Benefits Of Fish Oil

Document Sample
Benefits Of Fish Oil Powered By Docstoc
					Benefits of Fish Oil
Fatty fish like salmon, tuna and mackerel have fats that can produce fish oil. Fish
contains Omega-3 fatty acids which are recommended by health-care professionals to be
included in a individual's diet. Omega-3 acids are mainly docosahexaenoic acid or DHA
and eicosapentaenoic acid or EPA. Omega- fatty acids are essential in cell building. It is
important to get them from our diet since the body cannot produce this kind of acid.
Research showed that Omega- 3 plays a significant role in brain and fetal development
during pregnancy and infancy. Fish oil are believed and proven to provide numerous
health benefits. Aside from this, there are also a lot of advantages by taking oil
supplements.
Fish oil can:
• Improve brain development and memory. There are studies showing that DHA actually
plays a major role in brain functions. Low levels of DHA can increase the risk of having
Alzheimer's disease. Intake of fish oil during pregnancy is also recommended. According
to a research conducted by the University of Western Australia showed that pregnant
women who ingest fish oil supplement actually give birth to babies with better hand and
eye coordination, better in speech and better cognitive development at the age of two and
a half.
Aside from Alzheimer's disease, fish can also help in reducing the risk of other mental
illnesses like depression, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among
children, dyspraxia, bipolar disorder and dyslexia.
• Reduce the risk of hear attack. Even if the DHA and EPA are fatty acids, they can
reduce cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure. It helps in preventing blood clots in
the heart. So aside from heart attacks,It is also important in reducing risks of coronary
heart disease.
• Reduce the risk of cancer. Researches have shown that fish oil can help in reducing
risks of developing breast, prostate and colon cancer. They stop the growth of cancerous
cells and inhibit its growth. For postmenopausal women, those who consume more
Omega-3 fatty acids from salmon and mackerel or fish oil supplements are less likely to
develop breast cancer.
• Reduce the effects or helping patients deal with lupus, arthritis, colitis and asthma. Its
natural anti-inflammatory capabilities can reduce pain brought by inflammatory arthritis
and gastritis.
• Help a lot during pregnancy. Not only does Omega-3 fatty acids and helps in he fetal
brain development, it can also reduce the risk of giving early or premature birth, post-
partum depression for mothers, allergic reactions among babies an low- birth weight. Not
only does it helps in pregnancy, there are preliminary researches showing fish oil to aid in
getting pregnant or fertility.
• Help improve the body overall. Fish oil can help in producing serotonin, the happy
hormones. Happiness can help a lot of people deal with stress and other emotional issues
which can totally improve a person's emotional and mental disposition. They can also
revitalize and rejuvenate skin, reduce wrinkles, weight loss and improve eyesight. It is
even said that fish oil can reduce acne and make your hair a lot better.The oil is very
important in building a better you. But doctors and experts suggest in taking
pharmaceutical grade oil supplements. The problem with eating too much fish can
actually lead to mercury contamination.So, ask yourself, are you getting enough oil in
your body? If not, then it is time to start making sure that you do that.
Fish oil can:
• Improve brain development and memory. There are studies showing that DHA actually
plays a major role in brain functions. Low levels of DHA can increase the risk of having
Alzheimer's disease. Intake f fish oil during pregnancy is also recommended. According
to a research conducted by the University of Western Australia showed that pregnant
women who ingest fish oil supplement actually give birth to babies with better hand and
eye coordination, better in speech and better cognitive development at the age of two and
a half.
Aside from Alzheimer's disease, fish oil can also help in reducing the risk of other mental
illnesses like depression, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among
children, dyspraxia, bipolar disorder and dyslexia. There are studies showing that the lack
polyunsaturated fatty acids can contribute to this disorder. This can also be the reason
behind dyslexia. There were studies conducted among children, they were given fish oil
supplements for the period of three months. These children showed significant
improvements in behaviour, reading and spelling. They were also able to focus and
concentrate more.
There were studies that showed that Omega-3 fatty acids had the same effects as Prozac
which is a known anti-depressant. Studies showed that countries with high fish
consumption have lower rates of depression. Aside from that, pregnant women and those
who have just given birth who include fish in their diet regularly have lower risk of
experiencing postpartum depression.
