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					    Solar thermal energy technologies
    for industrial applications - India’s
                experience
                             Shirish Garud
                                Fellow,
                                  TERI



                              Presented at
                     Global Renewable Energy Forum,
                                 Brazil
1                           18 to 21 May 2008
                            Outline

    Introduction
    Indian industry overview
    Potential application areas
    Solar energy potential in India
    Solar thermal technological options
    Case studies
    Policy and regulatory support
    Barriers
    Way forward


2                                         Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
                 Introduction to TERI

    Vision – “We will work towards global sustainable
    development, creating innovative solutions for a
    better tomorrow”
    Independent, not-for-profit energy research institute
    700 employee (450 research professionals)
    Higher education initiative:TERI University
    ISO 9001
    Headed by Dr R K Pachauri, Director General, TERI
    and Chairperson, Intergovernmental Panel on
    Climate Change (IPCC), Nobel Peace Prize Winner
3   2007                                    Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
                     Presence of TERI




    Head office at New Delhi, India
    Regional centers in India: Bangalore, Mumbai, Goa,
    Guwahati and Mukteshwar
    Affiliate institutes: Washington and London
    Presence in Tokyo, Kualalampur, and Dubai
4   Africa centre in Adisababa, Ethiopia          Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
    Indian industry overview

     Composition and
     Energy requirements




5                              Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
      Industrial applications

    TERI is working on UNIDO funded project on
    ‘RETs for Industrial Sector in Developing
    Countries’.




6                                  Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
    Potential industries selected

    1. Pulp & Paper
    2. Textile
        • Silk, wool & cotton yarn
    3. Food Processing
        • Diary
        • Bakery
        • Cardamom
        • Meat processing
        • Marine foods
        • Tea
    4. Plaster of Paris
    5. Rubber
    6. Steel re-rolling
    7. Tobacco
7   8. Ceramic tile & pottery        Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
                      MSMEs in India

                                                               No. of SSI Units (registered &
                                                                   unregistered) Functioning
    Selected Industries                                                 (as on 31/3/06)
    Manufacture of Wearing Apparel, Dressing & Dyeing of Fur              2145505
    Manufacture of Food Products                                          1786890
    Manufacture of Fabricated Metal Products                               637740
    Manufacture of Wood and Wood Products                                  606761
    Manufacture of Textiles                                                451304
    Manufacture of Other Non-Metallic Product                              331415
    Manufacture of Tobacco Products                                        190510
    Manufacture of Rubber and Plastic Products                             135638
    Manufacture of Basic Metals                                            102279
    Manufacture of Paper & Paper Products                                  31648
    Total Number of Industries in India                                  12,341,665


8                                                                   Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
    Details of selected industries

                                          Tobacco     Rubber & plastic
                               Textiles
                                            5%             2%
                                 9%
            Fabricated Metal                                   Basic metals
                  11%                                              2%


                                                                   Pulp & paper
                                                                        1%



           Food Products
               32%




                                                    Wearing apparel,
                                                     dress material,
                                                          17%


            Percentage of industries under selected categories = 45%

9                                                                  Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
        Industrial processes &
     thermal energy requirements
      Pulp & paper industry
       – Pulping: 130-80oC
       – paper drying: 90-100oC
       – pulp bleaching: 70-90oC
      Textile industry
       – Silk
          • Reeling: 50-90oC
          • Dyeing: 90-110oC
       – Cotton dyeing: 90-110oC

10     – Wool dyeing: 90-110oC     Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
     Industrial processes & thermal
     energy requirements - contd…

      Cardamom curing: 70-90oC
      Bread/biscuit baking: 90-110oC
      Dairy
       – Liquid milk-pasteurization: 80-90oC
       – Butter making-drying/evaporation: 70-110oC
       – Milk Powder- drying/evaporation: 130-150oC
      Tea leaf-drying: 50-80 oC
      Meat processing-drying/sterilization: 100-120oC
      Sea food-drying/sterilization: 100-120oC
11                                          Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
     Industrial processes & thermal
     energy requirements - contd…

      Steel re rolling-billet reheating: 850-950oC
      Gypsum-Calcination (Plaster of Paris making):
      1000-1200oC
      Tile-drying/evaporation: 500-600oC
      Pottery products-drying/evaporation: 500-600oC
      Rubber drying: 100-300oC
      Tobacco drying: 50-80oC



12                                         Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
         Thermal energy requirements

                         1200


                                                                                       Steel-
                                                                                      rerolling
     Maximum process heat

     requirements (celcius)




