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OAT PREPARATION

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					OAT PREPARATION
The picture shows a stream flowing through a desert canyon. The canyon was shaped by natural processes.

Identify a slow process that could have helped shape the canyon. Describe evidence of this process shown in
                                                 the picture.

 Then, identify a rapid process that could have helped shape the canyon. Describe evidence of this process
                                        shown in the picture. (4 points)




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            4 point sample answer
This answer was given a score of four points. The answer was given the first point because it
    gave the right identification of a slow natural process (“water erosian”) that could have
    shaped the canyon. The answer was given the second point for identifying evidence from
    the picture of that slow process (“layers of different rock in the canyon walls”). The answer
    was given the third point because it showed a rapid natural process that could have shaped
    the canyon (“landslides”), and it was given a fourth point by showing evidence of that rapid
    process from the picture (“boulders and dents in the canyon walls”).




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            2 point sample answer
•   This answer was given two points. The answer was given the first point for identifying water
    erosion (“the movement of water”) as a slow process that could have shaped the canyon.
    The answer did not provide evidence for this process, so it was given no points for giving
    evidence of a slow process. The answer was given a second point for identifying mudslides
    as a rapid process. The answer did not give evidence for the mudslide, so it received no
    points for providing evidence for the rapid process.




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            NO POINTS EARNED
•   This response was given zero points. The response described an impossible form of
    deposition for the slow process, and gave no evidence. The answer did not talk about a fast

    process.




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                                     EARTH & SPACE SCIENCE
•   The diagram shows the position of Earth (E) now   .


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     Where will Earth be in six months?
     Position 1, 2, 3 or 4 ??????
                                                 ANSWER:


#1 near position 1

   If a student chooses A, he or she may think that Earth does not move around the sun or that Earth makes a
     full trip around the sun in six months. But Earth finishes one full trip around the sun in 12 months (one year).

 #2     near position 2

   If a student chooses B, he or she may think that six months is a quarter of 12 months, which is incorrect.

 #3     near position 3
        This is the correct answer !
        Earth travels around the sun every 12 months. In six months, Earth will travel halfway around the
      sun. Position 3 is halfway around the sun from Earth’s starting position on the diagram. Near
      position 3 is correct.

 #4    near position 4
If a student chooses D, he or she may think that Earth makes one trip around the sun every eight months or
     that six months is three-quarters of 12 months, which is incorrect.
 About how much of Earth’s
surface is covered by oceans?
• A) less than 20%

• B) about 50%

• C) about 70%

• D) more than 90%
                              ANSWER

C)         -     about 70%

This is the correct answer.




About 70% of Earth’s surface is covered by oceans and about 1% of Earth’s surface
   is covered by freshwater (lakes, rivers, glaciers).
  The weather forecast says a heavy snowstorm is coming later today.
       Which weather observation is likely just before the snow?


A) Clear sky

B) Thick gray clouds

C) Small white clouds

D) Warm temperature
                                          ANSWER
# A clear sky
If a student chooses A, he or she may think that the snowstorm has not happened yet, so there must be clear
      skies. But there would already be storm clouds visible in the sky just before the storm.

#B  thick gray clouds
   This is the correct answer.
Cumulonimbus clouds, which are dark and gray, are in the sky before it starts to snow.

#C       small white clouds
If a student chooses C, he or she may think that small white clouds are for snow, because dark gray clouds are
      for rain. This is not correct because cumulonimbus clouds (clouds that are dark and gray) are what the
      snow and rain comes from during a storm.
# D warm temperature
If a student chooses D, he or she may know that warm moist air mixing with cold air make precipitation (rain,
      snow, mist, hail, sleet). This is true a lot of the time, but it has to be cold outside for the precipitation to stay

     a snow flake.
•   A class was learning about the pattern of day and night on Earth.
    What part of Earth experiences night at the same time?


•   A) less than 1/4

•   B) about 1/2

•   C) about 3/4

•   D) almost all
                                                ANSWER

•   A) less than 1/4
•   If a student chooses A, he or she may know that only a part of Earth experiences night at the same time,
    but he or she may also incorrectly think that the sun shines on a bigger part of Earth instead of on half (one
    side) of it.

•   B) about 1/2
•   This is the correct answer.

•   Earth’s shape is almost spherical (like a squeezed ball), so only one side (half) of Earth can face
    toward the sun at a time. The side of Earth that faces toward the sun experiences day while the side
    of Earth that faces away from the sun experiences night. Earth is always rotating (spinning) on its
    axis, causing the different sides of Earth to face the sun. This makes day and night.

•   C) about 3/4
•   If a student chooses C, he or she may know that only a part of Earth experiences night at the same time,
    but may also incorrectly think that the sun only shines on a small part of Earth instead of on half (one side)
    of it.

