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					       Reconstruction




       African American History
http://www.teacheroz.com/reconstruc
               tion.htm
Juneteenth June 19, 1865
 The oldest known celebration
 commemorating the ending of slavery
 in the United States.
 Union soldiers, led by Major General
 Gordon Granger, landed at Galveston,
 Texas with news that the war had
 ended and that the enslaved were now
 free.
 Two and a half years after President
 Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation -
 which had become official January 1,
 1863.
Reconstruction
 Few periods in American past have
 witnessed the drastic social, political, and
 economic changes of the Reconstruction
 era.
 Over 600,000 people died in the Civil War
 Four million slaves were emancipated.
 Union’s victory symbolized a victory for
 the North and industrialization.
           Reconstruction
Men and women -- black and white--in the
North and South -- now began the work of
rebuilding the shattered union and of
creating a new social order.
It would hold many promises and many
tragic disappointments.
It was the beginning of a long, painful
struggle, far longer, and more difficult than
anyone could realize.
It was the beginning of a struggle that still
unfinished.
             Key Questions
                                 4. What branch
 1. How do we
                                  of government
bring the South
                                  should control
 back into the
                                  the process of
     Union?
                                 Reconstruction?



        2. How do we       3. How do we
          rebuild the       integrate and
        South after its    protect newly-
          destruction        emancipated
        during the war?   black freedmen?
Northern Occupation = Freedom
Reconstruction
 Jefferson Davis was held in prison for two
 years; there were no treason trials.

 Only one person — Captain Henry Wirz,
 the commandant of the prison camp in
 Andersonville, GA— was executed for
 war crimes.
Jeff Davis
 From 1865 to 1867 he was
 imprisoned at Fortress Monroe,
 Virginia. Davis was indicted for
 treason in 1866 but the next year
 was released on a bond of $100,000
 signed by the American newspaper
 publisher Horace Greeley and other
 influential Northerners. In 1868 the
 federal government dropped the case
 against him.
“Forty acres and a mule”
 General Sherman issued Special Field
 Order, No. 15, a temporary plan granting
 each freed family forty acres of tillable
 land on islands and the coast of Georgia.
 The army had a number of mules which
 were also granted to settlers.
 The orders were in effect for only one year.
Voter Registration
 Freedmen
 registered to
 vote during
 Congressional
 Reconstruction in
 drives conducted
 by the U.S.
 military.
Reconstruction Act of 1867
The Reconstruction Act of 1867
The Reconstruction Act of 1867 imposed
on the white South a regime more difficult
to bear than defeat.
Large numbers of white southerners were
disfranchised, blacks and their allies--loyal
whites and those from the North—
participated in politics in the South.
White home rule was discredited because it
was said that white southerners tried to
return to the years before the war.
The Constitutional Conventions
 All conventions contained black members.
 In SC, they were the majority of delegates,
 LA equal 49-49.
 The state constitutions drawn up in 1867
 and 1868 were the most progressive the
 South had ever known.
 Most of them abolished property
 qualifications for voting and holding office
 and estab. public school systems,
 modernized local govt, & all abolished
 slavery.
State of Louisiana
Black Reconstruction
 During Reconstruction,
 sixteen African Americans
 held seats in the U.S.
 Congress.

