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Reliable Multicast Protocols for MANET

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					Reliable Multicast
Protocols for MANET




      授課:童曉儒 教授
      國立屏東科技大學 資管系
                  1
                 Outline

• An Overview of MANET
• An Overview of Reliable Multicast Protocol
• Automatic Retransmission reQuest Based
  Reliable Multicast Protocols (ARQ-Based)
  – Reliable Multicast Algorithm (RMA)
  – Reliable Adaptive Light Weight Multicast Transport
    protocol (RALM)
  – Reliable, Adaptive, Congestion-Controlled Adhoc
    Multicast Transport Protocol (ReAct)

                                                     2
• Gossip-Based Reliable Multicast Protocols
  – Anonymous Gossip (AG)
  – Route Driven Gossip (RDG)
• Forward Error Correction (FEC) Based
  Reliable Multicast Protocols
  – Reliable Multicast Data Distribution Protocol
    (RMDP)
• Comparisons
• Conclusions
                                                    3
             An Overview of MANET

• Definition
• Characteristics
• Limitations




                                    4
                   Definition

• Mobile ad hoc network(MANET), or simply ad hoc
  network, comprises nodes that freely and dynamically
  self-organize into arbitrary and temporary network
  topology without any infrastructure support.
  (Chlamtac,Conti,andLiu,2003)
• Nodes are communication devices comprise of laptop
  computer, PDA, mobile phone and etc. Nodes formanet
  work to communicate with each other.
• Networking infrastructure refers to the facility of which
  the sole purpose is to carry the data generated by each
  node to the respective destination node


                                                              5
              Characteristics

• Infrastructure-less or with minimum
  infrastructure support
• Self-organizing and self-managing
• Multi-hop




                                        6
              Infrastructure-less or
              with minimum
              infrastructure support
• A Pure ad hoc network does not have, or
  simply does not rely on infrastructure
  support (for routing, network management,
  and etc.)
• A hybrid ad hoc network consists of both
  client nodes and infrastructure nodes,i.e.
  nodes whose function is merely
  transporting traffic for the client nodes
• Hybrid networks are more common
                                               7
              Self-organizing and self-
              managing

• Since network infrastructure is not
  available, the nodes must organize and
  maintain the network by themselves




                                           8
              Multi-hop

• Since each node can route traffic for the
  others, multi-hopping is possible.
• Single hop ad hoc network does not form a
  large scale network




                                          9
                 Limitations

• Ad hoc network is not a one size fit all
  measure.
  Its current limitations are listed below:
  – Killer application has not turned up
  – Acceptance by users is unclear
  – Delay caused by multi-hopping
  – Quality of service is difficult to be guaranteed
  – Prone to security threat
                                                       10
                An Overview of Reliable
                Multicast Protocol

•   What is Multicast Communication?
•   What is Reliable Multicast?
•   What is Reliable Multicast use in MANET?
•   Three categories according to the recovery
    mechanisms being used



                                             11
                What is Multicast
                Communication?
• Group communication mechanism
   – Provides one-to-many and many-to-many
   communication
• Efficient dissemination of messages
   – Network-based duplication (when needed)
   – Multicast retransmissions
   – Bandwidth savings
   – Parallel delivery at multiple locations

                                               12
IP Multicast
Communication




                13
Example IP Multicast
Use (Access Grid )




                       14
                  What is Reliable
                  Multicast?
• Properties similar to TCP
• Application-level program
• Uses IP Multicast as the underlying communication
  mechanism
• Reliable and ordered delivery of messages within a
  group
• Tracks group membership
• IETF Reliable Multicast Transport Working Group is
  defining standardized building blocks


                                                       15
Example Reliable
Multicast Use (Remote
Instrument Access)




                        16
                   What is Reliable
                   Multicast use in
                   MANET ?
• Reliable multicast becomes a very challenging
  research problem due to high packet loss rate
  pertained to MANET
• Reliable multicast solutions proposed for wired
  network can not be directly ported for MANET
  –   link breakages
  –   route changes
  –   concentrated retransmissions
  –   concentrated retransmissions and heavy overhead

                                                        17
                  Three categories
                  according to the
                  recovery mechanisms
                  being used
• Automatic Retransmission Request (ARQ)-
  based
  – Lost packets are retransmitted by the sources until
    they are recovered at all the receivers
• gossip-based
  – multicast packets are repeatedly transmitted for a few
    times by a few of the multicast members in a peer-to-
    peer fashion
• Forward Error Correction (FEC)-based
  – embed redundant data (e.g., erasure code) in each
    packet before transmitting.

