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Notification and Epidemiological Information

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Notification and Epidemiological Information Powered By Docstoc
					  Notif
ENGLISH
20060706




                             Prepared by Dr Karim Ben Jebara
                                              OIE - Bureau central
                      Head, Animal Health Information Department
                                                             April 2005




                Notification and
           Epidemiological Information


                    Training of the OIE Delegates and collaborators
                                                                          1
Contents


   1.   Introduction
   2.   Obligations of Member Coutries
   3.   OIE’s list of diseases
   4.   Notification procedures
   5.   Transparency
   6.   Outputs of the OIE’s WAHIS


                                         2
Contents


   1.   Introduction
   2.   Obligations of Member Coutries
   3.   OIE’s list of diseases
   4.   Notification procedures
   5.   Transparency
   6.   Outputs of the OIE’s WAHIS


                                         3
Introduction

1st OIE historical objective:


     To ensure transparency in the
     global animal disease situation
           including zoonosis




                                       4
Contents


   1.   Introduction
   2.   Obligations of Member Coutries
   3.   OIE’s list of diseases
   4.   Notification procedures
   5.   Transparency
   6.   Outputs of the OIE’s WAHIS


                                         5
Obligation for notification



   By deciding to join the OIE, a Country
   accepts explicitely to fulfil its
   international committment to notify to
   the OIE as laid down in Chapter 1.1.2
   on Notification and Epidemiological
   Information


                                            6
What means Notification


 Means the procedure by which:
  •     the Veterinary Administration informs
        the Central Bureau
  •     the Central Bureau informs Veterinary
        Administrations,
  of the suspicion or confirmation of an outbreak of
  disease or other epidemiological event,
  according to the provisions of
  Chapter 1.1.2. of the Terrestrial Code
  Chapter 1.2.1 of the Aquatic Animal Health Code
                                                       7
Article 1.1.2.2 of Notification and
Epidemiological Information Chapter

  Countries shall make available to other countries,
  through the OIE, whatever information is
  necessary to minimise the spread of important
  animal diseases and to assist in achieving better
  worldwide control of these diseases.

                                       All Member
  Each              OIE            Countries Veterinary
Veterinary         Central           Administrations
Administr.         Bureau



                                                          8
Contents


   1.   Introduction
   2.   Obligations of Member Coutries
   3.   OIE’s list of diseases
   4.   Notification procedures
   5.   Transparency
   6.   Outputs of the OIE’s WAHIS


                                         9
OIE single List of notifiable diseases

              A single list (2005)

 Criteria for listing diseases (infections):

       Capacity for international spread
       Capacity for significant spread within
       naïve populations
       Zoonotic potential
       Emerging disease
                                                10
     Decision Tree used to draw the list
                       INTERNATIONAL SPREAD                                                        EMERGING
•Has international spread been proven on 3 or more occasions? OR                      (A newly recognised pathogen or
•Are more than 3 countries with populations of susceptible animals free of            known pathogen behaving differently)
the disease or facing impending freedom (based on Code provisions,                    •Is there rapid spread and/or
especially Appendix 3.8.1)? OR                                                        apparent zoonotic properties?
•Do OIE annual reports indicate that at least 3 countries with susceptible
populations are reporting absence of the disease?




              NO                               YES


                                        ZOONOTIC
                                                                                                        NO
                    • Has transmission to humans been proven? (with
                    the exception of artificial circumstances) AND                 SIGNIFICANT SPREAD IN NAIVE
                                                                                           POPULATIONS
                    • Is human infection associated with severe
                    consequences? (death or prolonged illness)               •Does the disease exhibit significant mortality at
                                                                             level of a country or zone? AND/OR
                                                                             •Does the disease exhibit significant morbidity at the
                                                                             level of a country or zone?
                                                YES
                                                                                     NO                              YES

         EXCLUDE                           INCLUDE                            EXCLUDE                            INCLUDE11
Contents


   1.   Introduction
   2.   Obligations of Member Coutries
   3.   OIE’s list of diseases
   4.   Notification procedures
   5.   Transparency
   6.   Outputs of the OIE’s WAHIS


                                         12
New World Animal Health Information System
(WAHIS)

  Immediate notification of disease, infection
    or unusual epidemiological events
  Weekly reports: Follow-up to the immediate
 notification
  Final report :
        - if the outbreaks are ended
        - if the situation becomes endemic
                 => six-monthly report
  Six-monthly Report on OIE-listed diseases
  Annual questionnaire

       New guiding manuals and new forms
                                                  13
New WAHIS (cont)


  The new obligations clearly address the concept of
 infection without necessarily having clinical expression
 of the disease
  Previous obligations did not take clearly into
 account changes of epidemiological situations of
 prevalent diseases within a country or a zone of a
 country
  The new obligations better address the problem of
 emerging diseases, including zoonotic emerging
 diseases


                                                            14
Immediate notification

    What needs immediate notification
           - within 24 hours?

