Volume 2 Number 3 September 2008
First Anniversary: Hawaii Aquaculture News
Aloha, readers, stakeholders, and contributors. The first quarterly issue of our
newsletter came out one year ago, in September 2007. This new (fifth) issue
marks the beginning of the second year of our collaboration, which aims to serve
the community by providing updates on the activities of individuals and organiza-
In this Issue: tions, a forum for expression of views, and other information that we hope will be
useful. This publication would not have come this far, nor could it continue, with-
out your attention and involvement, particularly your written and pictorial contri-
HAA, PACRC, ADP, EXTEN- butions. Further, the publication cannot continue to improve without your willing-
SION PROGRAM pages ness to comment on successes and shortcomings. Here’s to your personal, profes-
sional, and business success in the coming year. Please continue to share that and
your other thoughts with our community. Mahalo, Jim Szyper
MEET NEW ADP MANAGER
Commercial Aquaponics Training
BIGEYE TUNA IN HILO? on the Big Island
Some folks (UH and ADP email lists) have received the announcement of a four-
day (two successive weekends) training course to be presented in Honokaa on the
FEEDS ARE CHANGING Big Island during October 18-19 and October 25-26. The information can be
found at: www.ctsa.org/EventDetail.aspx?eID=1186.
The training is provided by Friendly Aquaponics, Inc. Tim Mann says,
“You’ll learn what I learned at the excellent University of the Virgin Islands 2007
Aquaponics Short Course,” and also “everything my wife Susanne and I learned
this past year building and operating three aquaponics systems, a tilapia hatchery
and nursery, and a Health Department Certified vegetable processing facility.”
There’s more, including various options and discounts to the $600 basic fee.
Hawaii Aquaculture News is For those who would like to know more before deciding, “ There is a $12 two
published as a cooperative effort of the hour class "Introduction to Aquaponics" on Thursday, October 2nd at NHERC
Hawaii Aquaculture Extension Program (North Hawaii Education and Research Center) from 6 to 8 pm, with a followup
(sponsored by the University of Hawaii
farm tour October 4th from 9 to 11 am. We have free "Introduction to Aquaponics"
Sea Grant College Program and the
Aquaculture Development Program of farm tours every Saturday at 10 am and Friday, October 17th from 5 to 7 pm . Call
the Hawaii Department of Agriculture) 775-7745 for directions or to ask questions about the training.” Email inquiries to
and the Hawaii Aquaculture Tim Mann <email@example.com.
Readers’ contributions are invited
with aloha, and much appreciated.
They should be emailed to the editor at
firstname.lastname@example.org, or discussed by
telephone for other means of
Editor: Jim Szyper
875 Komohana St.
Hilo, HI 96720-2757
phone: 808 938-4872
1 2 December 2008
Hawaii Aquaculture News volume 2 number 3 September 2007 Page 2
The Hawaii Aquaculture Association is the statewide
producers’ organization. Its mission is to foster the de-
velopment of commercial aquaculture production in
Hawaii. HAA provides a unified industry voice for leg-
islative issues, opportunities for networking and fellow-
ship with other aquaculturists, and numerous other
benefits to members.
HAA Annual Meeting - November 8 at Waikiki Aquarium
The HAA 2008 General Membership Meeting will be held at the Waikiki Aquarium on Saturday evening, November 8, 2008.
This will be a family event and will include an opportunity to tour aquarium exhibits, talk story, and enjoy a spectacular sunset,
beer, wine, buffet dinner catered by Indigo Restaurant, special program, and annual business meeting. Hope to see you there.
Aloha Fellow Aquaculturists,
I am writing to ask each of you to please consider committing a few hours or more of your time each year to help support the
efforts and activities of the Hawaii Aquaculture Association (HAA).
Over the past dozen or so years, the HAA has gained recognition in Hawaii, nationally and internationally, as the organization
representing our Hawaii aquaculture industry.