 They included Senators
 Hiram Revels
 (Mississippi), Blanche K.
 Bruce (Mississippi), and
 Congressmen James
 Rapier (Alabama), Joseph
 H. Rainey (South
 Carolina) and John R.
 Lynch (Mississippi).
Black Reconstruction
Officeholders
 South Carolina 314   Georgia 108
 (60%)                Virginia 85
 Mississippi 226      Florida 58
 (50%)                Texas 46
 Louisiana 210        Arkansas 46
 Alabama 167          Tennessee 20
 North Carolina 180   DC 11
           Public Offices
Congress            Justice of the Peace
Governor            City Council
Lt. Governor        Police/Constable
Supreme Court       County Commissioner
Sec. Of State       Registrar
Treasurer           School Board
Supt of Education   Militia Officer
State House         Sheriff
State Senate        Mayor
Customs
Leading Occupations
       Barber         Merchant
     Blacksmith        Grocer
     Carpenter        Minister
       Mason          Teacher
     Shoemaker         Editor
       Tailor          Planter
    Businessman        Farmer
      Lawyer          Laborer
Other Facts (PROFILES)
  Born in the North 138
  Abolitionists 31
  Victims of Violence 154
  Slave-owner 22
  Union Veteran 129
  Democrat 15
  Held office after Reconstruction 285
(Robert Smalls Custom “Administrator”
  until 1913)
P.B.S. Pinchback
Born to a white
Mississippi planter and a
former slave
Raised a company of
black volunteers called the
Corps d'Afrique.
A delegate to the
constitution convention in
Louisiana.
State senate, pro tempore,
& lieutenant governor.
From Dec. 9, 1872, to Jan.
13, 1873, he served as
acting governor.
Hiram R. Revels
                  Born free, barber,
                  minister, recruiter &
                  chaplain of a black
                  regiment. Miss. alderman
                  (1868) and a state senator
                  (1870). In 1870 Revels
                  was elected as the first
                  African American member
                  of the United States
                  Senate-- from Feb. 25,
                  1870, to March 4, 1871.
                  (vacated ten years earlier
                  by Jefferson Davis.)
Blanche K. Bruce
1st black person to serve a
full term in the U.S.
Senate, born in slavery in
VA. Tutored by his
master's son, worked as a
field hand, and printer's
apprentice. Escaped
slavery, rejected by the
military, he taught school,
briefly attended Oberlin
College, steamboat porter.
Robert Smalls
                Elected to the South
                Carolina legislature in
                1868 to 1874, Smalls
                was voted into
                Congress in 1875,
                where he served until
                1886, longer than any
                other African
                American during
                Reconstruction.
Robert Smalls (1839-1916)
Born a slave, mastered sailing and became the
pilot of a Confederate, the Planter.
Smalls smuggled his wife and three children
aboard the Planter and took command. Delivered
the ship to the Union.
Lincoln received Smalls in Washington and gave
him official command of the Planter as captain.
Entered South Carolina politics following the war.
The Balance of Power in Congress

                       White
              State    Citizens     Freedmen
                SC        291,000   411,000
               Miss       353,000   436,000
               Louis      357,000   350,000
               GA         591,000   465,000
                AL        596,000   437,000
                VA        719,000   533,000
               NC         631,000   331,000
“Black Rule?”
 Many of them were well-qualified in terms of
 background, experience, and education; others
 were not.
 Of the nearly 1500 office holders, at least 378 had
 been free before the war.
 933 literate, 195 illiterate.
 64 had attended college or professional school
 farmers, tailors, carpenters, barbers, ministers,
 teachers, soldiers, Freedman’s Bureau workers.
 Several were wealthy and a few had own slaves.
 Black Rule
    in a
Reconstructed
   State ?
           Wade-Davis Bill (1864)
              Required 50% of the
               number of 1860 voters to
               take an “iron clad” oath of
               allegiance (swearing they
               had never voluntarily aided
               the rebellion ).
Senator       Required a state               Congr.
Benjamin       constitutional convention      Henry
  Wade                                       W. Davis
               before the election of
 (R-OH)                                      (R-MD)
               state officials.
              Enacted specific safeguards
               of freedmen’s liberties.
Lincoln’s Plan
 Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction
 Lincoln ignored the past and asked voters to swear
 that in the future they would support the Union.

 Lincoln's 10% Plan-one tenth of that state's total
 vote in the presidential election of 1860 took the
 prescribed oath and organized a government that
 abolished slavery

 Lenient --Loyalty Oath-Any Confederate who
 would swear to support the Constitution and the
 Union.
Lincoln & Blacks
 Initially assumed many blacks would leave
 and thus supported colonization to West
 Indies, Latin America, or Africa

 Created Departments of Negro Affairs
Andrew Johnson
 Humble beginnings/Self-taught man
 Tailor by trade
 Entered public service: local alderman,
 mayor, state senator, 5 terms in Congress,
 TN governor- worked to establish the first
 tax-funded public schools in the state.
 Johnson took a seat in the U.S. Senate as a
 Democrat
Andrew Johnson
 Johnson remained
 loyal to the Union
 Appointed military
 governor of TN
 Selected as running
 mate/VP 1864
 Became president
 when Lincoln was
 assassinated
President Andrew Johnson
            Jacksonian Democrat.
            Anti-Aristocrat.
            White Supremacist.
            Agreed with Lincoln
             that states had never
             legally left the Union.