•   D) almost all

•   If a student chooses D, he or she may incorrectly think that all of Earth experiences night at the same time

    instead of half (one side) of it.
• Frogs lay their eggs in water. If an area
  experiences a severe drought that
  causes small ponds to dry up, what
  happens with the frogs?
• A) They lay their eggs in trees
• B) They have fewer places to lay eggs
• C) They become extinct
• D) This will not effect them at all
The Correct answer is B - They have
fewer places to lay their eggs.
• Your Ipod runs by a battery. If you leave
  your Ipod on continuously, it will loose
  power. Why?
• A) It gets tired
• B) More power is used the longer it runs
• C) The battery dies and has no more
  power to provide
• D) This never will happen
• The answer is C. Batteries run out of
  power unless they are able to be
  recharged.
• Which are true statements about a dime
  and a piece of waxed paper
• A) A dime reflects light and wax paper
  is opaque
• B) A dime and wax paper are both
  translucent
• C) A dime is transparent and wax paper
  refracts light
• D) A dime reflects light and wax paper
  refracts light
• The correct answer is D - a dime
  reflects light ( shiny) and wax paper
  refracts light ( bends the rays )
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In the winter, the pond starts to freeze. The
ducks leave the pond. They migrate to warmer
climates.Which statement explains one reason
why ducks migrate?
A)The ducks have too many enemies
B) The ducks have difficulty finding food
C) The ducks have to lay their eggs near water
D) The ducks have too few places to hibernate
                            ANSWER
A) The ducks have too many enemies.
     If a student chooses A, he or she may think that more predators come to the
    ecosystem (environment) in the winter, but there are usually fewer predators in
    the winter because many mammals hibernate (sleep through the winter) and
    birds that are predators usually migrate (fly south for the winter).

B) The ducks have difficulty finding food.
    This is the correct response.

C) The ducks have to lay eggs near water.
    If a student chooses C, he or she may think that ducks lay their eggs in the
   winter, but ducks usually lay their eggs in the spring.

D) The ducks have too few places to hibernate.
  If a student chooses D, he or she may think that ducks hibernate during the
   winter, but ducks do not hibernate; they migrate to warmer places.
Which seed has structures that allow animals to transport the seed
                          on their fur?


A)                                  Q uic kT ime ™ a n d a
                                      d ec om p re s so r
                            a re n ee d ed to s ee th i p ictu re .
                                Q uic kT ime ™ a n d a
                                   d ec om p re s so r
                                                  s
                        a re n ee d ed to s ee th i p ictu re .
                                                       s




B)           Q uic kT ime ™ a n d a
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                                   c
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D)                                        c
                                      Qu i k Ti me ™a n d a
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                      ANSWER

B) This is the correct answer.
The cocklebur is a seed that is covered with spines. The spines of
  the cocklebur stick to the fur as an animal passes by it. The
  seed stays on the animal until it falls off when the animal rubs
  against something or picks the seed off its fur.



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                      Which animals give birth to live young?

•   A) hawk and black bear
•   B) beaver and black bear
•   C) hawk and potato beetle
•   D) beaver and potato beetle




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                          ANSWER


B)     beaver and black bear

This is the correct answer !
Beavers and black bears are mammals. Most mammals give birth to live young.
A teacher gives students five rock samples to describe and sketch. The students record their observations in the
                                                 table below.

         The limestone sample was found in an area of Wyoming that is now a desert.
         Which statement describes what scientists can learn from the rock?
         •    A) There once was a lake in this area
         •    B) There once was a glacier in this area
         •    C) There once were plants and trees in this area
         •    D) There once were fish on dry land in this area




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• A) There was once a lake in this area.

• This fish fossils indicate that fish existed
  there and fish live in water.
An air hose extends above and below the surface of the water. Which statement explains why the air hose looks
                                    broken at the surface of the water?

•   A) Light is reflected as it moves from water to air
•   B) Light is refracted as it moves from water to air
•   C) Light is absorbed as it moves from water to air
•   D) Light is destroyed as it moves from water to air




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                              ANSWER
•   B) Light is refracted as it moves from air to water.
•

•   This is the correct answer.

•

•   Light that moves from air to water is bent if it enters the water at an angle. The
    bending of the light as it travels from one material through a different material is
    called refraction. This makes the tube look bent.
    Two juice containers are in a cooler. One is plastic and one is metal. The metal can feels colder than the plastic
    bottle. Students place a thermometer in each container. They find that the juices in the bottle and in the can are
                         the same temperature. Why does the can feel colder than the bottle ?

•       A) Metal holds colder juice than plastic
•       B) Plastic is a better conductor of thermal energy than metal
•       C) Metal is a better conductor of thermal energy than plastic
•       D) The outside of the metal is drier than the plastic




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                         ANSWER
C) Metal is a better conductor than plastic. This is the correct answer.