HAA’s accomplishments include: organizing annual conferences and membership meetings, organizing and co-sponsoring
numerous workshops, seminars, and industry meetings, hosting and supporting the World Aquaculture Society’s 2004 meeting
in Honolulu, initiating aquaculture legislation, representing our industry’s needs and positions each year at the Hawaii Legisla-
ture, dialoguing with various Hawaii State government agencies and legislators, national agencies, and our congressional delega-
tion, participating in a variety of national aquaculture forums, and, when appropriate, joining forces with the Hawaii Farm Bu-
reau Federation, the Hawaii Science and Technology Council, the National Aquaculture Association, and the American Farm
Bureau Federation to promote the needs and positions of our industry. The vast majority of this work has been accomplished to
date by dedicated members of the HAA Board of Directors and a few non-board members who together represent less than ten
percent of our association’s total membership. This dedicated core group is, however, getting increasingly exhausted, and is
encountering other pressing commitments. In short, HAA is in dire need of active assistance from additional members to help
keep our association viable and dynamic.
It has been my observation that many, if not most, successful local and national trade and professional organizations that have
been successful and viable over the long-term have been so because employees of large companies or the owners of financially
successful small- or medium-sized companies have had the resources to commit considerable time and energies to these organi-
zations, or, that the organizations have been large enough and/or have sufficient dues or other revenue generating structures that
allow them to hire part- or full-time staff. However, in the HAA’s case, the bulk of the workload has been carried out by the
owners of a few small “mom-and-pop” operations or small businesses still striving to reach financial success, and a few commit-
ted government employees, all of whom add their HAA time commitments to their already overloaded schedules, because they
are committed to the larger success of our industry and because our dues have been insufficient to allow our organization to op-
I have periodically mentioned this situation in passing over the years but feel we have reached the point where I no longer
(Continued on page 8)
Board Member’s Message
The Chinese are Coming, the Chinese are Coming!
Two recent articles in the local newspaper have prompted me to share a few thoughts on markets and marketing. One article
dealt with a California fish farm, the Fishery, owned by Ken Beers, a pioneer in the California industry, and the other article dis-
cussed the new trend in tourists from the Peoples Republic of China (PRC).
(Continued on page 7)
VOLUME 6, ISSUE 1
Hawaii Aquaculture News volume 2 number 3 HAWAII AQUACULTURE ASSOCIATION NEWSLETTER
1 December 2008
2 September 2007 PAGE
Page 3 5
The Hawaii Aquaculture Ex-
News Items From Our Network
tension Program is your state- Thanks to our many contributors (who are credited below) for sharing items of interest.
wide extension service. We Please keep them coming.
support the development and
sustainability of aquaculture
business in Hawaii by provid-
Fish Meal and Animal Feed
ing information, education, and It is an often-stated fact that a significant fraction (approximately one fourth) of the
technical assistance to existing marine fisheries catch is not eaten directly by humans, but rather processed into prod-
businesses, potential entrepre- ucts (fish meal and fish oil) that are used mainly for animal feed, including aquaculture
neurs and the general public. feeds. A recent research article estimates that 13.5% of this “forage fish” catch goes
The Program is sponsored into pet feeds, not to animals that are used for human food. The article goes on to dis-
by the UH Sea Grant College cuss ethical implications of this use of a “limited biological resource.”
Program, the Aquaculture Reference: De Silva, S., and G.M. Turchini, 2008. Towards understanding the im-
Development Program of the pacts of the pet food industry on world fish and seafood supplies. J. Agric. Environ.