                                                             18
• Automatic Retransmission reQuest
  Based Reliable Multicast Protocols
  (ARQ-Based)
  – Reliable Multicast Algorithm (RMA)
  – Reliable Adaptive Light Weight Multicast
    Transport protocol (RALM)
  – Reliable, Adaptive, Congestion-Controlled
    Adhoc Multicast Transport Protocol (ReAct)

                                            19
             Reliable Multicast
             Algorithm (RMA)

• Assumption
• Protocol description
• Advantage versus Disadvantage




                                  20
              Assumption

• RMA is a multicast protocol supporting
  reliable transmission via acknowledgement
  from receivers and retransmissions from
  the sources
• RMA assumes that the sources have the
  full knowledge of group membership via
  JOIN or ACK messages

                                          21
                  Protocol description

• RMA works in two phases:
  – multicast
  – retransmission
• Two types of multicast messages to the
  group member
  – MKNOWN
    • unicast
  – MUNKNOWN
    • broadcast
                                           22
• Source waits for MACKs for a period of time after
  the messages being sent out
• If the source is not able to collect all the MACKs
  from all the group members, the source enters
  the retransmission phase and sends a
  MUNKNOWN message with a flag in
  RETRANSMIT field
• Receiver could broadcast MACK to the source
  (BMACK), if a return path is not valid
                                                   23
Hello Message




                24
MKNOWN
Message




          25
MUKNOWN
Message




          26
MACK
Message




          27
BMACK
Message




          28
               Advantage versus
               Disadvantage

• Advantage
  – The sender guarantees retransmissions of lost
    packets
  – less message forwarding and less bandwidth
    usage
• Disadvantage
  – all the receivers must send ACKs back to the
    sender == >> Feedback implosion

                                                   29
           Reliable Adaptive Light
           Weight Multicast Transport
           protocol (RALM)
• Assumption
• Protocol description
• Advantage versus Disadvantage




                                   30
              Assumption

• RALM assumes that the group
  membership is known to the sources
• This enables the sources to maintain a
  Receiver List




                                           31
               Protocol description

• Source selects a node from the receiver
  list as a feedback receiver in a round-
  robin fashion and notifies it together with
  the data packets
• The feedback receiver is responsible for
  replying ACK or NACK to the source until
  it collects all data packets

                                                32
• If Source receives a NACK, it enters the
  retransmission phase by slowing down
  the transmission rate first and retransmits
  the lost packets to the group until ACK to
  the lost packets are received and the
  current feedback receiver successfully
  obtains all the packets


                                                33
• This single-node feedback approach is
  effective when packet losses are due to
  congestion at a bottleneck link




                                            34
                Receiver List

                    B
                    A           Fee
                                Rec
                    C
                    B           Rec
    A
                    D
                    C           Rec



C


        B   D

                                      35
36
37
                Advantage versus
                Disadvantage

• Advantage
  – RALM also reduces control overhead by
    requiring one receiver at a time
  – Effectively reduces the burden at the sender in
    receiving and processing the feedbacks and
    reduces congestion around the sender
    == >> Solve Feedback implosion
• Disadvantage
  – RALM works well for static MANET
                                                  38
          Reliable, Adaptive,
          Congestion-Controlled Adhoc
          Multicast Transport Protocol
          (ReAct)
• Assumption
• Protocol description
• Advantage versus Disadvantage




                                    39
             Assumption

• source-oriented component works the
  same as RALM




                                        40
              Protocol description

• ReAct adds a new recovery mechanism
  “local recovery” to RALM
• Local recovery occurs right after the
  receiver detects a lost packet
• the receiver requests one of the upstream
  group members (recovery node) starting
  from the closest one

                                              41
• The recovery node responses with the
  expect packets if it has them or it rejects
  the request
• Upon receiving the rejection, the receiver
  will retry recovery by choosing a farther
  away upstream node as a recovery node
• Only after several failures of the local
  requests, the receiver sends a NACK to
  the source for retransmission
                                                42
    A