                         1000
          temperature




                              800                                                                    Ceramic
                                                                                                     & Tile



                              600




                              400




                              200

                                    Pulp &             Plaster of   Food
                                    Paper    Textile   Paris        Proce-
                                                                    ssing    Rubber
                                0

13                                                                                                Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
     Solar energy applications




14                               Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
      Solar radiation levels over Asia




15   http://swera.unep.net/     Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
           Solar radiation map of India




     If one percent of the land is used to harness solar energy for
     electricity generation at an overall efficiency of 10%; 492 x 106
16   MU/year electricity can be generated                                Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
     Some applications vs technology

      Heating/drying (low-med temperature)
       – Solar thermal
       – Biomass/biogas combustion
      Drying, melting, calcination (high temperature)
       – Biomass/biogas combustion
       – Geothermal
      Direct shaft-power
       – Small wind turbines
       – Small-micro/pico hydro turbines
17                                           Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
     Annual fuel replacement possible

      Pulp & paper industry
       – Pulping: 100%
       – paper drying: 100%
       – pulp bleaching: 100%
      Textile industry
       – Silk
            Reeling: 50%
            Dyeing: 100%
       – Cotton dyeing: 100%

18     – Wool dyeing: 100%      Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
     Annual fuel replacement possible –
                   contd…

      Cardamom curing: 70%
      Bread/biscuit baking: 100%
      Dairy
       – Liquid milk-pasteurization: 70%
       – Butter making-drying/evaporation: 70%
       – Milk Powder-drying/evaporation: 70%
      Tea leaf-drying: 100%
      Meat processing-drying/sterilization: 50%
      Sea food-drying/sterilization: 50%
19                                         Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
     Annual fuel replacement possible –
                   contd…

      Steel re rolling-billet reheating: 80%
      Gypsum-Calcination (Plaster of Paris making): 50%
      Tile-drying/evaporation: 50%
      Pottery products: drying/evaporation- 100%
      Rubber drying: 100%
      Tobacco drying: 100%




20                                        Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
     Annual CO2 savings (million tonnes)

                                             100
       Annual CO2 savings (million tonnes)




                                             90


                                             80


                                             70
                                                                                          91
                                             60


                                             50


                                             40


                                             30


                                             20

                                                                                     16
                                             10
                                                   0.02   1   1.22         2
                                                                     1.3         6
                                              0

                             Plaster of Paris                  Pulp & Paper           Rubber
                             Ceramic tile & pottery            Tobacco                Steel-rerolling
                             Textile                           Food Processing
21                                                                                                      Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
       Solar energy                            40–60oC

                                              UNGLAZED

        collectors                           COLLECTORS

                                               60–90oC

                                             SOLAR POND

                                               60–80oC
                  NON-FOCUSSING
                                             FLAT PLATE
                                                (FPC)                100–150oC
                                                                  COMPOUND
                   For low temperature        50–200oC
                                                                  PARABOLIC
                       applications
                                             EVACUATED            CONCENTRATOR
                                               (ETC)                  100–250oC
       SOLAR
     COLLECTORS                                100–500oC              LINEAR
                                                                   FRESNEL TYPE
                    For high and medium      SINGLE AXIS
                                              TRACKING               100–500oC
                  temperature applications
                                                                    PARABOLOIC
                     FOCUSSING                                        TROUGH
                  (CONCENTRATING)                                    300–1000oC

                                              300–2000oC            PARABOLIC
                                                                  DISH REFLECTOR
                                              TWO-AXIS
                                              TRACKING               500–2000oC
                                                                 HELIOSTAT FIELD
                                                                   COLLECTOR

22                                                         Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
     Non tracking collectors’
      thermal performance




23                          Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
     Industrial hot water systems


                                                        •Working since: 1997.
                                                        •GHG emissions saved:
                                                        700 t CO2 per annum
                                                        •Energy savings 22GJ
                                                        per day
                                                        •Payback period:5 years
          One of the World’s largest industrial solar
                    water heating system

        Capacity: 1,20,000 lit /day
        Application: Boiler feed water pre-heating
        Installed at: M/s GFCL ltd, Kakinada
24      Area: 60m × 80m (1309 collectors)               Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
     Solar water heating for
         hotel industry




      Hotel Fishermans’ cove, (Taj Group), Chennai

      Capacity: 20000 lit /day
25                                                   Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
     Solar pond




                                    6000m2 Solar pond at Bhuj dairy,
                                    Bhuj, Gujarat
                                    Designed and installed by TERI

26         Source: www.teriin.org            Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
                Solar steam systems




                                                                    Solar steam cooking system in Leh


     A view of solar steam cooking system installed at
     Tirupathi, Andhra Pradesh
     The system has been designed to generate over 4000 kg.
     of steam/day at 180 0C and 10 kg/cm2 which is sufficient
     to cook two meals for around 15,000 persons.