Hawaii Dept. of Agriculture, Ethics. On line at: De Silva Turchini J Agric Environ Ethics 2008 (online first).pdf
and the UH College of Tropi- Thanks to Dale Sarver for this item, through Clyde Tamaru.
cal Agriculture and Human
Catfish Industry Hurting
A few quotes from an article on July 18 in the New York Times (link no longer working): “Catfish farmers across the South, un-
able to cope with the soaring cost of corn and soybean feed, are draining their ponds.” “.. corn and soybeans have nearly tripled
in price in the last two years, .. harvest shortfalls, increasing demand by the Asian middle class, government mandates for corn to
produce ethanol and .. flooding in the Midwest.” “Feed is now more than half the total cost of raising catfish, compared with a
third of the cost of beef and pork .. .” “ ‘It’s a dead business,’ said John Dillard, who pioneered the commercial farming of cat-
fish in the late 1960s. .. As for his 55 employees? ’Those jobs are gone.’ “ “Some catfish producers recently switched to a feed
based on gluten, a cheaper derivative of corn, .. but .. transportation and prices were particularly hard hit by the Midwest floods.”
“ ‘The industry is going to implode,’ (said the president of a processing company, blaming the government’s mandates making
fuel compete with food for the corn harvest).’ “ “ ’I’m a farmer (said another interviewee). I’m used to peaks and valleys. But
this is like falling into the Grand Canyon.’ “
Somber thanks to Jim Steeby of Mississippi State U. for this reference, and discussion of the matter.
A late pertinent note: University of Hawaii researchers are developing technology to convert what is now a waste product
from sugar cane ethanol production into a substitute for imported fishmeal. UH-Manoa scientist Samir Khanal said his team is
looking at converting residue called vinasse from sugar cane ethanol production on Maui and Kauai. (They noted that other) re-
searchers grew a fungus in fermentation leftovers from corn-produced ethanol. They said it saved energy, recycled more water
and improved livestock feed.
Letting the Sea Cultivate the Land
From the Los Angeles Times of July 10: “A few miles inland from the Sea of
Cortez, amid cracked earth and mesquite and sun-bleached cactus, neat rows of
emerald plants are sprouting from the desert floor. The crop is salicornia. It is
nourished by seawater flowing from a man-made canal. And if you believe the
American who is farming it, this incongruous swath of green has the potential
to feed the world, fuel our vehicles and slow global warming. He is Carl
Hodges, the founding director of the University of Arizona's highly regarded
Environmental Research Lab.
(Continued on page 8)
1 2 December 2008
Hawaii Aquaculture News volume 2 number 3 September 2007 Page 4
Bringing Bigeye Tuna to the Big Island – Training at IATTC
Adam Daw1 & Sierra Tobiason2
This June the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission The broodstock are fed once daily a 7% body weight combina-
(IATTC) and the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmos- tion of squid, anchovies and sardines with a vitamin supple-
pheric Science, University of Miami, (RSMAS) held a two- ment. Feeding time is a truly amazing sight to see! Much ef-
week workshop on the physiology and aquaculture of pelagics fort has been put into proper tank design for these fast swim-
with emphasis on reproduction and early developmental stages ming tunas, as the most common problem with tuna in captiv-
of yellowfin tuna at IATTC’s facilities in Panama. The partici- ity is wall collisions. The staff at IATTC have made all efforts
pants included representatives from the University of Miami, to minimize disturbances to the tuna as they are very sensitive
Skretting Feeds, IATTC, Clean Seas (South Australia) and to light and sound. The cylindrical tanks also have vertical
TAFE Challenge (Western Australia). Adam Daw and Sierra black stripes painted on the walls that prove to reduce wall
Tobiason of PACRC attended the training. collisions by providing a visual reference for the tank walls.
The IATTC’s lab is located on Achotines Bay in the The flow rate of the broodstock tank is a shocking 1700 gpm
Azuero Peninsula on the Pacific coast of the Republic of Pa- with a continuous vortex in the center.
nama. The facilities consist of one 1300 m3 broodstock tank, The captive yellowfin tuna at IATTC spawn daily through-
two 170 m3 and three 85 m3 holding tanks along with numer- out most of the year and spawning is directly related to the
ous small hatchery tanks, larval tanks and systems for live temperature of the water (>24 °C). During the workshop the
food production (rotifers, Artemia and algae). Additional fa- tuna eggs were released nightly around 10:00 PM to midnight
cilities on site include a library, and analytical and DNA labs. with pre-spawning behavior starting two to three hours before
The topics of this year’s workshop ranged from yellowfin tuna
broodstock capture, broodstock maintenance, spawning, and
larval rearing. Additionally, the program covered culture tech-
niques for other pelagics such as cobia and Seriola. This arti-
cle provides an overview of that information.