  1 - The first occurrence of an OIE-listed
  disease or infection in a country or
  zone/compartment
  2 - The first occurrence of a new strain of a
  pathogen of a listed disease in a country or
  one/compartment or a new disease
  manifestation                                   15
Immediate notification (cont.1)

 3 - The re-occurrence of a listed disease or
 infection in a country or zone/ compartment
 following a report by the Delegate of the
 Member Country declaring the previous
 outbreak(s) eradicated

 4 - A sudden and unexpected increase in
 morbidity or mortality caused by an existing
 listed disease

                                                16
Immediate notification (cont.2)

  5 - An emerging (non listed) disease with
  significant morbidity / mortality or zoonotic
  potential
  6 – The occurrence of a notified disease in a
  new host species

  7 - Evidence of change in the epidemiology
  of a listed disease (e.g. host range,
  pathogenicity, strain of causative pathogen),
  in particular if there is a zoonotic impact.
                                                  17
 OIE Listed disease / infection                       OIE Listed disease
New Disease            New Infection         Unusual epidemiological event
                                                       Emerging disease



                      Immediate
                      notification

                                                      Control measures


    Type of event             Report
                                                     Source of infection

Nature of diagnosis
                             Outbreak 2           Laboratory tests


          Outbreak 1                                 Outbreak n
                                       Animals
                          Location
                                       affected
                                                                             18
Follow-up reports


             Weekly Reports

  Follow-up to the immediate notification to
  inform on progress of the epidemiological
                  situation


               Final Report

                                               19
 OIE Listed disease / infection                       OIE Listed disease
New Disease            New Infection         Unusual epidemiological event
                                                       Emerging disease



                      Immediate                          Follow-up
                      notification                        report

                                                      Control measures


    Type of event             Report
                                                     Source of infection

Nature of diagnosis
                             Outbreak 2           Laboratory tests


          Outbreak 1                                 Outbreak n
                                       Animals
                          Location
                                       affected    Outbreak s
          Ended                                                              20
 OIE Listed disease / infection                       OIE Listed disease
                                                                               Final report
New Disease            New Infection         Unusual epidemiological event
                                                       Emerging disease


                                                                                       Yes
                      Immediate                          Follow-up
                                                                                  End ?
                      notification                        report
                                                                                       No

                                                      Control measures
                                                                                     Or
    Type of event             Report
                                                     Source of infection

Nature of diagnosis
                             Outbreak 2           Laboratory tests              Six-monthly
                                                                                   Report
          Outbreak 1                                 Outbreak n
                          Location
                                       Animals                               (endemic situation)
                                       affected    Outbreak s
          Ended                                                                               21
22
          Six-monthly notification

on the absence or presence of Listed diseases

       Part 1: Qualitative information
    disease occurrence,
    control, prophylaxis and prevention
     measures,
    indication of the type of report to use
     to notify diseases or infections/infestations
     present in the country (=> part 2)

                                                     23
         Six-monthly notification

   Part 2: Quantitative information
for OIE-listed diseases or infections /infestation
              present in the country

Template 1:      By First Administrative Division
                 and by Month

Template 2:      For the whole Country
                 by Month

Template 3:      By First Administrative Division
                 for the six months period

Template 4:      For the whole Country
                 for the six months period
                                                     24
Routine report           Six-monthly report



                                                                         Disease: Present
 For each disease                  Report

      Surveillance and
      control measures                              New outbreaks
                                                                    Total outbreaks   Animals
                                                                                      affected

                                                             Four templates
                          Disease: Absent
                                                         - By month
                                                         and first administrative unit

                 Never reported    Not reported          - By month and whole country
                                  for this period
                                                         - For six months
                                                         and first administrative unit
                                                         - For six months and whole
                                                         country
                                                                                            25
  Annual Questionnaire

Information on non OIE-listed diseases

Information on Vet. Services’staff

National Reference Laboratories

Livestock census
(by first administrative level, etc.)

