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MATERIAL FLOWS METHODOLOGY The material flows methodology is utilized to generate the estimates above. Th crucial first step is making estimates of the generation of the materials and products in MSW. DOMESTIC PRODUCTION Data on domestic production of materials and products were compiled using published data series. U.S. Department of Commerce sources were used where available, but in several instances more detailed information on production of goods by end use is available from trade associations. The goal obtain a consistent historical data series for each product and/or material. CONVERTING SCRAP The domestic production numbers were then adjusted for converting or fabrication scrap generated in the production processes. Examples of these kin of scrap would be clippings from plants that make boxes from paperboard, glass scrap (cullet) generated in a glass bottle plant, or plastic scrap from a fabr plastic consumer products. This scrap typically has a high value because it is clean and readily identifiable, and it is almost always recovered and recycled within the industry that generated it. Thus, converting/fabrication scrap is n counted as part of the postconsumer recovery of waste. ADJUSTMENTS FOR IMPORTS/EXPORTS In some instances imports and exports of products are a significant part of MSW, and adjustments were made to account for this. DIVERSION Various adjustments were made to account for diversions from MSW. Some consumer products are permanently diverted from the municipal waste stream because of the way they are used. For example, some paperboard is used in building materials, which are not counted as MSW. Another example of diversion is toilet tissue, which is disposed in sewer systems rather than becoming MSW. In other instances, products are temporarily diverted from the municipal waste stream. For example, textiles reused as rags are assumed to enter the wa stream the same year the textiles are initially discarded. ADJUSTMENTS FOR PRODUCT LIFETIME Some products (e.g., newspapers and packaging) normally have a very short lifetime; these products are assumed to be discarded in the same year th are produced. In other instances (e.g., furniture and appliances), products ha relatively long lifetimes. Data on average product lifetimes are used to adjus data series to account for this. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE GENERATION AND DISCARDS The result of these estimates and calculations is a material-by-material and product-by-product estimate of MSW generation, recovery, and discards. ******** TERMS Municipal solid waste ( MSW) includes wastes such as durable goods, nondurable containers and packaging, food scraps, yard trimmings, and miscellaneous inorg residential, commercial, institutional, and industrial sources. Examples of wa categories include appliances, automobile tires, newspapers, clothing, boxes, tableware, office and classroom paper, wood pallets, and cafeteria wastes. MSW wastes from other sources, such as construction and demolition debris, automob municipal sludges, combustion ash, and industrial process wastes that might al municipal waste landfills or incinerators. Source reduction activities reduce the amount or toxicity of wastes before the municipal solid waste management system (see Generation). Reuse is a source re involving the recovery or reapplication of a package, used product, or materia retains its original form or identity. Reuse of products such as refillable gl plastic food storage containers, or refurbished wood pallets are examples of s Generation refers to the amount (weight or volume) of materials and products t waste stream before recycling (including composting), landfilling, or combusti Recovery of materials means removing MSW from the waste stream for the purpose (including composting). Recovery for recycling as defined for this report incl postconsumer recovered materials plus net exports of the materials. Recovery o includes diverting yard trimmings from disposal to a composting facility. For recovery for uses such as highway construction or insulation is considered rec materials used in remanufacturing processes. Combustion includes combustion of mixed MSW, fuel prepared from MSW, or a sepa component of MSW (such as rubber tires), with or without energy recovery. Discards include the municipal solid waste remaining after recycling (includin These discards are usually combusted or disposed of in landfills, although som stored, or disposed on site, particularly in rural areas. e the estimates above. The ion of the materials and were compiled rce sources were used ed information on e associations. The goal is to roduct and/or material. r converting or es. Examples of these kinds es from paperboard, glass plastic scrap from a fabricator of high value because it is ys recovered and recycled ng/fabrication scrap is not a significant part of ns from MSW. the municipal waste some paperboard is used Another example of r systems rather than from the municipal e assumed to enter the waste ly have a very arded in the same year they appliances), products have fetimes are used to adjust the aterial-by-material and ry, and discards. durable goods, nondurable goods, , and miscellaneous inorganic wastes from l sources. Examples of waste from these papers, clothing, boxes, disposable and cafeteria wastes. MSW does not include emolition debris, automobile bodies, cess wastes that might also be disposed in city of wastes before they enter the on). Reuse is a source reduction activity used product, or material in a manner that cts such as refillable glass bottles, reusable pallets are examples of source reduction. materials and products that enter the landfilling, or combustion takes place. te stream for the purpose of recycling ined for this report includes purchases of the materials. Recovery of yard trimmings composting facility. For some materials, ulation is considered recovery along with pared from MSW, or a separated out energy recovery. after recycling (including composting). n landfills, although some MSW is littered, Table 364. Generation and Recovery of Selected Materials in Municipal Solid Wast [In millions of tons (151.6 represents 151,600,000), except as indicated. Covers post-consumer residential and commercial solid wastes which comprise the major portion of typical municipal collections. Excludes mining, agricultural an processing, demolition and construction wastes, sewage sludge, and junked autos equipment wastes. Based on material-flows estimating procedure and wet weight as generated] Item and material 1980 1990 1995 Waste generated, total 151.6 205.2 211.4 Paper and paperboard 55.2 72.7 81.7 Ferrous metals 12.6 12.6 11.6 Aluminum 1.7 2.8 3.0 Other nonferrous metals 1.2 1.1 1.3 Glass 15.1 13.1 12.8 Plastics 6.8 17.1 18.9 Yard waste 27.5 35.0 29.7 Other wastes 31.5 50.7 52.4 Materials recovered, total 14.5 33.2 54.9 Paper and paperboard 11.9 20.2 32.7 Ferrous metals 0.4 2.2 4.1 Aluminum 0.3 1.0 0.9 Other nonferrous metals 0.5 0.7 0.8 Glass 0.8 2.6 3.1 Plastics 0.0 0.4 1.0 Yard waste 0.0 4.2 9.0 Other wastes 0.6 1.8 3.2 Percent of generation recovered, total 9.6 16.2 26.0 Paper and paperboard 21.6 27.8 40.0 Ferrous metals 3.2 17.5 35.3 Aluminum 17.6 35.7 30.0 Other nonferrous metals 41.7 63.6 61.5 Glass 5.3 19.8 24.2 Plastics 0.0 2.3 5.3 Yard waste 0.0 12.0 30.3 Other wastes 1.9 3.6 6.1 Source: Franklin Associates, a Division of ERG, Prairie Village, KS, Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the United States: Facts and Figures for 2003. Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. See also <http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/>. cipal Solid Waste: 1980 to 2003 ndicated. ch comprise the agricultural and industrial nd junked autos and obsolete 2000 2001 2002 2003 234.0 231.2 235.5 236.2 87.7 82.7 84.2 83.1 13.5 13.5 13.6 14.0 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.2 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 12.6 12.6 12.8 12.5 24.7 25.3 26.3 26.7 27.7 28.0 28.3 28.6 63.1 64.4 65.5 66.5 68.9 69.3 70.5 72.3 37.6 37.7 38.3 40.0 4.6 4.6 4.9 5.1 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 2.7 2.4 2.5 2.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 15.8 15.8 16.0 16.1 4.9 5.6 5.6 5.6 29.4 30.0 29.9 30.6 42.8 45.6 45.5 48.1 34.1 34.1 36.0 36.4 28.7 25.0 23.8 21.4 67.9 67.5 67.5 66.7 21.4 19.0 19.1 18.8 5.5 5.5 5.2 5.2 57.0 56.4 56.5 56.3 7.8 8.6 8.6 8.5 United States:
"Generation and Recovery of Selected Materials in Municipal "