Broodstock capture is an important first step of any aqua-
culture operation. Pelagic fish prove to be a difficult group to
capture and transport due to their unique physiology and biol-
ogy. During the workshop, IATTC demonstrated proper han-
dling techniques applicable to tuna species without the use of
anesthesia. They are able to catch the tuna approximately two
miles offshore and ensure less than one hour time from capture
to holding tank with minimal handling. Another key to their
success is the year round availability of a variety of pelagic
species such as yellowfin tuna, skipjacks, black skipjacks,
wahoo, billfish and mackerels.
Developmental stages of yellowfin tuna. Clockwise from top left –
eggs ~ 18 hours old; larva ~ 2 days old;
larvae ~ 4 days; juvenile ~ 60 days
spawning. Eggs were collected and placed in incubators and
hatched the following evening. The larvae are then moved to
green water larval tanks and begin feeding on rotifers at day
three. Later the diet progresses to Artemia and yolk sac tuna
larvae; this stage seems to be the bottleneck of large-scale pro-
duction. Several experiments were conducted over the course
of the workshop that involved larval density and weaning diet
A few of the fish were in good enough condition to be brought trials.
back to be used as future brood stock, the rest ended up as poke! (Continued on page 6)
2 3 September 2008
Hawaii Aquaculture News volume 1 number 1 September 2007 5
The Aquaculture Development Program (ADP) provides a wide range of support for Ha-
waii's aquaculture industry. ADP is a planning, development and problem-solving organiza-
tion, whose goals are to get production and service businesses started, and once started - to
help ensure their success through active assistance.
Contact ADP at:
Introducing Todd Low: ADP’s New Manager 1177 Alakea St, Rm 400
Honolulu, HI 96813
Todd Low loves a challenge. That’s good, because he will have plenty of them as the new
leader of the Aquaculture Development Program. He is eager to take on issues as varied as Phone: 808 587-0030
Fax: 808 587-0033
budget control, legislative bills, and long and short term strategic planning to keep Hawaii’s
aquaculture industry healthy and competitive. His career has uniquely prepared him for these Email: info@hawaii-
Immediately upon completing his MBA at the University of Hawaii, Todd was sent by Prince Web: www.hawaii-
Hotels to assist with the opening of the Hapuna Beach Prince Hotel on the Big Island. He di-
rected the procurement and installation of the FF&E (furniture, fixtures & equipment) and pro-
ceeded to turn an empty building shell into one of the world’s premier resorts. Subsequent pro-
jects included renovating the Mauna Kea Beach Hotel, Maui Prince Hotel and the Hawaii Prince
Hotel. Along the way he gained experience in supervising teams of contractors as well as his
own staff, and learned a few things about keeping a complex project on schedule and on budget.
He later joined the Hawaii Visitors & Convention Bureau (HVCB) where he was responsible
for interactive marketing programs to Asia, Australia, Europe and North America. While there,
he worked to develop the state’s official tourism web site (www.gohawaii.com), which is still in
place and thriving today. He also oversaw the distribution of 250,000 emails per month to pro-
spective visitors. At HVCB he gained a heightened appreciation for the importance of clear,
A stint as the Product Development Manager for American Savings Bank provided experi-
ence in legal matters and project management, and his MBA came in handy when he was called
upon to do financial modeling in preparation for launching new products. He also oversaw
training modules prior to the roll-out of those products.