If you have decided to take the supplements to address these mental problems for
yourself or for your kids or relatives, then it would be best to consult a doctor first. You
would have to know how much you are going to take. Just like any vitamins or anything,
when taken in excess it can have bad effects.Too much of the supplement can also cause
some serious problems like oxidative stress. Some doctors would recommend taking
Vitamin C along with the fish oil supplement. This would actually balance the nutrients
that you are getting.Fish oil has amazing effects on our health and body, we just have to
remember to keep it balanced with a healthy diet and healthy lifestyle. One of the reasons
why people take these supplements is due to the various health benefits that they offer.It
has long been known to contain essential fatty acids that are known to be very beneficial
in maintaining one's good health. Here are some of those benefits.
Heart Disease One of the more common benefits that fish oil is known to offer people
involves heart health. Various studies through the years have shown that the long chain
omega 3 fatty acids contained in fish oil may help reduce the risk of heart diseases in
humans. These essential fatty acids may also help lower LDL cholesterol in the
bloodstream ad therefore help reduce the risk of heart attacks and stroke. Not only that,
omega 3 fatty acids found in fish oil are also known to increase the levels of HDL, or
good, cholesterol.
Prevent Inflammation One of the more beneficial properties of omega 3 fatty acids found
in fish oil is their anti-inflammatory effects on the body.It can be also used to prevent or
reduce the inflammation of the tissues. Regular consumption of fish oil has been known
to help those people who are suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases.It has also
been known to be effective in treating certain gastrointestinal disorders as well as
ulcerative colitis and inflammatory bowel disease.Arthritis Treatment Due to its good
anti-inflammatory properties, fish oil is a good supplement that can help ease the pain
brought about by arthritis and rheumatic.it's supplements can help reduce the use of
NSAID's or Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory drugs for treating such conditions. In
osteoarthritis, fish oils prove helpful in trying to reduce the functions of certain enzymes
that may destroy or damage cartilage tissues in the body.
Weight Loss Fish oil also proves beneficial for those people who are trying to lose
weight. It sees that taking oil supplements may help a lot during the weight loss process.
It has been known to improve the efficiency of exercise in trying to lose weight. Studies
have shown that people who were given fish oil as part of their diet seem to lose weight
more when exercising than those people under the same program but were not given fish
oil in their diet.
Eye Disorders Another benefit that many experts have extolled on fish oil involves the
treatment of certain eye disorders. Consuming it on a regular basis seems to help people
avoid the effects of age related macular degeneration. More studies are being undertaken
in order to prove further just how effective fish oil can be in trying to help people
maintain good eye health.Skin Health Another known benefit associated with fish oil
consumption is skin health.It is also known to contain nutrients that can help change dry
and poorly maintained skin look shiny and glowing.It has also been known to be effective
in treating other skin conditions such as eczema, skin lesions and rashes.It can be applied
topically on the skin to help relieve the effects of psoriasis. Regular intake can also help
retain moisture in the skin.
Your Ultimate Defense Against Silent Inflammation:
Silent inflammation has been linked to heart disease, cancer and dementia. It is a
condition that occurs when the body's natural immune response goes awry. Silent
inflammation is an inflammation without pain and it can continue undetected for years,
continually assaulting your heart, arteries and even the brain - without you noticing
it.According to Dr. Barry Sears, author of bestselling books "The Zone," high
carbohydrate diet is the culprit to this kind of health situation. In his boos "The Anti-
inflammation Zone," he had proposed taking supplements of high dose, ultra-refined fish
oil as the best armor against inflammation.
The Japanese manage to maintain a state of wellness and away from silent inflammation
by consuming copious amounts of fish. However, according to a research, the massive
amounts of fish does not ensure them enough intake of omega-3 fatty acids or fish oil.
Fish oil is ultimately the healthiest fat around because it has profiund anti-inflammatory
properties. It has no long-term side effects and can even make you smarter.