C


        B   Packet Loss

                          43
                Advantage versus
                Disadvantage

• Advantage
  – Local recover gets missing packets faster
    than source-oriented retransmission, reduces
    the burden/congestion at the source, and
    alleviates potential feedback implosion
    problem
• Disadvantage
  – when local recovery frequently fails and
    source recovery is triggered all the time

                                                44
• Gossip-Based Reliable Multicast
  Protocols
  – Anonymous Gossip (AG)
  – Route Driven Gossip (RDG)




                                    45
             Anonymous Gossip (AG)

• Assumption
• Protocol description
• Advantage versus Disadvantage




                                  46
              Assumption

• Implements gossip-based recovery on top
  of a multicast operation
• Gossip-messages only contain sequence
  numbers for missing packets
• Routing information of MAODV at receiver
  side is adopted for sending gossips


                                             47
                 Protocol description

• AG works in two phases:
  – multicast
    • Source sends multicast packets in best-effort
  – Recovery
    • runs at background for recovering lost packets
• a group member periodically transmits a
  gossip request message about missing
  and successfully received packets to a
  pseudo-randomly selected neighbor node
                                                       48
• If receiver receiving the gossip request
  – non-group-member neighbor simply forwards
    the packet to one of its neighbors
  – Group-member neighbor will accept and reply
    the gossip message with a certain probability
• This procedure ends until a node replies
  the gossip message or the lifetime of the
  message expires.
                                                    49
    Multicast       Classical       Probabilistic
    Protocol    +    Gossip
                                =    Reliability

• Works in background with multicast
  protocol.
• Members “gossip” randomly with other
  members to recover lost messages.
• Probabilistic reliability guarantees.
                                                    50
        Classical Gossip

    S




D

                           51
    Anonymous Gossip

S



                  D




                       52
    Informed Gossip

S



                      D




                          53
                  Advantage versus
                  Disadvantage

• Advantage
  – AG is a reliable multicast protocol that does not
    require membership information.
  – To reduce the network traffic, gossip requests are
    sent to nearer members with higher probability than to
    farther members.
  – AG operates independent of topology changes
• Disadvantage
  – AG can not guarantee the missing packets will be
    answered eventually
                                                         54
             Route Driven Gossip
             (RDG)

• Assumption
• Protocol description
• Advantage versus Disadvantage




                                   55
             Assumption

• RDG does not use full multicast
  membership information, but partial
  knowledge
• RDG builds on top of a MANET unicast
  routing protocol DSR




                                         56
                  Protocol description

• each existing member will only reply to the
  solicitation with a probability, resulting in a partial
  membership view at the joining node
• A gossip message generated at each session
  contains both new data packets and packet IDs
  of missing packets
• The gossip message is sent to F (fan out
  parameter) other group members randomly
  picked up from its partial member view
                                                        57
• each new data packet will be gossiped for
  a few number of times (quiescence
  threshold) to ensure its spreading




                                              58
     Data
  Structures                         4
                   5
Identifier
                   0
                       5                                      JOIN

Group identifier                                              RECEIVEGREQUEST
                   1
Data buffer
• new                                             0           GOSSIP
                                           0
• old                      3                      5
                                                              RECEIVEGOSSIP
View                                              1
                                                              LEAVE
• active
• passive                                fanout       quiescence
• remove                        2                      threshold
                   1                      F             τq
                   0
                       1                  Push
                                          Pull

                               Data packets, digests of                       59
                                missing packets, view
                                                                             3
                             16                       13                               16                          13
          3            11                                                        11
                                     9                                                         9

                                             6                                                            6
                   5        18       15               20                     5        18       15                  20   15  5, 3
         12                                  10                    12                                     10
                                                                                                                        9  10, 13
                                                           4                                                            4
                                                                                                                        10  2, 8
                   15  9, 10      14                                                        14
              7                                  17                     7                                     17
                             1                                                         1
                                         2                                                            2
                                                       8                                                            8
              19                                                     19
                                  Round 0                                                   Round 1

                   3                                                         3
                             16                       13                               16                          13
                       11                                                        11
                                     9                                                            9