Todd is coming to ADP from the Hawaii Department of Agricul-
ture (HDOA) Market Development Branch where he managed the
Seals of Quality: This program helps companies market
their premium products locally, and is helping them break into the
Buy Fresh Buy Local: This campaign utilizes various me-
dia to encourage Hawaii consumers to purchase local food products.
Better taste and freshness is emphasized, and the fact that “buying
local” strengthens our local communities and economy. He continues
to serve on the BFBL Steering Committee and plans to feature aqua-
culture products in the future, as well as profiling aquaculture farmers,
products, and displaying seafood recipes.
Matching Marketing Funds Program: This program sup-
ports associations in marketing with distribution, tradeshow and
Todd Low with Hawaii Aquaculture Association President
education projects. (Continued on page 6) Ron Weidenbach at the 2008 Agriculture Conference.
Hawaii Aquaculture News volume 2 number 3 September 2008 Page 6
(PACRC—Tuna Training, from page 4)
A daily part of the workshop included presentations and discussions
led by Dan Bennetti (University of Miami) and IATTC researchers cover-
ing a wide range of concerns and future research ideas, advanced hatchery
techniques and open ocean operations. There were also many helpful
hints exchanged like the use of cleaner wrasses to control parasites in
cobia production and wearing jeweler’s glasses while performing surgery.
Each participant gave a presentation on the aquaculture work they have
been doing related to tuna, Seriola, and cobia. We presented our plans for
bigeye tuna culture in Hawaii.
At our PACRC Keaukaha site in Hilo, we are currently renovating one
of the 1900 ton tanks in collaboration with Paul Troy of Hawaii Oceanic
Technology and other partners. Preliminary research focused on the feasi-
bility of capture and transport of bigeye tuna is underway and we hope to
start collecting tuna broodstock this December. We are also drawing up
plans for the hatchery and looking into potential grow out options.
IATTC workshop participants (left to right): Nick King of
Aquaculture Education Specialist, PACRC. Email adamdaw@ Skretting, Gavin Partridge of TAFEWA, Adrian McIntyre of
hawaii.edu Clean Seas Australia, Marine Nunes and John Stieglitz
2 from RSMAS, Sierra Tobiason and Adam Daw, PACRC.
Graduate Student, UH Hilo, Tropical Conservation Biology and
Environmental Science. Email email@example.com
Inter American Tropical Tuna Commission: www.iattc.org/achotines
Pacific Aquaculture and Coastal Resources Center: www.pacrc.uhh.hawaii.edu
Photos by Adam Daw, except group photo on this page by John Stieglitz.
(ADP Manager, from page 5)
A benefit of having come through the HDOA Market Development Branch is that he knows agricultural distribution systems,
and knows how to get products to market. Needless to say, all this experience will be invaluable to Hawaii’s aquaculture com-
How’s this for a refreshing approach to marketing: “I don’t see marketing as selling” he says. “It is communication. It is
education. ADP will focus on getting our message out. We will be communicating with the public, with the legislature, with the
farmers, and with HDOA.”
During his acclimation period at ADP Mr. Low will have excellent technical resources to draw upon. “The combined knowl-
edge and experience of Aquaculture Specialist Dr. Leonard Young and Aquaculture Veterinarian Dr. Allen Riggs is incredible”
he says. “Our team is very strong.”
Todd is upbeat in his assessment of the future for ADP. “The aquaculture community owes a debt of gratitude to Leonard
Young who, in addition to his regular duties, took on the role of Acting Director for two years. He stepped up and took the reins
when it was needed. He did a great job, and is turning over the program in good shape and ready to move forward.” Dr. Young
is happily returning to full-time research, developing protocols, testing, and handling the more technical aspects of aquaculture,
and he will be Todd’s greatest asset as he learns more about the peculiarities of the industry.
Todd Low joins ADP as a manager who has great energy and enthusiasm and is open to everything. He will talk to anybody,
will entertain new ideas, and is willing to try things that are different. “It’s an exciting time to be involved in aquaculture in Ha-
waii.” Indeed. The road ahead will be exciting, and challenging. And Todd Low loves a challenge.
