Yes / No answer short forms:

      Do you live in England? - No, I don't.
      Has she been to Paris? - Yes, she has.

             Question tags:
      They enjoy learning English, don't they?
      He won't agree with me, will he

Here is a quick overview of auxiliary verb usage:
DO / DOES
Used simple present question and negative forms:
What time does he get up?
They don't drive to work. They take the bus.
DID
Used in simple past question and negative forms:
When did they arrive yesterday?
He didn't finish his homework last week.
IS / ARE / AM
Used in present continuous and for the future with 'going to':
They are working hard at the moment.
She is going to study medicine at university.
WAS / WERE
Past continuous:
I was watching TV when you arrived.
What were they doing while you were cooking dinner?
HAVE / HAS
Present perfect and present perfect continuous:
How long have you lived here?
I've been working since seven this morning.
HAD
Past perfect and past perfect continuous:
He had eaten by the time I arrived.
She had been studying for two hours when he finally telephoned.
WILL / WON'T
Future with 'will':
What will the weather be like tomorrow?
He won't understand.

                                       Pronouns
There are four types of pronouns: Subject Pronouns, Object Pronouns, Possessive
Pronouns and Demonstrative Pronouns. Here is a list and explanation showing the
different types of pronouns:

            Subject Pronouns - I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they function as the subject
             of a sentence:

      I live in New York.
      Do you like playing tennis?
      He doesn't want to come this evening.
      She works in London.
      It won't be easy.
      We are studying pronouns at the moment.
      You went to Paris last year, didn't you?
      They bought a new car last month.
             Object Pronouns - me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them serve as the object
              of a verb.

      Give me the book.
      He told you to come tonight.
      She asked him to help.
      They visited her when they came to New York.
      She bought it at the store.
      He picked us up at the airport.
      The teacher asked you to finish your homework.
      I invited them to a party.

             Possessive Pronouns - mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs

         show that something belongs to someone
Possessive Adjectives


                                     Phrasal Verbs
There are four types of phrasal verbs. Phrasal verbs can be separable or inseparable
and they can take an object or not. Here is a guide to the basics of phrasal verbs.
Phrasal Verbs which Take Objects
Phrasal verbs which take objects can be separable or inseparable:
Separable phrasal verbs can remain together when using an object that is a noun or
noun phrase.

             I picked Tom up. OR I picked up Tom.
             They put their friends up. OR They put up their friends.

Separable phrasal verbs MUST be separated when a pronoun is used:

             We picked him up at the station. NOT We picked up him at the station.
             They put them up. NOT They put up them.

Inseparable phrasal verbs always remain together. It makes no difference if a noun or
pronoun is used


                                        Adverbs

The Five Types of Adverbs
Adverbs of Manner: Adverbs of manner provide information on how someone does something.
For example: Jack drives very carefully.
Adverbs of Time: Adverbs of time provide information on when something happens.
For example: We'll let you know our decision next week.
Adverbs of Frequency: Adverbs of frequency provide information on how often
something happens.
For example: They usually get to work at eight o'clock.
Adverbs of Degree: Adverbs of degree provide information concerning how much of
something is done. For example: They like playing golf a lot.
Adverbs of Comment: Adverbs of comment provide a comment, or opinion about a
situation.
For example: Fortunately, there were enough seats left for the concert.
Adverb Formation
Adverbs are usually formed by adding '-ly' to an adjective
For example: quiet - quietly, careful - carefully, careless - carelessly
Adjectives ending in '-le' change to '-ly'.
For example: possible - possibly, probable - probably, incredible - incredibly
Adjectives ending in '-y' change to '-ily'.
For example: lucky - luckily, happy - happily, angry - angrily

Adjectives ending in '-ic' change to '-ically'.
For example: basic - basically, ironic - ironically, scientific - scientifically Some
adjectives are irregular. The most common irregular adverbs are: good - well, hard -
hard, fast -fast
Adverb Sentence Placement
Adverbs of Manner: Adverbs of manner are placed after the verb or entire expression (at the end
of the sentence).
For example: Their teacher speaks quickly.
Adverbs of Time: Adverbs of time are placed after the verb or entire expression (at the
end of the sentence).
For example: She visited her friends last year.
Adverbs of Frequency: Adverbs of frequency are placed before the main verb (not the
auxiliary verb).
For example: He often goes to bed late. Do you sometimes get up early?
Adverbs of Degree: Adverbs of degree are placed after the verb or entire expression (at
the end of the sentence).
For example: She'll attend the meeting as well.
Adverbs of Comment: Adverbs of comment are placed at the beginning of a sentence.


