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minuteshighwaystran080610 by linxiaoqin


									MEMORANDUM                                                                                         25 June 2010

To:   All Members of the Highways and                                      From: Legal and Member Services
      Transport Cabinet Panel
      Executive Members for (1) Highways                                   Ask for: Adrian Service
      & Transport and (2) Environment,                                     Ext:      25564
      Planning & Waste                                                     My Ref: AS
      Director of Environment &                                            Your Ref:
      Commercial Services                                                  _____________________________
8 JUNE 2010


D Andrews, N Bell, G F Button, R F Cheswright, G R Churchard, M Cowan, J Fraser,
S B A F H Giles – Medhurst, T C Heritage (Vice – Chairman), M D R Muir, S O’Brien,
S J Pile (Chairman), W A Storey (substituting for W E Eynon), A D Williams,

Also in attendance (Officers unless otherwise stated)
Jo Brown, HCC Environment & Commercial Services Department Press Officer
Sharon Davies, Senior Communications Officer, Environment Department
Vince Gilbert, Head of Hertfordshire Highways
Steve Johnson. Head of Network Management, Herts Highways
Daniel Kingsley, Service Manager, Waste & Recycling, North Herts District Council
John Mill, Broxbourne Borough Council
Cllr Brian Perry, Broxbourne Borough Council
Jon Prince, Principal Network Manager (Strategy) Herts Highways
Paul Range, Operations Manager, Amey Lafarge
Clive Rillstone, Project Director, Amey Lafarge
Sharon Robinson, Communications Officer, School Access, CSF Department
Cllr A M R Searing (Chairman of the Overview & Scrutiny Committee)
Adrian Service, Democratic Services Officer
Ian Skelt, Business Continuity Officer, St Albans City & District Council
David Swan, District Manager, Herts Highways
Tricia Taylor, Executive Director, Resources, Watford Borough Council
Derek Twigg, Assistant Network Manager (Winter Service), Herts Highways
Julie Thornton, Solicitor, Environment Law Team
Ian Wheeler, HCC Environment Senior Communications Officer

The Panel noted that W A Storey had been appointed to replace W E Eynon as a
Member of the Panel for this meeting only.
An apology for absence was submitted on behalf of W E Eynon.

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MEMORANDUM                                                                                         25 June 2010


1.1 The Chairman opened by explaining the purpose of the review was to ascertain
    whether the recommended improvements to the winter service operation as a
    result of the scrutiny undertaken in April 2009 had been effective. This review
    followed the second successive severe winter when extreme periods of ice and
    snow were experienced. The Council’s prime partners including Hertfordshire
    District / Borough Councils, public transport operators, fire, police and ambulance
    services had been invited to submit their comments / problems experienced during
    the extreme cold spell in the winter of 2009 / 2010. He emphasised that today’s
    meeting was the start of the review which would culminate in the Highways and
    Transport Cabinet Panel at its September 2010 meeting determining the winter
    service operation plan for the next winter.

1.2 He stated that the availability of salt stocks had emerged as a problem which had
    again led to the Department for Transport implementing a “salt cell” contingency
    plan. As a consequence highway authorities were allocated limited supplies of
    salt. From mid January 2010 restrictions on salt usage had been required of
    highways authorities resulting in a reduced network of roads being treated.

1.3 The supply of salt was likely to be a problem for several years. Highway
    authorities would have to take salt shortages into account in planning their winter
    service operation plans. Another consideration would be the resource restrictions
    which could require greater efficiencies with existing services. The scope for
    encouraging self help in clearing ice and snow from roads and footways in
    Hertfordshire or for other changes to the service, would be limited.

1.4 It was intended that the review would lead to a smarter network, that made best
    use of the resources available to keep people and goods moving during the winter

1.5 The Network Manager (Strategy), Herts Highways outlined the Council’s statutory
    obligations to maintain highways in Hertfordshire removing hazards, keeping them
    free of obstructions and taking reasonable steps to prevent danger from ice on the
    highway and clearing snow.

1.6 He advised that the Railways and Transport Act 2003 introduced the “duty to salt”
    and clarified the law following a test case judgement in 2000. Highway authorities’
    duty to remove hazard from ice is not absolute but to take action which is
    reasonably practicable.
    The current policy was to follow the national Code of Practice for Highways
    Maintenance Management – Well Maintained Highways [extract attached as
    Appendix A1 to the submitted report].