                                             6                                                            6
                   5        18       15               20                     5        18       15                  20
                                                                                                                        All
         12                                  10                    12                                     10            members
9  3, 5                                                   4                                                            4
                                                                                                                        receive the
5  1, 19                          14                                                        14
             7                                   17                     7                                     17        message.
10  1, 13                   1                                                         1
                                         2                                                            2
13  10, 15 19                                         8
                                                                        19
                                                                                                                    8

2  1, 8                          Round 2                                                   Round 3                             60

              Infected               Susceptible               Crashed Member                 Non member nodes
                  Advantage versus
                  Disadvantage

• Advantage
  – RDG eliminates burdens at sources for handling
    retransmission; instead, every group member
    participates in loss recovery
  – The performance of the protocol can be turned
    through the parameters fan out and quiescence
    threshold
• Disadvantage
  – RDG can not guarantee reliable delivery of all the
    packets
                                                         61
• Forward Error Correction (FEC) Based
  Reliable Multicast Protocols
  – Reliable Multicast Data Distribution
    Protocol (RMDP)




                                           62
             Reliable Multicast Data
             Distribution Protocol
             (RMDP)
• Assumption
• Protocol description
• Advantage versus Disadvantage




                                       63
              Assumption

• FEC transmits redundant data with the
  original data transmission
• the k packets will be encoded in to n
  (n > k) packets. The n packets include
  redundant information




                                           64
               Protocol description

• RMDP is a hybrid FEC+ARQ protocol for
  reliable distribution of bulk data receivers
• After it receives k different packets, it
  decodes for the original source data
• The source adjusts its sending pointer to
  the packet where the largest number of
  packets is requested by different receivers

                                             65
66
                     Advantage versus
                     Disadvantage
• Advantage
  – FEC technique helps RMDP to tolerant packet losses and to
    recover from losses with less feedback packets to the sources
    ==>> Solve Feedback implosion
  – when errors or packet losses happen at the receiver, original data
    can be reconstructed using the ones received
• Disadvantage
  – RMDP incurs long packet latency because a receiver has to
    wait for the reception of k packets before it can decode and
    delivery them to applications
  – Using the redundant data to increase packet length



                                                                    67
Comparisons




              68
              Conclusions

• classification based on the recovery
  mechanisms
• The analyses and comparisons will help in
  choosing a suitable reliable multicast
  protocol for specific network conditions




                                              69
                     REFERENCES

• Beini Ouyang and Xiaoyan Hong, Yunjung Yi, “A Comparison of
  Reliable Multicast Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”,
  Proceedings. IEEE 8-10 April 2005 Page(s):339 - 344 ,
  SoutheastCon, 2005.
• Thiagaraja Gopalsamy, Mukesh Singhal, D. Panda and P.
  Sadayappan, “A Reliable Multicast Algorithm for Mobile Ad hoc
  Networks”, Proceedings. 22nd International Conference on
  2-5 July 2002 Page(s):563 - 570, Distributed Computing Systems,
  2002 .
• Ken Tang, Katia Obraczka, Sung-Ju Lee, Mario Gerla, “Reliable
  Adaptive Lightweight Multicast Protocol”, IEEE International
  Conference on Volume 2, 11-15 May 2003 Page(s):1054 - 1058
  vol.2 , Communications, 2003. ICC '03 .
• Ken Tang, Katia Obraczka, Sung-Ju Lee, Mario Gerla, “A
  Reliable, Congestion-Controlled Multicast Transport Protocol in
  Multimedia Multi-hop Network”, Proceedings of IEEE WPMC
  2002, Honolulu, USA, October 2002, pp.252-256.
                                                               70
• Ranveer Chandra, Venugopalan Ramasubramanian, Kenneth P.
  Birman, “Anonymous Gossip: Improving Multicast Reliability in
  Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks”, International Conference on
  Distributed Computing Systems, April 2001, pp. 275-283.
• Jun Luo, Patrick Th. Eugster, Jean-Pierre Hubaux, “Route
  Driven Gossip: Probabilistic Reliable Multicast in Ad Hoc
  Networks”, INFOCOM’03, San Francisco, CA, March 2003,
  pp.2229-2239.
• Luigi Rizzo, Lorenzo Vicisano, “RMDP: an FEC-based Reliable
  Multicast protocol for wireless”, ACM Mobile Computing and
  Communications Reviews, Apr. 1998, 2(2):23-31.



                                                              71
• END




        72

				
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