                                      Present Simple




                 Examples                   Usage


                 Where do you work?
                 The store opens at 9       Permanent or long-lasting
                 o'clock.                   situations
                 She lives in New York.
                 I usually get up at 7
                 o'clock.
                                            Regular habits and daily
                 She doesn't often go to
                                            routines
                 the cinema.
                 When do they usually
have lunch?
The Earth revolves
around the Sun.
What does 'strange'
                            Facts
mean?
Water doesn't boil at
20°.
I love walking around
late at night during the
summer.
She hates flying!           Feelings
What do you like? I
don't want to live in
Texas.
He doesn't agree with
you.
I think he is a wonderful
student.                    Opinions and states of mind
What do you consider
your best
accomplishment?
The plane leaves at 4
p.m.
When do courses begin
                            Timetables and schedules
this semester?
The train doesn't arrive
until 10.35.

                            usually, always, often,
                            sometimes, on Saturdays, at
Common present time
                            weekends (on weekends US
expressions include:
                            English), rarely, on occasion,
                            never, seldom
                         Structure
In the positive form add an 's' to the base form of the
3rd person singular. If the verb ends in -y preceded by
a consonant, change the -y to -ies.


   I
   You
            eat lunch                       at noon.
   We
   They
   He
            eats lunch
   She                                      at noon.
            tries to have fun.
   It

Conjugate the helping verb 'do' + not (don't and
doesn't) + the base form of the verb to make negatives.


   I
   You
             don't leave               at noon.
   We
   They
   He
   She       doesn't leave             at noon.
   It

Conjugate the helping verb 'do' (do or does) + the base
form of the verb in question forms.


              I
              You
   Do                      leave at noon?
              We
              They
              He
   Does       She          leave at noon?
              It
                     Present Perfect


Examples                          Usage
Fred Meyers has had
excellent profits this quarter.
The class's understanding
                                  Giving or asking for
has increased greatly this
                                  news or recent events.
semester.
Have they finished the report
yet?

The study of irregular verbs
has improved test scores.
They have bought a new car.
I've already eaten lunch.
US/English exception: It is       Past actions with results
also accepted in US English       in the present.
to ask "Did you phone her
yet?" as opposed to the more
common "Have you phoned
her yet?"
She's traveled in many parts
of the world.
Have you ever been to
                                  Life experience
France?
They've never seen a
mountain.
He's lived in San Francisco       Unfinished actions
for 10 years.                     (action still in progress).
How long have you worked for In this respect the
this company?                     present perfect and
They've studied English for 3 present perfect
years. I don't want to live in    continuous are very
Texas.                            similar.

Common present perfect time for (with a period of
expressions include:             time), since (with an
                                 exact point in time),
                                 ever, never, yet,
                                 already, this week
                                 (month, year)




                        Structure
Conjugate the verb 'have' (have or has) + past
participle. Regular verbs end in -ed. If the verb ends in -
y preceded by a consonant, change the -y to -ied.
Irregular verbs must be studied.


   I
   You
          have lived in Seattle since 1978.
   We
   They
   He
   She    has worked for many years.
   It

Conjugate the verb 'have' (have or has) + not + past
participle. Regular verbs end in -ed. If the verb ends in -
y preceded by a consonant, change the -y to -ied.
Irregular verbs must be studied.


   I
   You
              haven't seen Tom.
   We
   They
   He
   She        hasn't left yet.
   It

Conjugate the verb 'have' (have or has) + Subject +
past participle. Regular verbs end in -ed. If the verb
               ends in -y preceded by a consonant, change the -y to -
               ied. Irregular verbs must be studied.


                              I
                              You
                  Have                    been to Paris?
                              We
                              They
                              He
                  Has         She         finished yet?
                              It




                                        Adjectives

An adjective describes how something 'is'. For this reason, we usually use the verb 'to
          be' when using adjectives. Adjectives are used to describe nouns.