The reason why high-dose fish oil is so effective is because it reduces arachodonic acid
(AA) which is the building block of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids. By taking it within 30
days,it will increase your levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Fish oil is the only
dietary supplement that is supported by robust clinical studes by treating chronic
conditions like heart disease, cancer, immunological and inflammatory diseases, and
neurological conditions like attention deficit disorder, depression, multiple sclerosis, and
different types of dementia.However, taking oil fish as defenses to silent inflammation
has a drawback, it might lead you to contamination. So in taking fish oil as dietary
supplement, Dr. Barry Sears cautioned to ensure that its ultra-refined and use the SIP as
guidance for exact dosage. On a scale of 1 to 10 for supplements, Dr. Sears give high-
dose fish oil a 12. The EPA found in fish oil partially inhibits the activity of the delta-5
desaturase enzyme that makes AA.
This represents the primary anti-inflammatory effect of fish oil, he adds. To achieve a
significant impact on AA production, a person must provide a lot of EPA. A high-dose
fish oil, especially rich in EPA will likely lead you to success in reducing silent
inflammation as reflected in the reduction of the AA/EPA ratio. The ratio can be
measured by SIP.
The public and the mainstream medicine are starting to accept the importance of insulin
control to well-being. Now is the perfect time to bring to public's attention the role of
eicosanoids and the way high-dose it can manipulate them. Dr. Barry Sears that the role
of fish oil in medical practice because it tells us that medical care is based primarily on
the food we eat, not the drugs we take.Recent genetic research is forcing scientists to
evaluate the value of fish oil in the evolution of modern humANS. It was genetic
scientists who initiated the theory that consumption of high-dose fish oil was the reason
why humans have the power to conquer the earth. A proper combination of insulin and
high-dose pharmaceutical-grade of the oil may be the true miracle cure for the 21st
century.It is so effective that having this dietary supplement is like having a miracle drug
that has the perfect balance between eicosanoids with totally zero side effects.
• Reduce the risk of hear attack. Even if the DHA and EPA are fatty acids, they can
reduce cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure. It helps in preventing blood clots in
the heart. So aside from heart attacks, fish oil is also important in reducing risks of
coronary heart disease.
• Reduce the risk of cancer. Researches have shown that can it will help in reducing risks
of developing breast, prostate and colon cancer. They stop the growth of cancerous cells
and inhibit its growth. For postmenopausal women, those who consume more Omega-3
fatty acids from salmon and mackerel or fish oil supplements are less likely to develop
breast cancer.
• Reduce the effects or helping patients deal with lupus, arthritis, colitis and asthma. Its
natural anti-inflammatory capabilities can reduce pain brought by inflammatory arthritis
and gastritis.
• Help a lot during pregnancy. Not only does Omega-3 fatty acids and It helps in the fetal
brain development, it can also reduce the risk of giving early or premature birth, post-
partum depression for mothers, allergic reactions among babies an low- birth weight. Not
only does it helps in pregnancy, there are preliminary researches showing fish oil to aid in
getting pregnant or fertility.
• Help improve the body overall. The oil can help in producing serotonin, the happy
hormones. Happiness can help a lot of people deal with stress and other emotional issues
which can totally improve a person's emotional and mental disposition. They can also
revitalize and rejuvenate skin, reduce wrinkles, weight loss and improve eyesight. It is
even said that fish oil can reduce acne and make your hair a lot better.Fish is very
important in building a better you. But doctors and experts suggest in taking
pharmaceutical grade of oil supplements. The problem with eating too much fish can
actually lead to mercury contamination.So, ask yourself, are you getting enough fish oil
in your body? If not, then it is time to start making sure that you do.
Fish Oil Effects That You Can Avoid: There has been a lot of buzz about fish oil and its
benefits. Researches and studies have proved the numerous health benefits that fish oil
can give. But every coin has two sides. So, is it possible for something beneficial like fish
oil, to have bad effects, as well? Yes, it is possible.
If you have fish oil capsules or liquid at home, then you would have to make sure that it
would not be exposed to heat, light and oxygen. When exposed for too long,it would get
oxidized and would get bad. Once the oil gets bad, it would lose its nutritional value.
Aside from that, bad fish oil and fatty acids are said to contribute to the development of
cancer and other diseases.Minor side effects of fish oil would include a fishy aftertaste,
diarrhea, and fishy burps. Some would report nose bleeding as a side effect of fish oil
intake. Aside from this, you would have to be conscious with vitamin A, E and D.