            Damn the negroes! I am
            fighting these traitorous
            aristocrats, their masters!
Johnson
 Initially expressed a willingness to continue
 Lincoln’s policies.
 But developed a much more conservative
 view and opposed Radical Republican
 plans.
 Vetoing an extension of the Freedmen
 Bureau and offered amnesty to many former
 Confederate officials.
Johnson’s Plan
 Declared that he would be hard on
 former Confederates especially
 aristocracy.
 They would have to appeal to him
 personally
 Sanctioned white home rule
 Radicals considered his plan “soft”
   President Johnson’s Plan (10%+)
 Offered amnesty upon simple oath to all except
  Confederate civil and military officers and those with
  property over $20,000 (they could apply directly to
  Johnson)
 In new constitutions, they must accept minimum
  conditions repudiating slavery, secession and state
  debts.
 Named provisional governors in Confederate states and
  called them to oversee elections for constitutional
  conventions.
              1. Disenfranchised certain leading Confederates.
              2. Pardoned planter aristocrats brought them back
 EFFECTS?
                 to political power to control state organizations.
              3. Republicans were outraged that planter elite
                 were back in power in the South!
Growing Northern Alarm!
 Many Southern state
  constitutions fell short of
  minimum requirements.
 Johnson granted 13,500
  special pardons.
 Revival of southern defiance.


        BLACK CODES
Slavery is Dead?
                Black Codes
 Purpose:

   *   Guarantee stable labor
       supply now that blacks
       were emancipated.
   *   Restore pre-emancipation
       system of race relations.


 Forced many blacks to
  become sharecroppers
  [tenant farmers].
 Congress Breaks with the President

 Congress bars Southern
  Congressional delegates.
 Joint Committee on
  Reconstruction created.
 February, 1866  President
  vetoed the Freedmen’s
  Bureau bill.
 March, 1866  Johnson
  vetoed the 1866 Civil Rights Act.
 Congress passed both bills over
  Johnson’s vetoes  1st in U. S.
   history!!
Radical Republicans
 Joint Committee on Reconstruction December
 1865--to determine whether the southern states
 should be readmitted to the Union.
 The committee investigated southern affairs and
 confirmed reports of widespread mistreatment
 of black people and white arrogance—black
 codes.
 Radical Republicans hoped to eliminate such
 action and take this opportunity to uplift black
 people.
What did they want?
 A militant group of Republicans were especially
 disturbed by Johnson’s “soft plan.”
 They considered white Southerners disloyal
 despite military defeat.
 The Radical Republicans were determined to
 transform the racial fabric of American society
 by including black people in the political and
 economic system.
Radical Proposals

Confiscate hundreds of acres of land from
the wealthiest Southerners and distribute to
freedmen

Voting Rights for black men
  Radical Plan for Readmission
 Civil authorities in the territories were
  subject to military supervision.
 Required new state constitutions, including
  black suffrage and ratification of the 13th
  and 14th Amendments.
 In March, 1867, Congress passed an act
  that authorized the military to enroll eligible
  black voters and begin the process of
  constitution making.
Radical Republicans
vs. Johnson
 Pres. Johnson vetoed Freedmen’s Bureau Bill &
 Civil Rights Bill.
 Feared expansion of the federal bureaucracy
 Doing too much for blacks.
 He believed blacks were not ready for the
 privileges and benefits of citizenship.
 Insisted the civil rights bill benefited blacks at
 the expense of whites.
 Johnson also condemned the proposed 14th
 amendment—citizenship-- and verbally attacked
 Republican leaders.
      The Tenure of Office Act
 The Senate must
  approve any presidential
  dismissal of a cabinet
  official or general of
  the army.
 Designed to protect
  radical members of
  Lincoln’s government.
 Question of the
  constitutionality of this
  law.                        Edwin Stanton
    President Johnson’s Impeachment

 Johnson removed Stanton in February, 1868.
 Johnson replaced generals in the field who
  were more sympathetic to Radical
  Reconstruction.
 The House impeached him on February 24
                            before even
                            drawing up the
                            charges by a
                            vote of 126 – 47!
            The Senate Trial




 11 week trial.
 Johnson acquitted
  35 to 19 (one short
  of required 2/3rds
  vote).
Impeachment
In 1866, the Republicans gained enough
strength to override presidential vetoes.
Johnson argued that Reconstruction was a
presidential function; Congress wanted the
responsibility.
In the fall of 1867 Johnson was impeached
by the House of Representatives for
violation of the Tenure of Office Act
He escaped conviction (and removal) in the
Senate by a single vote.
War Amendments
 Thirteenth Amendment - Abolished Slavery