Example: He is a good doctor. Rule: Adjectives describe nouns. The adjective is always
                                         invariable.

                        Example: beautiful trees, they are happy

                                        Be careful!

· Adjectives don't have a singular and plural form OR a masculine, femine and neuter
                                        form.

        · Adjectives are always the same! Never add a final -s to an adjective.

· Adjectives can also be placed at the end of a sentence if they describe the subject of
                    a sentence. Example: My doctor is excellent.

                                   NOT!!: difficults books

                     Rule: Adjectives are placed before the noun.

                  Example: a wonderful book very interesting people

                                        Be careful!

                        · Don't place an adjective after the noun

                                   NOT!!: an apple red
Sometimes students are not sure when to use an adverb or an adjective. This short
    guide provides an overview and rules to using both adjectives and adverbs.

                                      Adjectives

                              Adjectives Modify Nouns

                 ·     Adjectives are placed directly before a noun:

                                      Examples:

                             Tom is an excellent singer.

                            I bought a comfortable chair.

                      She's thinking about buying a new house.

· Adjectives are also used in simple sentences with the verb 'to be'. In this case, the
                  adjective describes the subject of the sentence:

                                      Examples:

                                    Jack is happy.

                                Peter was very tired.

                         Mary'll be excited when you tell her.

 · Adjectives are used with sense verbs or verbs or appearance (feel, taste, smell,
    sound, appear and seem) to modify the noun which comes before the verb:

                                      Examples:

                                The fish tasted awful.

                     Did you see Peter? He seemed very upset.

                          I'm afraid the meat smelled rotten.

                                       Adverbs

                Adverbs Modify Verbs, Adjectives and Other Adverbs
 ·       Adverbs are easily recognized because the end in '-ly' (with a few exceptions!):

                                          Examples:

                               Adjective careful Adverb carefully

                                Adjective quick Adverb quickly

          · Adverbs are often used at the end of a sentence to modify the verb:

                                          Examples:

                                     Jack drove carelessly.

                               Tom played the match effortlessly.

                       Jason complained about his classes constantly.

                           · Adverbs are used to modify adjectives:

                                          Examples:

                               They seemed extremely satisfied.

                               She paid increasingly high prices.

                               I was suddenly surprised by Alice.

                                         Conditionals

Examples                       Usage
Conditional 0                  Situations that are always true if something happens.

If I am late, my father        NOTE
takes me to school.
                               This use is similiar to, and can usually be replaced by, a
She doesn't worry if Jack      time clause using 'when' (example: When I am late, my
stays out after school.        father takes me to school.)
                               Often called the "real" conditional because it is used for real
Conditional 1
                               - or possible - situations. These situations take place if a
                               certain condition is met.
If it rains, we will stay at
home.
                               NOTE
He will arrive late unless
                               In the conditional 1 we often use unless which means 'if ...
he hurries up.                 not'. In other words, '...unless he hurries up.' could also be
                               written, '...if he doesn't hurry up.'.
Peter will buy a new car, if
he gets his raise.
Conditional 2
                               Often called the "unreal" conditional because it is used for
If he studied more, he
                               unreal - impossible or improbable - situations. This
would pass the exam.
                               conditional provides an imaginary result for a given situation.
I would lower taxes if I
                               NOTE
were the President.
                               The verb 'to be', when used in the 2nd conditional, is always
They would buy a new
                               conjugated as 'were'.
house if they had more
money.
Conditional 3

If he had known that, he
would have decided             Often referred to as the "past" conditional because it
differently.                   concerns only past situations with hypothetical results. Used
                               to express a hypothetical result to a past given situation.
Jane would have found a
new job if she had stayed
in Boston.




                                        Structure
Conditional 0 is formed by the use of the present simple in the if clause followed by a
comma + the present simple in the result clause. You can also put the result clause first
without using a comma between the clauses.

    If he comes to town,                         we have dinner

    We have dinner                               if he comes to town.
Conditional 1 is formed by the use of the present simple in the if clause followed by a
comma + will + verb (base form) in the result clause. You can also put the result clause
first without using a comma between the clauses.