     He stated that temperatures more than a few degrees below zero reduced the
     effectiveness of gritting materials.

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MEMORANDUM                                                                                         25 June 2010

1.7 The Assistant Network Manager (Winter Service), Herts Highways drew attention
    to the scrutiny of the highway winter [maintenance] service operational plan
    undertaken in April 2009, with four identified areas for action and the following
    recommendations : -
     Involvement of partners in reviewing the winter maintenance programme
     Information needs to be readily accessible to partners and the general public
      (gritting routes, the Winter Maintenance Plan etc).
     Clarifying communication channels: liaison with districts/boroughs, especially at
      times of pressure, to be improved by the identification of designated post holders
      in each authority to channel communication and information. Hertfordshire
      Highways to inform key partners (e.g. transport operators) at the outset of the
      winter period of the location of relevant information and ensure this information is
      regularly updated.
     Investigate and report on the implications of raising the priority of treating high
      traffic pedestrian areas and busy footways leading to them.

     He stated that prior to the onset of the last winter period the first three
     recommendations shown above had been completed. In particular discussions
     had been held with all Hertfordshire District / Borough Councils, 24 hour contact
     details had been exchanged and tested. In relation to the fourth bullet point above,
     trials had been carried out on footway gritting techniques but the review of routes
     and of ways to engage with public communities had been overtaken by the events
     of the 2009 / 10 winter.

1.8 He advised of weather statistics during the period of extreme winter weather during
    2009 / 10 with the first severe instance being on 17 December 2009 of heavy
    snowfall followed by over 30 consecutive nights of sub zero temperatures. During
    last winter [which consisted of 210 days / nights] 78 nights of temperatures below
    zero occurred culminating in a significantly increased number of salting / gritting
    outings 78 in total compared to the yearly average of 43 [over the last 15 years].

1.9 During the three most severe periods of heavy snow / severe ice, the Herts
    Highways Operations duty officer attended the Hertfordshire Police’s Snow Desk,
    which assisted better management of the Hertfordshire road network.
1.10 He stated that principally due to the snowfall being nationwide the supply of
     salt was limited and a system of rationing was introduced by the Department
     for Transport known as “Salt Cell” to ensure that all highway authorities
     received a share of the limited salt readily available. A further consequence
     of “Salt Cell” was that gritting operations in Hertfordshire were scaled down
     from 11 January 2010 reducing the network coverage from 2,500 km to
     approximately 1,000 km. The network had comprised category A and B
     roads ,access to emergency service sites and a limited number of other
     police recommended routes.

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MEMORANDUM                                                                                         25 June 2010

1.11 He commented that Hertfordshire already operated all of the recommended
     methods to minimise salt usage in normal times. The amount of salt
     needed to be spread had been researched / trialled to deal with ice and
     snow with the majority of Hertfordshire roads being treated with 8 gm2 or
     15 gm2 and only hotspot roads such as A41 A505, A602, and A507 being
     treated with 15 gm2. Normally this enabled the salt stock to last longer with
     financial savings accruing but on this occasion limited the range of options.
     Additionally wherever possible alternative materials to salt had been used
     and during the severe snow fall treatments of salt and sand mixed had been
     used to aid with snow clearance. Advantage was also taken in the use of a
     stock of chippings and this was mixed for use in salt bins.

1.12 Hertfordshire has a total salt storage capacity available to it of 12,000
     tonnes, which represents about 65 days of “normal” use, 20 days of “heavy”
     use, and 8 days of “maximum” use (dealing with continuous heavy
     snowfall). The generally accepted national standard until the last two
     winters was that an authority should have a pre-winter stock of 6 days’
     worth at maximum use.

1.13 He stated from initial enquiries with the Council’s prime salt supplier, Salt
     Union they were confident that our stockpiles will be fully replenished by the
     start of the winter season, as with all their regular customers but there were
     concerns about the ability of restocking during the winter period if another
     severe winter was experienced.

1.14 As an indication of the impact on the public and on the Council’s business it was
     noted that the number of customer responses / fault requests relating ice and snow
     on roods and footways received during last winter had risen to
     7,950 compared to 5, 641 in 2008 / 09 and 385 in 2007 / 08.

