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HUL 211 The role of long term memory in object perception and memory - Working Memory

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					The role of long term memory in
 object perception and memory

       Working Memory


          Snehlata Jaswal


          HUL 211 OBJECT PERCEPTION AND MEMORY
             Working memory
Concept goes beyond storage

It is the ‘mental workspace’
    - where the input reaches from the
        environment/ self
    - is manipulated
    - and from where the output is given

Working memory involves online
 processing and manipulation of
 material in the service of current goals
Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)
  called ‘Modal model’ by Murdock (1975)
Baddeley and Hitch (1974)
      Baddeley and Logie (1999)

                         Visuo-spatial
                          sketch pad

Phonological
   Loop


                  Central
                 Executive
Baddeley (2000)
Baddeley, Allen, & Hitch (May 2011)
Cowan’s Working Memory Model (Cowan 1999)
               Ericsson and Kintsch (1995)
Long term Working Memory: Working Memory is ‘activated LTM’

 Working memory (WM) refers to the simultaneous and temporary storage and
 processing of information. This definition dictates that the activation of extant
 knowledge brought to bear on ongoing performance is temporary.


 ‘Ericsson and Kintsch’ challenge this view on the basis of their studies of experts’
 whose STM capacity is much more than novices. They showed that skilled
 performers can expand STM capacity through reliance on domain-specific
 knowledge and control processes that allow for rapid encoding and retrieval of
 information in LTM.
              Assessment of WM
Often involves testing how good people are at doing two
things at the same time

- Complex Span task

- Trail-making test
              Reading Span
ANSWER YES OR NO
                      Reading Span
ANSWER YES OR NO


Paris is in France?                      No   Yes

Forks have feet?                         No   Yes

Desks are sold in pairs?                 No   Yes

A brother is a relative?                 No   Yes

Tables move around searching for food?   No   Yes
                Reading Span

Recall the last word in each question
            Trail-making
1
                              9
                2
        6

            7                      12
5
                         10
    3
                4

    8                         11
                    13
            Trail-making
1
                            5
                A
        C

            4                   F
3
                        E
    2
                B

    D                       6
                    7
Name the colour of the ink in which each word is printed



BLUE      GREEN BLACK YELLOW                    RED


BLACK      BLUE         RED       GREEN YELLOW


RED      YELLOW BLACK GREEN                    BLUE
Name the colour of the ink in which each word is printed



BLUE      GREEN BLACK YELLOW                    RED


BLACK      BLUE         RED       GREEN YELLOW


RED       BLACK YELLOW GREEN                   BLUE
              Stroop effect (1935)
Given by Stroop (1935)

It is more difficult to articulate the name of a colour when it
is printed in an ink incongruent to the word than when the
colour and ink are congruent

Incongruence results in longer response times and/or more
errors

Probably occurs because reading words is automatic and
words are processed much faster than the ink

It is considered a measure of inhibition in WM
 Working Memory in Object perception
Limits the number of objects that can be held or processed

Specifies the importance of attention in object
identification

Attention may not be required for maintenance of objects

Elaborative rehearsal crucial for transfer into LTM

Forgetting due to interference – proactive or retroactive

Forgetting also due to influence of drugs, alcohol, etc.
         Thank you




HUL 211 OBJECT PERCEPTION AND MEMORY

				
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Description: Object Perception and Memory Lecture Series