Accumulated or large doses of these vitamins can eventually lead to poisoning.There are
also serious side effects of fish oil. If these side effects happen to you, it is best to consult
a health care professional. You would have to stop taking fish oil supplements or it could
mean other serious ailments.
Fish is said to increase the risk of bleeding, especially gastrointestinal bleeding. So if you
would notice red blood on your stool and vomiting blood, the consult a health care
professional immediately. Serious effects could also include hemorrhagic stroke or
bleeding in the brain. Common symptoms would include vision and speech changes,
numbness or loss of strength in the limbs and frequent and painful headaches.If you have
diabetes, then it would also be better to check with your doctor if taking fish oil
supplements is safe. Taking fish oil supplements can sometimes result to hyperglycemia
or high blood sugar. Be watchful or conscious of allergic reactions. Symptoms that you
are allergic with oil supplements which includes rashes, itching, swelling, wheezing and
difficulty in breathing or swallowing.
To avoid the minor side effects, you can take the oil supplement along with your meal.
This would get rid of the aftertaste and make it easier to digest. It is less likely for you to
experience abdominal or stomach pain. There are few who keep their supplements
refrigerated. It is said that keeping them frozen or cold would help lessen gastrointestinal
problems or side-effects.
Too much is always not good. The problem is we do not how much is too much. There is
maximum amount that an individual should take. But there is a recommended amount,
for male it is 1600 mg while women are recommended to have 1100 mg.As mentioned,
we should be cautious with Vitamin A,E, and D overdose. How do we deal with
this?Read the labels. Know what kind of supplement you are taking. You have to know if
the oil supplements you are taking exceed the recommended level. To avoid an overdose
of Vitamin A and D, avoid using fish oil that includes the internal organs like liver.
Fish oil is something that can very essential in improving our physical and mental health
as long as it is taken in recommended doses and amounts. Let us remember that fish oil is
not a magic pill that would immediately remove us of any ailments and pains. It's effects
can be gradually noticed over time.
How Fish Oil Can Benefit Your Health:
Oil are extracted fats from fish, a concentrated solution of omega-3 EFAs. It is the best
source of omega-3 EFAs. You could add more omega-3 EFAs to your diet in the form of
alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). The richest plant sources of ALA are the leaves and seeds of
the perilla plants common in North America, Japan, Korea, China and Vietnam.
Green plants and algae also contain ALA as well as linseed oil. However, fats or oil from
fish is considered the most important dietary source of omega-3 EFAs because it has
concentrated amounts of the ALA derivatives EPA and DHA. These two nutrients are
found almost exclusively in seafood.
Eating fish on a regular basis has its own risk as you are can never be sure if the fish you
are eating has no toxins on it such as mercury and PCBs. During the manufacture of fish
oils, toxins are eliminated. The supplements are meticulously purified to remove heavy
metals such as mercury, lead, PCBs and other toxins as well as to reduce the incidence of
rancidity and improve the taste and quality of the fish.These makes fish as safe and
effective food supplement. A 1-gram fish oil capsule contains about 180 mg of EPA and
120 mg of DHA. An intake of three 1-gram capsules would provide 0.9 gram (900 mg) of
EPA and DHA. This means it comply the daily dosage recommended by the American
Heart Association. However, you should always bear in mind that fish oil supplements
are basically dietary supplements, not drugs.Studies shows that many people are getting
too much of the wrong kinds of fats found in animals (saturated fats) and vegetables
(polyunsaturated fats), and need the fish oil to "balance" the family of fat nutrients. Intake
of the wrong kinds of fats should be lowered to total 20 to 30 percent of daily calorie
serving while fats found in the oils of certain fish should be appreciably increased.
Fish oil prevents and/or alleviates heart disease, high blood pressure, arthritis and
migraine, headaches, may be protective against cancer, immune deficiency diseases,
kidney disease and others.It also have two special nutrients that protect the heart and
arteries, reduce pain, inflammation and swelling, and protect cell membranes. Omega-3
EFAs found in oily fishes are believed to be essential for the healthy development of
brain, retina, and nervous tissue among fetus and infant.During pregnancy these fatty
acids are transferred from the mother's tissues to the fetus. However, the FDA has strict
guidelines on eating fish during pregnancy because of the possibility of mercury or other
toxic substances that may contain in fishes and the best solution is to take fish oil as food
supplement
Over the past 30 years more than 7,000 scientific studies have provided evidence
supporting the effectiveness of fish oil and omega-3 EFAs in the prevention and
treatment of our most common diseases. Hundreds of clinical trials support the efficacy
of fish oil's omega-3 essential fatty acids in preventing, mitigating, and remedying an
incredible range of health conditions. Some scientific and medical communities however
are resisting to these facts and still support pharmacological treatment.