27                                  Source: www.gadhia-solar.com/           Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
             India
           Innovates

     ARUN160: Fresnel
     Paraboloid concentrator with
     cavity receiver with 2-axes
     tracking having
     160 m2 aperture area
     installed under IIT-Bombay -
     Clique R & D Project
     sponsored by MNRE for milk
     pasteurization at Mahanand
     Dairy, Latur, Maharashtra,
     INDIA

                                               ARUN160: Solar dish
     Source: M/s Clique Technologies, Mumbai
28                                                        Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
        Solar drying applications

     Men-Tsee-Khang, (A
     pharmaceutical company)
     based in Dharamsala
     Application - Drying of herbs
     - 100Kg/day
     Moisture need to be reduced
     to 4%
     Operation hours
      – 1000 to 1530 hrs during
        winter
      – 0930 to 1600 hrs during
29      summer                       Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
     Solar drier for fish processing

        Processing of fish experiences a large
        wastages – solar dehydration leads to low
        cost and longer shelf life for fish
        The system consists of 23m2 solar air
        heating sections V-Corrugated aluminum
        absorber air flow below the absorber, 4mm
        tempered glass and rock wool insulation and
        180 W blower.


     Source: Planters Energy Network, Coimbatore
30                                                 Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
     Solar drier for fish processing–
     contd…




31   Source: Planters Energy Network, Coimbatore
                                                   Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
     Solar pre-heating for tea leaf
              processing

      A 212 m2 solar air heating system consists of 4
      numbers of 53m2 sections with air overflow system.
      Glazing by 4mm tempered glass, 20 degree tilt angle,
      black paint metals absorber is used. The hot air is
      pumped to the coal operated hot air generator at the
      inlet point using 5.7 kW blower.
      Typically the system operates for 1545 hours per
      annum, saving 71 tones of lignite coal leading to
      annual CO2 reduction of 121 tones. An average 25%
      fuel savings is achieved.

32                                         Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
     Solar pre-heating for tea leaf
     processing – contd…




33   Source: Planters Energy Network, Coimbatore
                                                   Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
     RE Institutional Development

      1981- Commission for Additional Sources of
      Energy
      1982- Department for Non-conventional Energy
             Sources (DNES)
      1987- IREDA Established
      1992- DNES upgraded to Ministry of Non-
            Conventional Energy Sources (MNES)
      2006- MNES renamed as Ministry of New and
            Renewable Energy (MNRE)

34                                     Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
      Institutional structure -Renewable
      energy
                            Financial
                                                        MNRE                 R&D

                           support                               Implemen
                                                                  tation
                                          State Government        of            A) Research
     Multilateral        IREDA, Banks          Agencies          schemes
                                                                                institutes managed
       agencies         and non-banking                                         by MNES
                                                                                            a
                                                                                      1. SEC ,
                                                                                               b
                                                                                      2. C-WET
                                                Schemes and policy                 3. AHEC
                                                Implementing agencies
                                                such as SNAs, NGOs              B) Other laboratories
                                                and Akshay Urja (AU)            and private sector R & D




                                                             Manufacturers




                    End user or customers like
                    a) Individuals b) Corporate and Government Departments c)
                    Communities


35                                                                                    Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
     Policy and regulatory support

      Policy support since 1982
      Concessional import duty for critical components till
      indigenous development takes place
       –   Support to R & D
      Variety of fiscal and financial benefits
       –   Capital subsidy
       –   Low interest loans
       –   Reduction/Removal of taxes and duties
       –   Tax benefits
              80% depreciation in the first year




36                                                    Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
     Barriers

      Site constraints
       – Shadow free area for installation
       – Factory layout
       – System integration with existing system
      Awareness and willingness to invest
      System designers and manufacturers
       – Limited technical capacity
       – Lack of instrumentation and controls



37                                         Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
     Way forward- south-south
     cooperation

      India can offer simple affordable
      technologies
      Its important for us to share the
      experience
      Capacity building of manufacturers and
      system designers
      Need to develop technical solutions and
      demonstration projects for industrial
      applications
38                                    Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil
     Thank you for your attention!



               Contact
        shirishg@teri.res.in

           www.teriin.org

39                            Global Renewable Energy Forum, Brazil

				
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