Position Announcement The UH Hilo College of Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Management
(CAFNRM) is seeking applicants for the position of Director of the Pacific Aquaculture and Coastal Resources Center. Recruit-
ment is continuous; review of applications begins on November 1. See www.uhh.hawaii.edu/uhh/hr/job_display.php?job=441
1 2 December 2008
Hawaii Aquaculture News volume 2 number 3 September 2007 Page 7
(HAA Board Member’s Message, from page 2)
The Fishery and several other Cal-based farms are taking advantage of strong demand for live product in the growing ur-
ban/suburban ethnic markets in San Francisco, Oakland, San Jose, Sacramento and Los Angeles. Live haul trucks daily deliver
wriggling sturgeon, largemouth bass, catfish, tilapia, and carp to enthusiastic Asian market and restaurant owners, with customers
waiting in line. According to the article, the Asian appetite comprises 70% of California's $50 million dollar aquaculture industry
and customers are begging for more product. Unfortunately, shipping live fish from Hawaii is not an option, but is there a value-
Ethic markets craving live fish is old news for Hawaii's fish farmers, but new news may alter our view somewhat. Recent
simplification of visa procedures, coupled with the booming market-based economy of the PRC, has created a new phenomenon,
the Chinese tourist coming to explore the U.S. Visitor numbers to Hawaii alone are expected to rise dramatically in the next few
years from a few thousand to 135,000 by 2009. Currently, the Chinese tourists stay longer and spend more money than the Japa-
This emerging trend begs the question, what are these folks going to want to eat and where are they going to eat it? Will it be
Sam Choy's or Roy's or will it be Hee Hing's and the many restaurants in Chinatown? The bet is these folks will look for familiar
dishes, at least during a portion of their stay. Hawaii's large and small Mom and Pop fish farms have an opportunity to supply
this new demand.
But if farmers can supply the fish, what kinds of information would help farmers sell product? I think it would be helpful if
we find out what these visitors' eating habits will be (fish or steak?). What are they looking for in terms of species? What types
of eating establishments will be favored? That is, some good old-fashioned market research by UH or the State. In addition, pro-
motional brochures or posters catering to these visitors could be another action.
No doubt Hawaii's experienced farmers will have other ideas on how to address the Chinese influx. But the point is let's rec-
ognize it is as new industry opportunity and actively work together to take advantage of the emerging demand.
John Corbin, Aquaculture Planning & Advocacy
[Note: The Board Member’s Message is our opportunity to hear the views of our Board members. We value their experience and
appreciate their generous effort, but we note that these views are not necessarily the official positions of HAA or its Board.]
Atlas of Hawaiian Watersheds & Their Aquatic Resources
When your editor took up his extension specialist job on the Big Island some years ago, he tried to identify issues and types of
information that folks would like to know more about. One suggestion was to find an information resource about local streams
as water sources for aquaculture. We quickly found a USGS web site that had some useful information. It was not particularly
user-friendly, but it has been the best we knew about until now.
A joint effort between the Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources and the Bishop Museum has produced this comprehensive
atlas, available free at www.hawaiiwatershedatlas.com/. It is a large and comprehensive resource, addressing 430 watersheds,
including physical, geological, and biological characteristics of the areas, and, yes, data on water flow as well.
Thanks to Sharon Ziegler-Chong of PACRC for passing on this item.
Notice to the Community from ADP
Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) postlarvae are now available from Paradise Shrimp Farms in Waialua. On August
12, 2008, representative postlarvae samples tested negative by PCR methodology for IHHNV, WSSV, TSV, YHV, BP, MBV
and IMNV, completing the certification process.