1.15 The Environment Senior Communications Officer assisted by the Senior
     Press Officer, outlined the communication activity undertaken during the
     period of severe weather to provide information on the operation of Council
     services to Hertfordshire residents. He stated that press, public relations
     and customer information provision was reviewed in September 2009
     following on from the outcome of the winter scrutiny with the following
     improvements implemented –
      Clearer signposting of winter service information was provided on the website, and as appropriate the front page of Hertsdirect
       featured “live” winter service information during severe weather periods
      Winter service web pages were re-organised to provide clearer access to
       salting decisions, salt bins and self-help information
      Webmaps showing salt bin locations and gritting routes were updated and
       clearer access to the pages was provided
      Schools closure notification system was implemented and linked to
       directly from the front page of Hertsdirect

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MEMORANDUM                                                                                         25 June 2010

      The legality of self-help and clearing snow from the highway was also
       more clearly established with the legal department, and advice was
       published on Hertsdirect, in the press, and in Horizons, the HCC customer
      The communications team also explored other methods of providing up to
       date electronic information to customers. A pilot test of an SMS text alert
       system detailing salting decisions and expected weather conditions was
       run internally, and received a positive customer response.
      24/7 communications officer cover is now provided for all council services .
     Panel Members felt that publicity of the winter maintenance service including roads
     and footways gritted should be featured in local community magazines and County
     Councillors should be asked to supply contact details of such magazines to the
     appropriate Communications Officers.
     In response to a suggestion that presentations on the winter maintenance service
     could be given at Community Voice meetings, the Head of Hertfordshire Highways
     stated that District Teams had given and did give presentations to Parish / Town
     Councils but could not cover every meeting.

     Overhead slides were shown giving details of the winter maintenance operation
     plan and it was agreed that these be provided to Panel members for future
2.   Feedback received from Hertfordshire District / Borough Councils / Town Councils /
     partners / public : -
     a) Broxbourne Borough Council
         Cllr Brian Perry drew attention to his Council‘s letter dated 3 June 2010
         circulated as Agenda Item e) 6) in particular stated that they could do more to
         assist if guidance was given. The main concerns were key footbridge links over
         the A10 leading to schools which were not gritted. The other prime interest was
         main roads into Broxbourne, Hoddesdon and Cheshunt. It was noted that the
         comments made in the letter concerning shortcomings related predominantly to
         footways rather than roads.
         John Mill, Contracts Manager, Broxbourne Borough Council commented that
         the officer meeting held in October 2009 did not give much time for responses
         from District / Borough Council officers on what assistance could be given for
         last winter. He stated that the Borough Council’s direct labour workforce who
         were unable to perform their normal duties / work due to snow / ice, could be
         made available to clear ice and snow in the Borough as directed by Herts
         Highways. They could have done more if more salt had been available through
         Herts Highways.
         In response to a question, the Head of Hertfordshire Highways stated that no
         liability would be borne by Districts / Borough Councils assisting in performing
         this work.

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MEMORANDUM                                                                                      25 June 2010

      It was noted the clearing of footways was very labour intensive with limited
      machinery that could be used to clear footways often which were very narrow
      and did not permit conventional gritting vehicles to access them.

  b) East Herts District Council
      E mailed comments from Cliff Cardoza, Head of Environmental Services,
      circulated as Agenda Item e) 2) contained 5 generally complimentary
      comments and 5 suggested improvement points for consideration.
      Suggested Improvement points were
      1) list of locations where gritting in particular would help
      2) clear early briefings of local representatives and community leaders
      3) sand boxes should be filled before weather conditions start
      4) on pot hole filling give discretion to contractors to fill holes not reported
      5) contractors should have ability to fill or cone around major pot holes when

  c) North Herts District Council
      E mail dated 7 June 2010 from Daniel Kingsley, Service Manager Waste &
      Recycling, North Herts District Council circulated as Agenda Item e) 8).
      Daniel Kingsley reiterated the spoken comments made by Broxbourne Borough
      Council in particular their 50 / 60 direct labour contract workforce could also be
      re employed when unable to do their normal duties / work due to ice and snow
      to assist with clearing snow and ice provided no additional costs were incurred.
      In particular it was felt that car parks and town centres should receive priority in
      being cleared of snow and ice to assist public access.
      To assist with such clearance works there was a need to know what constituted
      a passable footway so that that objective could be achieved.
      It was felt that a letter should be sent to shopkeepers encouraging them to clear
      ice and snow from the frontage of their premises and giving them legal
      guidance on the issue which should re assure them.
      He stated that he chaired a Hertfordshire Officers Sub Group which had
      considered winter maintenance and they had felt that was a need for speedier
      salt supply service to benefit the clearing of car parks and footways.
      Furthermore there would be benefits in District / Borough Council service
      managers being advised promptly of the winter maintenance service including
      the availability of salt supplies, especially if rationing has to be imposed.