Both juices have the same temperature. The can will feel cooler than the
   plastic. The metal will transfer (move) thermal energy from the child’s
   hand more quickly. Metal conducts (transfers) thermal energy (heat)
   better than plastic.
A student has a glass of water as shown. She takes an ice cube from the freezer. She puts the
                                   ice cube into the water.
                          Which explains the change that happens?

 •    A) Ice melts because the coldness flows out of it
 •    B) Ice does not melts because the cold flows out of it
 •    C) Ice melts because the thermal energy transfers from the water to the ice cube
 •    D) The ice does not melt because the thermal energy transfers from the water to the ice cube




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                                         ANSWER

•   C) The ice melts because the thermal energy transfers from the water to the ice
    cube.

•   Thermal energy shows the speed the particles (the small parts that something is made of) in
    a material are moving. Particles in warm materials, like water, move much faster than
    particles in something cold, like ice. When water touches ice, the moving water particles hit
    the slower ice particles. This causes the ice molecules to move more. The ice gains thermal
    energy (heat). So the water particles lose energy when they transfer their energy to the slow
    ice molecules. This causes the water particles to move with less energy. The thermal energy
    (heat) and the temperature of the water go down.
Why was sound heard in setup 1 ? And what happened to the sound
                      energy in setup 2 ?




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   Answer with full points given
This answer was given 2 points. The answer was given the first point because it explained that
    the reason the sound traveled to the other cup in setup 1 was because the vibrations went
    through the string. The answer was given the second point because it showed that the
    sound energy in setup 2 was not transmitted by the string because the string was not tight.




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    Electric energy flows through the wire filament in a light bulb. The energy
                  flow causes the wire to glow and give off light.

•     What type of energy produces this light?

•     A) Sound
•     B) Gravity
•     C) Thermal
•     D) Magnetic



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                      ANSWER
C) Thermal


The electric energy does not move easily through the wire in the
  light bulb. The wire slows the flow of electric energy. The
  thermal energy of the wire increases (gets hot). When the
  temperature of the wire gets very high, it begins to visibly glow
  (produce light).
•   What is the first step in the design process (or scientific method)?

•   A) Make a hypothesis

•   B) Identify the problem

•   C) Identify possible solutions

•   D) Test possible solutions




     ??????????????????????
              ANSWER
B) Identify the problem !

• You can not find a solution unless you
  know what the problem or question is.
Describe where two of these tools should be located to obtain accurate
                             measures.
          Explain why each location is important. (4 points)




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                                    Sample 4 point answer
•   The answer was given four points. The answer was given the first point for stating that an anemometer
    should be placed “up high.” The answer was given the second point for stating that anemometers should be
    placed up high so that “if [the anemometer is] on the ground then something like a house could be blocking
    the wind.”
•   The answer was given the third point for stating that the rain gauge “should be on a flat spot with nothing
    but the sky and air above it.” The answer was given the fourth point for explaining that the rain gauge
    should have nothing above it because it measures the amount of rain that has fallen.




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           Sample 2 point answer
•   This answer was given two points. The answer received the first point for correctly
    explaining that the anemometer would need to be placed where the wind wouldn’t be
    blocked. The answer received the second point for correctly explaining that the rain gauge
    would need to be placed where the rain wouldn’t be blocked.
•   The answer did not receive a third or fourth point because the answer did not give specific
    examples of locations where the two instruments should be placed.




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                  NO POINTS GIVEN
•   This answer was given zero points. The answer did not provide specific locations in which the two
    instruments should be placed, and the answer did not provide reasons for why the two instruments should
    be placed in these locations.




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                                      MATTER
•   Students study how water changes from liquid to gas. These are the steps in the class investigation.

•   Materials: electric heating coil, beaker and thermometer

•   Procedure:
•    1.   Pour one liter of water into the beaker.

•    2.   Place the thermometer in the water.

•    3. Record the temperature of the water.

•     4. Place the beaker on the heating coil.

•    5.   Turn on the heating coil.
•
•    6. Record the temperature of the water every minute for 10 minutes.

•   Identify one possible safety hazard in this investigation.
•   Also describe one way to make sure this is a safe investigation. (2 points)
      Sample -full 2 points given
•   This answer was given two points. The answer received the first point for correctly
    identifying burns from the heating coil as a potential safety hazard. The answer received the
    second point for suggesting the use of safety gloves for protection from burns.




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Millions of years ago, the insect shown was trapped in sticky tree sap. The
dried tree sap is now called amber. Amber looks like a clear gold or brown
                                    stone.

Which statement is an opinion about the amber?
A)      Amber is made of hardened tree sap
B)      Ancient insects can be found in amber
C)      Amber was formed millions of years ago
D)      All insects prefer tree sap as a food source




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              ANSWER

• D) All insects prefer tree sap as a food
  source. This is the correct answer.

• In the question, only one insect is
  observed and discussed. There is no
  data to support statement D.
• Keep studying !!!! Remember the
  scientific method and take your time
  when answering questions on the OAT.

• GOOD LUCK !!!!!!!

				
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