As a traditional dietary supplement that encourages good health,it is a preventive
medicine but as a natural alternative to NSAIDs or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
and other pharmacological and medical treatments, it is complementary medicine.With
all the undergoing studies to prove its affectivity, fish is on the threshold of crossing over
into traditional Western medicine.
How Fish Oil Can Cure Inflammation:
Inflammation occurs as our body's natural protective response to fend off any outside
aggressors and to begin the process of healing. Its effect on our tissues usually involves
pain, heat and redness. However, there are some cases that this outward effect is not
visible.
Inflammation is a double-edges sword; its effect can be helpful or harmful depending on
the circumstances. When an inflammation is in chronic state, devastating consequences
are likely to happen like arthritis, heart disease or stroke. It usually happens when the
cause of inflammation is continually reintroduced or if the acute inflammatory response
is not able to eliminate it. This situation is very likely to happen nowadays because of our
exposure to implausible amounts of toxins.
Some of these toxins can be avoided like poor food choices, smoking, and prolonged sun
exposure. While some things arise from things from things we don't have control like
genetics, accidents and pollution. Inasmuch as there are factors you can't help being
exposed to unnecessary and harmful factors detrimental to your good health, you can also
take food supplements effective in strengthening your body against the sometimes lethal
effect of inflammation. The most effective food supplement according to recent studies
happens to be fish oil.
The prevalence of destructive or chronic inflammation among Western countries makes it
imperative for many specialists to deal with preventive measures. The reason behind this
is that the Western population is more exposed to stress, obesity and poor health in
general. Many pharmacological anti-inflammatory drugs offer reduction of inflammation,
however, long-term medication have potentially lethal side effects.
So what is your safest option if you have inflammation? Research on alternative
medicines revealed that certain dietary supplements can help reduce levels of pro-
inflammatory factors, with significantly lower side effects. One of these dietary
supplements is the essential fatty acids or EFAs.
Essential fatty acids are necessary for various aspects of normal physiology like:
mediating immune response, regulating bodily secretions and their viscosity, dilating and
constricting blood vessels, regulating collateral circulation, directing endocrine hormones
to their target cells, regulating smooth muscles and autonomic reflexes, being primary
constituents of cell membranes, regulating the rate of cell division, maintaining the
fluidity and rigidity of cellular membranes, regulating the flow of substances into and out
from cells, transporting oxygen from red blood cells to the tissues, maintaining proper
kidney function and fluid balance, keeping saturated fats mobile in the bloodstream,
preventing blood clots, mediating the release of inflammatory eicosanoids that may
trigger allergic conditions, and regulating nerve transmission and communication.
(Source: Fish Oil: The Natural Anti-inflammatory by Joseph C. Maroon and Jeffrey Bost,
2006, page 39).
For this reason, it is very important for over-all health to have a regular intake of foods
rich in omega-6 or omega-3 EFAs. The omega-3 pathway, activated by trauma, injury, or
chemical stimulus, is the process of converting the omega-3 EFAs found in the cell
membranes to various eicosanoids. If the omega-3 EFA components of the cell
membranes become dominant, an anti-inflammatory state can result, with preventive
health benefits.
Fish is the best source of the omega-3 essential fatty acids. But why fish oil, you might
ask? The needed nutrients can also be found in green plants; algae (phytoplankton);
leaves and seeds of the perilla plants; and linseed oil but fish oil is considered the most
important dietary source of omega-3 EFAs because it contains concentrated amounts of
the ALA derivatives with APA and DHA.
The two mentioned nutrients can almost exclusively found in seafood. Fish contains high
amount of EPA and DHA because they are at the top of food chain based on algae, a
single-marine organism that manufactures huge amount of EPA and DHA.
