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Semantic Interoperability

VIEWS: 6 PAGES: 15

  • pg 1
									Perspectives on the
 Need for Semantic
    Technology
      James Milligan
      Information Directorate
      Air Force Research Laboratory

      James.Milligan@rl.af.mil




                                      1
             Presentation Outline

•   Provide some examples of military problems
    and needs ripe for semantic technology
•   Describe some AFRL activities making use of
    semantic technology as part of the solution
•   Conclusions




                                                  2
            Heterogeneous Enterprise
                   Problems

• Achieving and maintaining systems interoperability
   – Incompatible data, data models, services, and applications.
• Challenges exist in sharing information across domains
   – Insufficient information sharing capabilities that allow
      effective information exchange across multiple communities
      of interest, security enclaves, organizational boundaries, and
      infrastructures.
• Policy conflicts can hamper efficiency and effectiveness of joint
  and coalition operations
   – Insufficient means to encode policies for semi-autonomous
      interpretation, negotiation, enactment, and enforcement.



                                                                       3
            Heterogeneous Enterprise
                     Needs

• Systems that interoperate (even in the face of change)
   – Compatible data, data models, services, and applications.
• Cross-domain information sharing
   – Information sharing capabilities that allow effective
      information exchange across multiple communities of
      interest.
• Policy specification and enforcement
   – Tools and mechanisms to encode policies for semi-
      autonomous interpretation, negotiation, enactment, and
      enforcement.




                                                                 4
    Policy Enforced Interoperable
      Communities of Interest


                                                                    Info


                                                                       COI
                                                                   Information
                                             COI                      Space
                                         Information
                  COI                       Space
              Information
                 Space
    COI
Information
   Space




Theater                 Region (PACOM)                 Region (NORTHCOM)




                                                                                 5
                Situational Awareness
                       Problems

• Maintaining situational awareness is difficult if the necessary
   collection assets cannot be rapidly deployed and connected
   – Inability to autonomously manage and network theatre assets
      for rapid situational awareness.
• Correlating and integrating vast amounts intelligence data
   remains a hard problem
   – Particularly as new sensor systems and platforms come on-
      line, it is difficult to effectively correlate, disambiguate,
      deconflict and combine sensor and human intelligence data
      into a common contextual model.
• Human interpretation of intelligence information is time
   consuming and sometimes error-prone
   – Insufficient ability to rapidly interpret vast amounts of
      intelligence information.
                                                                      6
                Situational Awareness
                        Needs

• Enabling situational awareness
   – Ability to autonomously manage and network theatre assets
      for rapidly achieving situational awareness.
• Intelligence data fusion
   – Ability to effectively correlate, disambiguate, and combine
      sensor and human intelligence data into a common context
      and information model.
• Rapid interpretation of intelligence
   – Ability to rapidly interpret vast amounts of intelligence
      information.




                                                                   7
Intelligence Collection and Analysis



 Enable



  Fuse




  Interpret


                                       8
              Effects-Based Operations
                      Problems

• Ensuring that critical command and control systems continue to
   operate as needed
    – Information systems require a high level of human
      intervention to keep them operational during mission
      preparation and execution.
• It is difficult to synchronize the application of diverse, distributed
   forces in time-critical situations
    – Execution management capabilities are challenged in near
      real-time conditions in order to dominate an adversary and
      achieve the desired effects.
• Rapidly assessing that combat operations are achieving the
   desired effects is a challenge
    – Real-time effects-based assessment of combat operations is
      problematic.
                                                                           9
            Effects-Based Operations
                     Needs

• Command and control systems resource management
   – Self-aware systems that can learn, adapt, and heal
      themselves.
• Rapid employment of agile forces
   – Near real-time, dynamic synchronization of the employment of
      distributed forces to dominate an adversary and achieve
      desired effects.
• Real-time effects assessment
   – Provisioning of real-time effects-based assessment of combat
      operations.