    If he finishes on time,                     we will go to the movies.

    We will go to the movies                    if he finishes on time.
Conditional 2 is formed by the use of the past simple in the if clause followed by a
comma + would + verb (base form) in the result clause. You can also put the result
clause first without using a comma between the clauses.

    If they had more money,                     they would buy a new house.

    They would buy a new house                  if they had more money.
Conditional 3 is formed by the use of the past perfect in the if clause followed by a
comma + would have + past participle in the result clause. You can also put the result
clause first without using a comma between the clauses.

       If Alice had won the competition,           life would have changed.

       Life would have changed                     if Alice had won the competition.




                                          Reported Speech

  Indirect Speech (also referred to as 'reported speech') refers to a sentence reporting
           what someone has said. It is almost always used in spoken English.

          If the reporting verb (i.e. said) is in the past, the reported clause will be in a past
                 form. This form is usually one step back into the past from the original.

                                            For example:

                                      o  He said the test was difficult.
                                  o She said she watched TV every day.
                                 o Jack said he came to school every day.
           If simple present, present perfect or the future is used in the reporting verb (i.e.
                                       says) the tense is retained.

                                            For example:

                                       o   He says the test is difficult.
                               o She has said that she watches TV every day.
                             o Jack will say that he comes to school every day.
                     If reporting a general truth the present tense will be retained.

              For example:The teacher said that phrasal verbs are very important.

                             Changing Pronouns and Time Signifiers

 When changing from direct speech to indirect speech, it is often necessary to change
                the pronouns to match the subject of the sentence.

                                            For example:

          She said, "I want to bring my children." BECOMES She said she wanted to bring
                                              her children.
          Jack said, "My wife went with me to the show." BECOMES Jack said his wife had
                                       gone with him to the show.

 It is also important to change time words (signifiers) when referring to present, past or
                       future time to match the moment of speaking.

                                            For example:
            She said, "I want to bring my children tomorrow." BECOMES She said she
                              wanted to bring her children the next day.
          Jack said, "My wife went with me to the show yesterday." BECOMES Jack said
                       his wife had gone with him to the show the day before.

                                    Indirect Questions

When reporting questions, it is especially important to pay attention to sentence order.
   When reporting yes/ no questions connect the reported question using 'if'. When
 reporting questions using question words (why, where, when, etc.) use the question
                                         word.

                                      For example:

           She asked, "Do you want to come with me?" BECOMES She asked me if I
                                    wanted to come with her.
           Dave asked, "Where did you go last weekend?" BECOMES Dave asked me
                            where I had gone the previous weekend.
          He asked, "Why are you studying English?" BECOMES She asked me why I was
                                         studying English

                                   The passive voice

The passive voice is used when focusing on the person or thing affected by an action.

              
              The Passive is formed: Passive Subject + To Be + Past Particple
    It is often used in business and in other areas where the object of the action is
        more important than those who perform the action. For Example: We have
      produced over 20 different models in the past two years. Changes to: Over 20
                different models have been produced in the past two years.
   If the agent (the performer of the action) is important, use "by" For Example: Tim
        Wilson wrote "The Flight to Brunnswick" in 1987. Changes to:"The Flight to
                       Brunnswick" was written in 1987 by Tim Wilson.
               Only verbs that take an object can be used in the passive.

The following chart includes sentences changed from the active to the passive in the
                                  principal tenses.

                                                             Time
                  Active            Passive
                                                             Reference
                  They make Fords Fords are made in          Present
                  in Cologne.        Cologne.                Simple
                  Susan is cooking Dinner is being cooked Present
                  dinner.            by Susan                Continuous
                  James Joyce        "Dubliners" was written Past
                  wrote "Dubliners". by James Joyces.        Simple
                  They were
                  painting the       The house was being     Past
                  house when I       painted when I arrived. Continuous
                  arrived.
                  They have          Over 20 models have     Present
produced over 20 been produced in the         Perfect
models in the past past two years.
two years.
They are going to                             Future
build a new        A new factory is going     Intention
factory in         to be built in Portland.   with Going
Portland.                                     to
I will finish it   It will be finished        Future
tomorrow.          tomorrow.                  Simple

				
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