Surprising Benefits Of Using Fish Oil:
The known benefits of fish oil are not just limited to the more common conditions. Of
course, many people have already known how using fish oil may help improve skin
health and reduce the risk of heart disease. But there are also surprising benefits that it
seem to offer to those who regularly consume them. Here are just some of them.
Depression And Anxiety People may not be aware of it, but fish seems to help put people
in a good mood. In fact, many studies have shown that fish oil may be beneficial in trying
to help treat depression and anxiety in people. Thanks to the omega 3 fatty acids
contained in fish, it seems a good means to relieve anxiety, depression, stress and sadness
in people.
Fish seems to have good mood stabilizing properties that make them quite interesting as a
treatment for depression and other related conditions. Evidence suggests that countries
where oily fish such as salmon is regularly eaten also seem to have low incidence of
depression. Similar studies involving prisoners have also shown that having them on a
diet rich in omega 3 fatty acids resulted in a significant drop in homicide rates. Although
more studies may be needed in order for such findings to be conclusive, it already shows
some good evidences of the other surprising benefits of fish oil.
Cancer Fighter It may seem quite surprising enough that fish oil may also benefit patients
with certain forms of cancer. Preliminary studies have shown that fish oil may be useful
in trying to delay the weight loss in people suffering from pancreatic cancer. Still further
research may be needed to solidify this claim as well as how oily fish may affect certain
types of cancers.
Type II Diabetes Some studies also have shown positive findings on the effect of fish oil
in Type II diabetes. Since people suffering from this form of diabetes are also prone to
developing diseases such as coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis and stroke, medical
experts believe that taking fish oil supplements may also help in trying to reduce such
risks in diabetics. Some studies have already shown that fish oil may also be effective in
lowering triglyceride levels in people with diabetes.
Pregnancy Fish oil might also be able to help women bear healthier children. Taking the
oil supplements may help pregnant women ensure the healthy development of their child
while still in the womb. The DHA found in fish oil is known to help babies undergo
healthy eye and brain development. Pregnant women who are also taking the oil
supplements run fewer risks of having premature births, miscarriage or delivering babies
with low birth weights. As an added benefit, pregnant women who regularly take fish oil
supplements run lesser risks of getting into depression following the baby's delivery.
Fertility Fish oil supplements may also help in improving fertility. In a study done on
male boars, those who were fed with a diet rich in fish oils were able to show better
sperm quality. After ejaculation, the sperm from the boars fed with fish oil seem to resist
the effects of lipid peroxidative attacks in the female boar genital tract, giving the sperm
higher chances of conception.
The Benefits of Fish Oil Supplements: The benefits of fish oil supplements should not be
outweighed the need to understand how these supplements should work or provide
essential nutrients for the human body.
Although it is a general notion for nutrition experts to insist on regular food as the
common and most basic source of vitamins and minerals important for the human body,
oil supplements, be it in liquid or solid form, are needed to ensure a holistic enrichment
and nourishment for the body.
Fish oil supplementation is ideally beneficial by providing for what the regular or daily
diet may not provide, it can also be a preventive measure against diseases and illnesses.
Essentially, fish supplements are meant to complement a diet, not as a substitute for it, as
what many believe to be the case. Since plant foods still contain many nutrients, among
them phytochemicals, that still cannot be substituted or generated through synthetic
means.
Why the need for fish oil supplements? Take for instance these circumstances;
Infants that are being breast-fed need to have their regular source of iron, especially when
they reach their four to six months, since breast milk only provides little iron. This is
where iron supplementation comes in with baby milk formula or alternative sources like
fortified cereal meals or baby food.
Children also need fluoride supplementation to strengthen teeth and prevent tooth decay.
Pregnant women need multivitamin-mineral supplementation, to ensure that their nutrient
levels are met for the development of the fetus inside the womb. Among those that need
supplementation are increased levels of folate to prevent birth defects, as well as
increased amounts of vitamins like B6.
You Gotta Love Fish Oil
One has gotta love fish oil. If you think that I'm kidding then go pick it up. Those who
shun fishes like mackerel, tuna and salmon due to some personal and at times even weird
preferences might have second thoughts, by going for fresh fish which has oil in them for
vit. B6 supplement for your good health to come up.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Tags:
Stats:
views:12
posted:5/9/2012
language:
pages:9