  d) Stevenage Borough Council
      Letter dated 25 May 2010 from Marcel Coiffait, Head of Environmental
      Services, Stevenage Borough Council circulated as Agenda Item e) 5).
      Comments were generally complimentary but did emphasise the need to keep
      optimal footpaths and pedestrian areas open to Rail Station and Lister Hospital.
      Some of the public were also confused which Council was responsible for
      gritting and filling salt bins.

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MEMORANDUM                                                                                      25 June 2010

  e) St Albans City & District Council
      E mailed comments of 26 May 2010 from Andrew Robertson, Head of
      Environment and Regulatory Services, St Albans City & District Council
      circulated as Agenda Item e) 1).
      Ian Skelt, Risk Management and Community Resilience Officer supported the
      comments made in the above E mail in particular the significant improvement
      in the winter service arrangements since the previous winter. He felt there
      was still a need to educate residents further what was done and what they
      could do themselves. He commented that if salt supplies had been made
      available in January / February 2010 more assistance could have been given
      to clear roads and footways in St Albans.
      The continued provision of the Community Meals service was challenged during
      the period of extreme weather.
      The town centres suffered due to reduced patronage in particular markets and
      more effort is needed to clear footways and roads used to access the town
      There are gaps in the highway network which is currently gritted which ideally
      need to be filled.
      Ideally routes linking to transport inter changes and supermarkets should be
      Problematic roads were Holywell Hill / St Stephens Road and Sandridge Road /
      Beech Hill, St Albans
      St Albans District Council had 11 manual salt / grit spreaders which were used.
      In the event of future periods of winter weather, it was felt that the possibility of
      Sunday refuse collections should be an option to deal with collection backlogs.

  f) Three Rivers District Council
      E mail dated 4 June 2010 from Martin Trevett, Executive Member for the
      Environment, Three Rivers District Council circulated as Agenda Item e) 7).
      The E mail detailed three comments from Three Rivers Highways Joint
      Members Panel which were
      1) lack of salt bins at specific locations
      2) condition of roads, particularly side roads
      3) lack of gritting of pavements

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MEMORANDUM                                                                                      25 June 2010

  g) Watford Borough Council
      Tricia Taylor, Executive Director, Resources, Watford Borough Council echoed
      and supported the spoken comments made by previous District / Borough
      Council speakers. In particular she felt the joint working between the Councils
      had vastly improved since last winter. Watford Borough Council was
      appreciative that the main roads leading to Watford had been kept clear and
      One aspect that could be taken forward was the division of responsibility and
      which Council would do what with clearing ice and snow.
      She felt that during extreme winter weather residents would walk rather than
      drive and footways to and through the Town Centre plus adjoining underpasses
      needed to be cleared of snow and ice as soon as practicable.
      There was a need to communicate with key partners i.e hospital, rail operators
      urging them to have plans to clear their premises so local public can access
      them safely.
      Two identified suitable locations in Watford for the storing of salt was the
      Borough Council Depot and the Town Centre.
      She felt that Watford residents were willing to do more with clearing ice and
      snow in Watford and this should be encouraged. The idea of supplying salt /
      grit to residents was supported.
      Panel Members expressed the view that partners such as bus operators plus
      leisure centres should develop their own response plans to clear snow and ice
      from their forecourts / premises to assist safe access to them.
      The Panel Chairman in response to a comment concerning schools not being
      able to open due to insufficient staff being able to get to their school, stated
      that due to the need for Criminal Record Bureau checks of teachers engaged
      at schools, there was not the ability of transferring teachers who lived near to
      the school but taught elsewhere, to their nearby schools.
      The Executive Director, Resources, Watford Borough Council felt that
      accesses to GPs surgeries, care homes and hospices should be priorities for
      being gritted.
  h) Berkhamsted Town Council
      Letters of 13 January and 3 March 2010 from Berkhamsted Town Council plus
      responses circulated as Agenda Item e) 3) relating to state of roads and
      footways in Berkhamsted which is notably hilly and the lack of salt bins.
  i) Mr A Sewell, resident of Berkhamsted
      E mails dated 23 & 29 December 2009, 25 February and 4 May 2010 from
      Mr A Sewell plus responses circulated as Agenda Item e) 4).
      Many comments from Mr A Sewell, a resident of Berkhamsted which emanated
      from steep hilly roads in Berkhamsted not being gritted, leading onto the
      effectiveness and performance of the winter maintenance service.