 Fourteenth Amendment - Gave blacks
 citizenship

 Fifteenth Amendment - Black male suffrage
Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen
and Abandoned Lands

 Federal Agency provided medical services,
 food, labor contract negotiations, and
 housing to black and white southerners

 General Oliver O. Howard
Freedmen’s Bureau
Freedmen’s Bureau Seen Through
Southern
Eyes

Plenty to
eat and
nothing to
do.
Freedmen’s Bureau School
Charles Sumner
                    Champion of Black
                    Rights
                    Radical Republican
                    Blacks needed to
                    vote:
                 1. Protection
                 2. Peace
                 3. Union
War Amendments
 13th Abolished Slavery (12/65)
 14th Gave blacks citizenship (7/68)
 15th Gave black men the right to vote (2/70)
Home Rule
 Southern Conservatives were restored to power
 by:
 political action & intimidation of blacks--
 destroying property and physical attacking those
 who voted for Republicans.
 Democrats also pointed to the bribery,
 embezzlement, misappropriation of funds, and
 other corrupt practices in the federal government
 to discredit Republicans.
Thaddeus Stevens 1792-1868
                Dartmouth grad
                PA Politician
                Antislavery Whig
                Elected to Congress
                1848
                 Da
                "Great Commoner,"
                pushed for
                emancipation and
                black suffrage.
Charles Sumner 1811-1874
                Harvard grad
                Critic of slavery and
                the annexation of
                Texas
                Abandoned Whigs for
                the Free Soilers
                Republican-Anti-
                slavery leader
Radical Republicans
Champion of Black Rights
Thaddeus Stevens                Charles Sumner
  Advocated the Freedmen's       Introduced the 13th
  Bureau bills and the
  Tenure of Office Act           Amendment
  Favored confiscation of        Nominated a black
  the property of the            lawyer, John Rock,
  Confederate States
                                 to practice before
  He led Congress in the
  struggle with the president    the U.S. Supreme
  (impeachment resolution)       Court
  The Fourteenth                 Introduced the bill
  Amendment and the
  Reconstruction Act             that created the
                                 Freedmen’s Bureau
Southern Republicans
 Freedmen Scalawags       Carpetbaggers

 Took control and promoted modernization
 through railroads and public schools.

 Charged with corruption by their opponents
Carpetbaggers
      Many former northern
       abolitionists risked
       their lives to help
       southern freedmen.



      Called “carpetbaggers”
       by white southern
       Democrats.
Black Codes

  Limited the newly freed blacks to 2nd class
  citizenship



  Cheap and controllable/submissive black
  labor force.
Black Codes
(differed state to state)
 Vagrancy laws
 Blacks could not own property
 Blacks were excluded from certain
 businesses or from the skilled trades.
 Former slaves were forbidden to carry
 firearms or to testify in court, except in
 cases concerning other blacks.
 Interracial marriage was prohibited.
Black Codes
 They limited areas where      No firearms
 blacks could purchase or
 rent property
                               Curfews
 Vagrancy laws--blacks         Often prohibited
 could not miss work           using alcohol,
 Could not quit or breach      hunting, fishing, and
 contracts                     grazing livestock.
 Blacks could not testify in   Freedmen could not
 court in cases involving      vote or serve on
 whites
                               juries.
Ku Klux Klan
 Immediately after Civil War, racial
 motivated brutality and violence swept
 across the South.
 Whites were embittered by defeat and the
 loss of millions of dollars worth of slave
 property.
 Southern whites believed that they could
 best handle blacks and resurrect the
 Democratic Party. They were determined to
 guide their own destiny and control blacks.
KKK
Nathan Bedford Forest Confederate
leader organized the KKK in TN.
WHY? To restore white conservative rule
and force blacks back into subordination.
Membership included businessmen,
lawyers, physicians, farmers, and skilled
and unskilled labors.
Well-organized- military structure.
Southern Violence
Nathan Bedford Forrest
 No formal military
 training
 Lt. General of the
 Calvary
 Highly effective in
 guerilla warfare
 Fort Pillow Massacre
The “Invisible Empire of the South”
The Enforcement Acts
 The Enforcement Acts 1870 and 1871- The
 federal government expanded its authority over
 the states.