Paradise Shrimp Farms is an SPF (Specific Pathogen Free) marine shrimp broodstock, and now seedstock, production facility
on Oahu, whose proprietor is Mr. Jung Hoi Ku. The farm is located at 67-021 Waialua Beach Rd. Waialua, HI 96791; telephone
As a reminder: First, a site inspection is required for all Hawaii aquaculturists before acquiring postlarvae and commencing
production operations. Please contact the Plant Quarantine (PQ) Invertebrate & Aquatic Biota Specialist, Mr. Vernon Nakamoto,
at 832-0577 to arrange this inspection. Second, an Intra-state Live Movement Permit from PQ is also required prior to pur-
chasing and transfer of any postlarvae from any approved supplier in Hawaii. This permit must be shown to the supplier before
transfer, as both supplier and purchaser can be held responsible for unauthorized live seedstock transfer. For more information,
contact Mr. Nakamoto, or the State of Hawaii Aquaculture Veterinary Medical Officer, Dr. Allen C. Riggs, at 832-5005.
Hawaii Aquaculture News volume 2 number 3 September 2008 Page 8
(HAA President’s Message, from page 2)
have the luxury of being subtle. The dedicated HAA core needs your help now to plan and put on our next annual meeting, our
next conference, and our co-sponsored workshops, to participate in the October 12, 2008 Hawaii Fishing & Seafood Festival, to
continue the ongoing strategic planning process to help guide our industry’s future, to prepare for and participate in the next
legislative session, and to respond to other industry issues as they arise. For the Board’s part, we will try to rework the way we
do business to make it easier for more members to be involved. On your part, when we present opportunities for you to be
more involved, please respond positively. In addition, please check with your island’s Board representative(s) to offer sugges-
tions and to volunteer whatever time and effort you can spare. The Hawaii aquaculture industry will benefit and your help will
be greatly appreciated by all members and, in particular, by the current active core.
Best wishes, Ron Weidenbach, HAA President
Hawaii Aquaculture News
CORRECTION 1: In the last issue, a note on bluefin tuna stated that its documented growth rate to 20 kg in two years exceeded
that known for mahimahi. Thanks to Syd Kraul for pointing out that mahi can and have beaten that rate, e.g. 20 kg in 1.5 years.
Your editor (who wrote the note) regrets the error and encourages readers to continue to help us get things right.
Reference: Kraul, S., 1999. Seasonal abundance of the dolphinfish, Coryphaena hippurus, in Hawaii and the tropical Pacific
Ocean, p. 261-266. In: E. Massuti and B. Morales-Nin (eds.), Biology and Fishery of Dolphinfish and Related Species. Scientia
Marina 63 (3-4).
CORRECTION 2: Also in the last issue, a note the Nile tilapia stated that it was now “conditionally approved for research and
exhibition.” Thanks to Domingo Cravalho for pointing out that the correct designation is “restricted for research by government
agencies and universities only.”
ARCHIVE: Back issues of Hawaii Aquaculture News can be found at: aquanic.org/newsltrs/state/hawaii/HAN/. Have a look at
the aquanic.org site as well.
(Salicornia, from page 3)
A so-called halophyte, or salt-loving plant, the briny succulent thrives in hellish heat and pitiful soil on little more than a regu-
lar dousing of ocean water. Several countries are experimenting with salicornia .. as sources of food. Known in some restaurants
as sea asparagus, salicornia can be eaten fresh or steamed, squeezed into cooking oil or ground into high-protein meal. .. It can
be converted into biofuel. And, unlike grain-based ethanol, it doesn't need rain or prime farmland, and it doesn't distort global
On line: articles.latimes.com/2008/jul/10/business/fi-seafarm10.
Thanks to Taira Yoshimura for the reference.
[Editor’s Note: Salicornia is also known as “pickleweed,” but for some reason (perhaps the same reason that some producers
of “seaweed” have sought alternative names), the article doesn’t say that. Hodges’ successors at the U. of Arizona and others
have done considerable research on halophytes and other dry climate crops. Their Biosphere 2, where more of this is explained,
was still a great stop as of a few years ago.]