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Information Technology in the Workplace of the Future_ Trends and

VIEWS: 6 PAGES: 22

									             Doug Vogel
        Chair Professor of IS
    City University of Hong Kong




Motivation with Continuance

                                   1
Educational Paradigm Shift

                      Network centered
                      Student centric
                      Experiential
                            learning
 Campus centered
 Instructor centric
 Directed learning



                                         2
  The
Learning
 Bubble


           3
                 Motivation
•   Intrinsic (Self) Motivation
    – Key aspect of student-centered, lifelong
      and online learning models
    – Significantly related to students’ ability to
      academically achieve
    – Fewer schedule impositions / less structure
    – Often less direct instructor involvement
•   Extrinsic Motivation
    – Time honored educational approach
    – Various kinds of rewards
                                                  4
               Continuance
•   Features and usage patterns of a
    learning system develop long-term
    continuance through both conscious and
    unconscious behaviours.
•   Limayem et al. (2007): habit moderates
    the link between IS continuance intention
    and actual IS continuance usage
•   Oritz de Guinea & Markus (2009): role of
    unconscious behaviour (incl. habit) in
    affecting continuance behaviour is more
    significant than expected
                                            5
               Facebook
•   Wildly popular with students
•   In November 2007, Hong Kong
    billionaire Li Ka-shing reportedly
    invested US$ 60 million in Facebook
•   Concerns over privacy and intellectual
    property rights
•   Challenging to administrators
•   Little used by educators – yet!
•   Appeals especially to social networking
                                              6
7
         CityU Research Study
•   Focus group                    Facebook usage            Mean Std.

    – 14 undergraduates            Times per day login       4.26   2.82
                                   Hours per day spent       1.45   1.11
                                   Total number of friends   212    161
•   Online survey                   college students         64     60.3
    – 187 out of 474
      undergraduates                other college students   48     48.6
    – Response rate=39.5%           high school friends      70     72.2
    – Male/Female: 50.9% / 49.2%    college staff            2      3.7
    – Mean age: 21.4
                                    family members           2      4.3
                                 Results
                            Social learning process               Learning outcomes
                                                       0.483***
                                                       0.418***
                                     Self-efficacy     0.297***           Self-
                                        belief                           esteem
                                                                        R2=56.8%
                          0.264***
                                                      0.329***
          Online social                               0.165**
                                                                      Satisfaction
                                                      0.102
           networking     0.246***     Social                          with Univ.
          engagement                 acceptance                           life
         (on Facebook)                                                  R2=47.7%
                          0.239***                    0.094
                                                      0.251***
                                                      -0.063          GPA-based
             0.231***
             0.211***
                                     Acculturation                    performance
             0.089**                                                    R2=11.6%
                                                     -0.034                     -0.036
                                                     -0.048                     0.130**
* p<0.1                                              -0.049                     -0.083
** p<0.05
*** p<0.01                                Gender                  Study level
               Practical Implications
For students
•   Help to mitigate the superficial gap between networking for leisure
    and networking for learning.
•   Be aware of the possible negative effect of too much engagement
    on Facebook.
     – “I know some of my friends are addicted to Facebook too much, like in gaming.
       Somehow it will spend them a lot of time. I am worried about them. I sometimes will
       tell my best friends ‘Don’t do that’.”
•   Older students tend to better find a balance


For educational institutions
•   Trust students and offer autonomy to students to learn individually
    and creatively
•   Provide a supportive infrastructure to support social networking
    activities and thus to increase interactions among students
•   Encourage orientation activities on Facebook as a starting point
                              Think
                              Mobile


More than just a technology




                                11
Some Mobile Products and Services


                   CU 2NIGHT? PLS CALL...




                                      WALL ST.




                                                 12
    The Global Impact of “Apps”
•   Instant personalization of mobile devices at
    affordable prices
•   Hundreds of thousands of choices
•   Great opportunities for entrepreneurs
•   Low barriers to entry
•   Disruptive innovation potential
    – Knowledge distribution with location sensitivity
    – What you want “just-in-time”
•   The mobile applications market is estimated
    to be worth around US$25 billion by 2015
                                                   13
Learning Paradigm Shift

                       Self-directed
                                learning
                       Just-in-time
                       Anytime / anyplace
Institutionally
          directed
Just-in-case
Our time / our place



                                        14
  The
Learning
 Bubble


           15
      Research Opportunities
•   Social networking in education
    – Pre-entrance association
    – Team projects
•   Utilitarian vs. hedonic perspectives
    – Do work and play mix?
    – What is the role of the instructor?
•   Student learning style support
•   Pedagogical adaptation (e.g., space vs.
    place)
•   Institutional change
                                            16
                 Challenges
•   What’s the “right” balance of tradition vs.
    virtual in the classroom of the future?
•   How will the role of educators change?
    – Facilitation versus instruction?
    – Motivation for adaptation?
    – What impact in the student’s learning “bubble”?
•   How can learning be best assessed?
•   What’s the role of educational institutions?
    – Lead, follow, or get out of the way of change?
    – Plan or be planned for? (Russell Ackoff)
                                                  17
                    Issues
• Authoring Environments
• Pedagogically-driven Application Portfolios
• Degree of personalization
• Instructor Training / Faculty Development
• Infrastructure
• Interface Standards
Learning Management System (LMS)
    – Integration
    – Extension
                                           18
           Still More Issues
•   Embedded vs. Non-embedded Use
•   Curriculum Revision
•   Policy Formation
•   “Haves” versus “Have-nots”
•   Constructive alignment (John Biggs)
•   Evaluation
•   Evolution of Pedagogy
•   Long-term implications
                                          19
                Conclusions
•   Over time, emphasis moves from individual
    to more systemic initiatives and, ultimately,
    policy consideration
•   Key consideration is how to keep faculty
    effectively engaged as technology changes
•   Leading edge technology is a sustaining
    innovation to students but a disruptive
    innovation to many faculty and institutions
•   Need to provide special focus on working
    with instructors in the evolution of pedagogy
                                             20
The future is
challenging,
 but bright!!   21
                       References
•   M. Limayem, S. G. Hirt, and C. M. K. Cheung, "How Habit
    Limits The Predictive Power Of Intention: The Case of
    Information Systems Continuance," MIS Quarterly, vol. 31,
    2007, pp. 705-737,.
•   K.-P. Mark and D. R. Vogel, "An Exploratory Study of
    Personalization and Learning Systems Continuance," in
    PACIS 2009 Proceedings, Association for Information
    Systems, 2009, Paper 34.
•   Ortiz de Guinea, A., & Markus, M. L. (2009). Why Break The
    Habit of a Lifetime? Rethinking the Roles of Intention, Habit,
    and Emotion in Continuing Information Technology Use.
    MIS Quarterly, 33(3), 2009, pp. 433-444.
•   Yu, A.; Tian, W.; Vogel, D. and Kwok, R. “Can learning be
    virtually boosted? An investigation of online social
    networking impacts,” Computers & Education, 55, 2010, pp.
    1494-1503.                                               22

								
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