 The 1870 Act outlawed disguises and masks and
 protected the civil rights of citizens.

 The 1871 Act aka Ku Klux Klan Act made it a
 federal offense to interfere with an individual’s
 right to vote, hold office, serve on a jury, or enjoy
 equal protection of the law.
The Failure of Federal Enforcement

 Enforcement Acts of 1870 & 1871
  [also known as the KKK Act].
                      “The Lost
                       Cause.”
                      The rise of the
                       “Bourbons.”
                      Redeemers
                       (prewar
                       Dems. and Union
                       Whigs).
Enforcement Acts

 Between 1870 and 1871 Congress passed
 the Enforcement Acts -- criminal codes
 that protected blacks' right to vote,
 hold office, serve on juries, and
 receive equal protection of laws.
 The target of the acts was the Ku Klux
 Klan, whose members were murdering many
 blacks and some whites.
Sharecropping
 An uneven economic arrangement between
 the laborer and landowner.
 Housing, tools, seed, animals, so on --
 provided by the landowner
 Labor/Work –provided by the former slaves
 Profits from the crops were to be shared
Sharecropping
Reuniting Families
Redeemers
 The Redeemers were a loose political coalition
 in the during who sought to re-establish the
 rule of white supremacy by overthrowing the
 Radical Republican coalition of Freedmen,
 carpetbaggers, and scalawags.

 Opposed the Republican system: corruption,
 high taxes, and black political participation
Redemption/Redeemers
 Once they regained political influence Redeemers
 turned back the Reconstruction civil rights
 measures. They passed laws that expanded racial
 segregation and discrimination throughout
 Southern institutions and everyday life.
 In exchange for its acceptance of return to the
 Union, the South (along with the rest of the
 country) was allowed to reestablish a segregation,
 racially discriminatory society.
Election of 1876/Compromise of
1877
 Reconstruction continued in SC, LA, & FL
 until 1877. After Republican Rutherford B.
 Hayes won the disputed U.S. Presidential
 election of 1876, the South agreed to accept
 Hayes's victory if the President withdrew
 the last Federal troops from the South.
Election of 1876
1876 Presidential Tickets
“Regional Balance?”
1876 Presidential Election
The Political Crisis of 1877
A Political Crisis: The Compromise
               of 1877
Why did the North lose interest in the
cause for African Americans?
Northern politicians become more concerned with
winning elections/patronage, veterans’ pensions,
railroads, taxes, tariffs, economic/financial policy,
and industrial interests
Northern voters had grown weary of the crusade
for blacks.
The champions for black rights had grown old—
many had been abolitionists and had been fighting
for black rights for decades. (Brooks-Sumner-
1856), younger people had less passion for the
black cause.
The Republican Party
 Generally- wanted a satisfactory settlement of the
 southern problem so that southern markets and
 resources could be exploited.
 The new order of things seemed to be result of the
 triumph of industrialism over the agrarian way of
 life, and urbanization-growth of cities was their
 vision.
 Republican Party refused to elevate blacks to
 equal footing.
A Look Back
 By this point, everyone had agreed that
 Reconstruction was finished.
 African-Americans who wanted their legal
 rights guaranteed by the Federal
 government were repeatedly frustrated for
 another 75 years.
Reconstruction’s Legacy
  Most scholars considered Reconstruction a
 failure
 Another lost opportunity to make things
 right
 White southerners took their defeat out on
 blacks
 Northerners abandoned blacks for
 industrialization and westward expansion
From Slavery into Poverty
Lost Cause
 A literary and intellectual movement that sought
 to reconcile the traditional southern white society
 to the defeat of the Confederate States of America.
 Those who contributed to the movement tended to
 portray the Confederacy's cause as noble and most
 of the Confederacy's leaders as exemplars of old-
 fashioned chivalry, defeated by the Union armies
 not through superior military skill, but by
 overwhelming force, and tended to condemn
 Reconstruction.
"Waving the bloody shirt"
 Political slang for a Republican political
 tactic used successfully after the Civil
 War for winning votes, particularly black
 votes.
 The shirt being, for example, the shirt of
 a black man, freed by the Civil War,
 thanks to the righteous Republicans, but
 whipped to death in the reconstruction
 South, by despicable Democrats.
Positions
 Sheriffs, mayors, coroners, police chiefs,
 tax collectors, school superintendents, Lt.
 Governors (6) and one Governor- one
 month- PBS Pinchback, 14 U.S.
 representatives, U.S. Senators, state
 representatives (majority in MS and SC—
 two black speakers in both of these states),
 judges, secretary of state, treasurers, etc.
 Supreme Court
Much of the civil rights legislation was overturned
by the Supreme Court.
Most notably, the court suggested in the
Slaughterhouse Case (1873) that the 14th applied
only to former slaves. Then held in the Civil
Rights Cases (1883), that the 14th amendment only
gave Congress the power to outlaw public, rather
than private, discrimination.
Re-admission to the union
    Tennessee - July 24, 1866
    Arkansas - June 22, 1868
    Florida- June 25, 1868
    North Carolina - July 4, 1868
    South Carolina - July 9, 1868
    Louisiana - July 9, 1868
    Alabama- July 13, 1868
    Virginia - January 26, 1870
    Mississippi - February 23, 1870
    Texas - March 30, 1870
    Georgia - July 15, 1870
         13th Amendment
 Ratified in December, 1865.
 Neither slavery nor involuntary
  servitude, except as punishment for
  crime whereof the party shall have
  been duly convicted, shall exist within
  the United States or any place
  subject to their jurisdiction.
 Congress shall have power to enforce
  this article by appropriate legislation.
The 1868 Republican Ticket
The 1868 Democratic Ticket
Waving the Bloody Shirt!