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MEMORANDUM                                                                                         25 June 2010

3.   Specific issues to be considered as part of the review
 a) Salting / Gritting routes
     The Panel agreed that local knowledge from the local County Councillors could
     assist to identify roads and high use footways in addition to priority roads
     categories 1 and 2 which were well used and / or were problem ‘hotspots’ or key
     road junctions. To achieve this it was agreed that a form plus maps showing
     current gritted roads and footways in each County Councillor’s constituency should
     be sent to every County Councillor for them to mark on roads and footways that in
     their opinion were known ‘hotspots’ or should be gritted due to local resident
     usage. County Councillors would be requested to return completed form and
     maps by 31 July 2010 so they could be evaluated and a revised gritting network
     could be implemented for the forthcoming winter maintenance operation plan. A
     copy of a plan showing gritted road and footways in Hertford Town were circulated
     at the meeting.
     It was felt that schools which were on or near to the gritting routes which had
     steep sloped roads should be gritted in order to assist the possibility of keeping
     the school open. Furthermore the demographics of the locality needed to be
     taken into account.
     In response to a question, the Assistant Network Manager (Winter Service)
     explained the arrangements operated by drivers of gritting lorries, involving the
     drivers turning off the spreading mechanism when re passing over roads /
     junctions that had already been and were adequately gritted to avoid wastage of
     salt / grit.
     In response to a question, the Assistant Network Manager (Highways Operations)
     advised that details / arrangements of rail works requiring the suspension of rail
     services and consequential use of buses to transport passengers to their
     destinations were notified to Herts Highways and taken account of in gritting roads.
     The views of Hertfordshire District / Borough Councils on the highway network to
     be gritted next year would also be sought.

 b) Campaign to encourage Schools to develop winter travel plans to add to their
    School Travel Plans
     The Head of Hertfordshire Highways, in response to suggestion stated it would
     be possible to do future work with Hertfordshire schools regarding school travel
     arrangements plus ice and snow clearance at and fronting their premises / during
     extreme winter weather for inclusion within their School Travel Plan. A pack
     could be developed, published on the website capable of being downloaded by
     interested schools.

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MEMORANDUM                                                                                       25 June 2010

c) Salt - future supply / stocking arrangements and salt bins
   In response to a comment concerning sub standard salt found in salt bins by the
   public, the Panel Chairman commented that it maybe that the bin was not within
   the Council’s itinerary of bins as many bins had been inherited from other Councils
   including former Councils or it could have been a mixed material such as salt or
   grit and sand.
   In response to a question about putting bar codes in or ‘chipping’ all salt bins to
   help re stocking, the Assistant Network Manager (Winter Service) said that trials
   had shown that corrosive conditions rendered all signs, chips etc ineffective within
   a few weeks.
   The Panel felt that salt bins served an active purpose and should be continued to
   be used and re stocked, whenever supplies were available. A proposal to
   discontinue them to make savings of £50,000 a decade ago was abandoned
   largely due to the outcry from the public.
   It was felt that there was a need to review the salt bin operation to see if could be
   more effectively managed and possibly new bins be installed near identified
   ‘hotspots’ and on / near school sites.
   The possibility of encouraging Parish / Town Councils to stock up salt bins in the
   future could be looked into. It was suggested that the Hertfordshire Association of
   Local Councils [HALC] should be approached about future possible assistance.
   In response to a question, the Assistant Network Manager (Highways Operations)
   did not consider the provision of an additional salt barn would be a good
   investment given that it would cost £3m to provide and only prolong stocks for upto
   2 days in severe weather.

   Authorities in the Eastern Region were considering options for a strategic store but
   there was not enough salt available to fill it for this winter even if were otherwise
   viable. Salt shortages would be a feature of the next few years and HCC’s winter
   service operational plans would need to take account of this fact.