                                                                    10
C2, Synchronization, Assessment

        ConstellationNet
                           NCES Collaboration
                               Service

                                                    Weapons
                                         Collaboration          Effects Assessment
                                                               CAOC
                                                                        Subscribers


                                                Notification


         NCES Messaging             NCES Messaging               CAOC
            Service                    Service
ENEMY
 TANK




                                        CAOC – Combined Air and Space Operations Center
                                        NCES – Net-centric Enterprise Services




                                                                                          11
                   AFRL Semantic Web
                Technologies & Applications

•   Enabling Technologies                 •   Defense Applications
     –   Ontologies                            – Net-Centric Operations (e.g., NCES)
     –   Knowledge Bases                            • Service Discovery, Composition, Mediation,
                                                       Workflow Orchestration, and Execution
     –   Artificial Intelligence
                                               – Natural Language Processing
     –   Expert Systems
                                               – Systems and Information Modeling,
     –   Intelligent Agents                        Integration, and Interoperability
     –   Machine Inferencing, Reasoning and    –   Knowledge Acquisition/Representation
         Learning
                                               –   Cognitive Systems
     – Formal Methods                          –   Modeling and Simulation
     – W3C Standards, Protocols, and           –   Policy Representation and Enforcement
         Reference Implementations
                                               –   Collaboration
                                               –   Cross-domain Information Sharing
                                               –   Resource Management
                                               –   Effects Based Operations
                                               –   Adversarial Modeling/Cyber Operations
                                               –   Decision Support/Planning/Predictive
                                                   Environments (e.g., CPE)
                                               – Multi-Platform/Source Intelligence Fusion
                                               – Homeland Security
                                                                                                   12
            Representative AFRL Semantic
             Research and Applications

•   Information Transformation             •   Command and Control Resource
                                               Management System
     –   Semantic Interoperability
•   Anticipatory Environments
                                           •   Link Discovery & Pattern Learning

     –   Dynamic Air & Space Effects
                                           •   Heterogeneous Urban RSTA—
                                               Reconnaissance, Surveillance,
         Based Assessment (DASEA)              Target Acquisition—Team (HURT)
•   Collaboration                          •   SIGINT Sensor Management
     –   Distributed enterprise object     •   Semantic-based Policy Enforcement
         models
     –   Integrating Human Centeredness
                                           •   Effects Based Operations
         in the Design of                       –   Ontology for Scenario
         Collaborative Systems                      Generation SBIR
•   Cross-Domain Information Access        •   NeXt Generation (XG) Program
    (CDIA)
                                                –   OWL Policy Language
     –   Foundation technologies                    Development
•   Defensive Cyber Operations             •   Command and Control Mobility
                                               Projects
     –   Cyber Situational Understanding
         (Event Pattern Ontologies SBIR)        –   Intelligent Semantic NOTAM
                                                    Query Capability
•   NETWAR: Strategic Attack Prediction
    and Detection                          •   Formal Methods
                                                                                   13
           Representative AFRL Efforts
         Employing Semantic Technologies

•   Broad Agency Announcements (BAAs)
     –   Semantic Interoperability
     –   Rapid Processing of Intelligence Data
     –   Commander’s Predictive Environment (CPE)
     –   Infospace Concept Exploration and Development
     –   Multi-Platform SIGINT Fusion and ISR Management
     –   Tangram: A Fully Automated, Continuously Operating, Intelligence Analysis Support
         System
     – Intelligence Fusion for Targets-Under-Trees
•   FY06 Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program topics:
     –   AF06-047 Semantic Interoperability of C2 Tools and Technologies
     –   AF06-049 Real-Time Effects Assessment Management System
     –   AF06-052 Semantically Correct Interoperability of Executable Architectures
     –   AF06-053 Knowledge-based Technologies to Support Predictive Mission Awareness
     –   AF06-060 Enabling Monitoring and Analysis of Concept-Based Event Information in Text
     –   AF06-061 Multi-INT Ontology Mediation Services
     –   AF06-066 Systems-of-Systems Data Utilization Patterns
     –   AF06-077 Command Decision Support and Explanation from Fused Structured and
         Unstructured Information Sources
                                                                                                14
                     Conclusions

•   Semantic technology holds great promise in
    addressing many of the problems and needs identified
•   Additional investments are needed to mature the
    technology and make it easier to use and deploy in
    military applications
• An incremental approach toward widespread adoption
    seems likely – some semantic technologies will gain
    traction sooner than others
•   We (academia, industry, government) need to do it
    together, and progress is rapidly being made from a
    historical perspective

                                                           15

								
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