               Republican “Southern
                    Strategy”
1868 Presidential Election
     Legal Challenges

 The Slaughterhouse Cases
  (1873)
 Bradwell v. IL (1873)
 U. S. v. Cruickshank (1876)
 U. S. v. Reese (1876)
Corruption and Economic Crises
 Grant’s Administration -Scandals
 Boss Tweed
 Panic of 1873
 Greenback Party
   Tenancy & the Crop Lien System

Furnishing Merchant         Tenant Farmer            Landowner
 Loan tools and seed     Plants crop,          Rents land to tenant
  up to 60% interest       harvests in            in exchange for ¼
  to tenant farmer to      autumn.                to ½ of tenant
  plant spring crop.                              farmer’s future
                          Turns over up to ½     crop.
 Farmer also secures      of crop to land
  food, clothing, and      owner as payment
  other necessities on     of rent.
  credit from
  merchant until the      Tenant gives
  harvest.                 remainder of crop
                           to merchant in
 Merchant holds           payment of debt.
  “lien” {mortgage} on
  part of tenant’s
  future crops as
  repayment of debt.
Black & White Political Participation
Black Senate & House Delegates
      Blacks in Southern Politics
 Core voters were black veterans.
 Most white southerners were unprepared
  to give Blacks political power.
 Blacks could register and vote in states
                               since 1867.

                            The 15th
                             Amendment
                             guaranteed
                             federal
                             voting.
           15th Amendment
 Ratified in 1870.
 The right of citizens of the United States
  to vote shall not be denied or abridged by
  the United States or by any state on
  account of race, color, or previous
  condition of servitude.
 The Congress shall have power to enforce
  this article by appropriate legislation.
 Women’s rights groups were furious that
  they were not granted the vote!
   The Civil Rights Act of 1875
 Crime for any individual to deny full &
  equal use of public conveyances and
  public places.
 Prohibited discrimination in jury
  selection.
 Shortcoming  lacked a strong
                enforcement mechanism.
 No new civil rights act was attempted
  for 90 years!
          Northern Support Wanes
 “Grantism” & corruption.
 Panic of 1873 [6-year
  depression].
 Concern over westward
  expansion and Indian wars.
 Key monetary issues:
   *   should the government
       retire $432m worth of
       “greenbacks” issued during the Civil War.
   *   should war bonds be paid back in specie or
       greenbacks.
1872 Presidential Election
Popular Vote for President: 1872
The 1866 Civil Rights Act
 Congress passed the first law written to protect
 black Americans' rights amid turmoil and violence
 after the Civil War.

 First Civil Rights Bill in American history: It
 made any person born in the US citizens (except
 Indians) and entitled them to rights protected by
 the US government, it was designed to invalidate
 the black codes
The 1875 Civil Rights Act
 This law, designed to provide blacks with
 equal access to public accommodations,
 was a major Reconstruction achievement
 doomed to fail in a racist era.
acist era.

				
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