Zoonosis (human cases)

Production of vaccines
                                         26
How to notify

      Forms
            website (login, password)
            paper

      Detailed Guidelines
      Specialist focal point for
     Sanitary information system
     (login, password)

  WAHIS allows to register the different kind of reports
                                                           27
Contents


   1.   Introduction
   2.   Obligations of Member Coutries
   3.   OIE’s list of diseases
   4.   Notification procedures
   5.   Transparency
   6.   Outputs of the OIE’s WAHIS


                                         28
Transparency


Transparency = competence & honesty

 The quality of information provided to the OIE
   reflects the degree of the knowledge of the
      animal health situation in the country
                        and
is an important factor entering in the evaluation
              of Veterinary Services

                                                    29
Transparency (cont)


 Once a country’s epidemiological data looses
credibility, especially for trade, it is difficult and
time-consuming to recover because it indicates
                       either:

             • Incompetence
             • or Dishonesty
             • or both
                                                         30
Transparency (cont)




       Disease management and disease
                    control
     could NOT be done properly without
     accurate and reliable epidemiological
           data in a given country.




                                             31
Honesty - Trust

Countries that are dishonest will pay a high price
and will take time, even if they change their
attitudes, to re-build trust (“Who lies once will
[always] lie”).

  Stakeholders/consumers at the national level.
  Confidence in their national institutions.
  Good neighborhood relations.
  Trade potential/ relations: importing/exporting
  countries.

                                                     32
“Tracking”



     OIE’s active search and verification of
     non official information
         Scientific publications, Promed,
          GHHIN, Copernic, news,
          lay publications
         with Member Country verification



                                               33
Use of alert messages by Delegates
         Use of Alert Messages by Delegates

                            55%

                60%
                                           33%
                50%

     Percentage 40%
                                                        12%
          of    30%
      Delegates 20%
                10%
                0%
                        Ban of Strenghening       Risk
                      Importation Surveillance   Analysis
                              Decision Taken

                                                              34
Why some countries are not enough
transparent?
         Questionnaire for the evaluation of the OIE’s
             Animal Health Information System

Some Reasons of weak notification:
       Political pressures on Veterinary Administrations
       Beneficial effects of transparency are not well
       understood
       Poor infrastructure (laboratory, communication…)
       Lack of human resources within Veterinary Administrations
       (frequent change of staff, personnel insufficiently qualified,
       no clear terms of references for responsibilities, etc.)
       Lack of understanding of the OIE’s notification
       procedures
       System and Withholding of information
                                                                        35
Who is responsible?

  The Delegate of each country to the OIE, who is in
  general the head of the central animal health authority in
  the country (e.g. CVO), bears ultimate responsibility
  for his/her country’s contribution in respect of:

           Timely, transparent & accurate data
     provision to the OIE
          OIE’s active search and verification
     of rumors (newspapers, etc.)

                                                               36
Contents


   1.   Introduction
   2.   Obligations of Member Coutries
   3.   OIE’s list of diseases
   4.   Notification procedures
   5.   Transparency
   6.   Outputs of the OIE’s WAHIS


                                         37
The OIE’s Early Warning Sytem




                                38
The OIE web site




                   39
    Alert messages


Distribution lists
 OIE-Info-
 Delegates
 Web-Info

OIE web site


                     40
Immediate notification – Follow-up reports




Weekly
Disease
information
(PDF, web)




                                             41
The OIE World Animal Health Information
System (WAHIS)




                                          42
OIE Monitoring System

  World Animal Health publication
  Web interface of the OIE’s Global Database




                                               43
Conclusion

The OIE’s has a long tradition and rich
experience in disease information sharing
among Member Countries.

 The OIE’s WAHIS reflects
      the quality of information generated
      and provided by its Member Countries
      and the degree of their commitment
      to provide to the OIE
      timely, transparent & accurate data.
                                             44
Conclusion (cont)

The OIE Central Bureau, through the tools that
are being developed to ease for Member
Countries notification, as well as with the
training programmes being implemented, seeks
to be more efficient in ensuring transparency of
the world animal health situation.




                                                   45
Conclusion (cont)


  The commitment of Member Countries
  in investing in their infrastructure and in
  the organisation of their Vet. Services
  as well in respecting their obligations to
  notify to the OIE epidemiological
  information
  is a key factor in having a common and
  unified system for all OIE’s Member
  Countries.

                                                46
 World organisation for animal health
Organisation mondiale de la santé animale
                  12 rue de Prony
                75017 Paris, France
Tel: 33 (0)1 44 15 18 88 – Fax: 33 (0)1 42 67 09 87
                 Email: oie@oie.int
                  http://www.oie.int



                                                      47

				
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