   He stated that new technology was being developed which could gauge the
   temperature of the road surface and assist in decisions on effective gritting

d) Encouragement of public self help in clearing snow and ice

   Julie Thornton, Solicitor (Environment Law Team) advised that the County Council
   were the responsible for clearance of any snow and ice from highways
   maintainable at public expense, unless such a role had been contracted out to a
   third party. The County Council could not stop Hertfordshire residents personally
   undertaking clearance of any snow and ice near their premises. Likewise the
   County Council could not guarantee that a claim could never be made against any
   such residents should an accident occur as a result of any such clearance.

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MEMORANDUM                                                                                         25 June 2010

     The Panel Chairman stated that the Local Government Association had made a
     request in 2009 to the Secretary of State which had been refused, for clarification
     and possible amendment of legislation regarding liability for ice and snow clearing
     works. Residents and shopkeepers were probably happy to assist in clearing
     snow and ice near their premises.
     The Head of Hertfordshire Highways advised that Surrey County Council had
     already written to the new Secretary of State repeating this request.
     The Panel agreed that the Council should associate itself with and support this
     It was felt that the public should be continued to be encouraged to clear snow and
     ice near their premises but that clear legal guidance needed to be provided on the
     The Panel Chairman stated that it maybe decided to offer bags of salt at cost, to
     residents to encourage them to clear the frontage of their premises.
     It was suggested that training sessions arranged by the police which Hertfordshire
     residents who were successfully prosecuted for motoring offences including
     speeding had to attend should include driving on roads in winter conditions. It was
     agreed that this be pursued with Hertfordshire Police.
     The Panel felt that private concerns such as supermarkets / leisure centres and
     others including Network Rail should be encouraged to develop their own winter
     maintenance plans to clear snow and ice from their premises to assist safe public
     access to their premises.

6.   Conclusions
     The Panel concluded that :-
     a) Lessons be learnt from shortcomings during last winter but overall the service
        had performed well in very difficult circumstances.
     b) The clearance of footways required greater attention.
     c) Member input on roads and footways to be included in the approved network of
        salted / gritted highways.
     d) Consideration be given to the usefulness and location of salt bins.
     e) Appreciation be given to the contributions and assistance from District / Borough
        Councils and others in clearing ice and snow during the winter of 2009 / 2010.
     f) Improvements to the winter maintenance operation service for 2009 / 10 had
        enabled better public movement around most of the highway network during the
        extreme cold spells.
     g) Mobile phones and other IT had assisted in communicating highway network and
        other problems experienced to the Hertfordshire public.
     h) The improved winter maintenance operation plan service had worked well with all
        the Hertfordshire highway network being accessible throughout apart from the
        A41 being unusable for 4 hours.

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MEMORANDUM                                                                                       25 June 2010

   i) The monitoring and use of the Council’s salt stock had been overally well
      managed in that at no time had it totally run out with the Council keeping its
      ability to salt the approved, albeit reduced highway network after “Salt Cell” was
   j) In hindsight the reduced highway network after “Salt Cell“ implemented should
      not just consisted of Priority roads categories A and B but a limited number of
      other important or heavily trafficked routes.
   k) National and international salt shortages should be expected at least for the next
      few years and the Winter Service Operational Plan should include measures for
      dealing with them
   l) Information received from partners should be considered and fed into the
   m) There was not a “bottomless pit” of funds that could be spent on winter
      maintenance and decisions had to be taken on the how the funds available
      should be spent.
   n) Public expectation that all roads and footways will be salted / gritted is a worry
      especially when salt supplies are low and cannot be guaranteed to be
      replenished. Communications to continue to inform the public and manage
      expectations in this regard.
   o) Expectation of partners i.e hospitals / sports centres to come up with own plans
      for their own facilities should be pursued and encouraged.
   p) Parish / Town Councils should be involved wherever possible to assist with snow
      / ice clearing operations especially those having their own workforce who are not
      able due to the extreme weather to perform their engaged duties / work.
   q) All Hertfordshire schools should be encouraged to have plans for winter weather
      and work be undertaken with them to assist this as part of their School Travel
   r) New technology available or being developed be looked at to assist future winter

 Kathryn Pettitt
 Chief Legal Officer

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