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HUL 211 Why study objects

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					Why study objects ?




    Snehlata Jaswal


    HUL 211 OBJECT PERCEPTION AND MEMORY
                  Cognitive science
Confluence of:

Philosophy
Physiology
Psychology

Computer science
– Brain as an information processor
– Brain as a computational space


Objects are the basic unit of analysis in all these areas of study.


                   HUL 211 OBJECT PERCEPTION AND MEMORY
What does philosophy say about objects?
Object is a technical term used in epistemology, a branch of philosophy concerning itself
with the study of knowing.

Objects are among the basic units of cognition, extremely important for consciousness.
binding – the process of object formation is considered the neural correlate of
consciousness.

Consciousness is an act of cognition that takes in the self, (which can never be doubted, as
it would have to be the self who doubts), and some doubtable notes, which philosophy
calls objects, which carry with them the understood possibility of being in error. If not in
error they are granted the status of objectivity, or reality, and are believed to exist without
reference to the subject. Bertrand Russell updated this classical term with one more in use
by science: the fact:"Everything that there is in the world I call a fact." Facts, objects, are
opposed to beliefs, which may be errors on the part of the knower; as their source is he,
and he is the subject (who is certain of himself and little else), they are subjective.

Facts are true, beliefs are often in error, objects are midway – viewed as possibly true –
and thus held to be quasi- objects until shown to be facts.

                               HUL 211 OBJECT PERCEPTION AND MEMORY
What does physiology say about objects?
          Areas of the brain




                  HUL 211 OBJECT PERCEPTION AND MEMORY
What does physiology say about objects?
        Who does what?




            HUL 211 OBJECT PERCEPTION AND MEMORY
What does physiology say about objects?
        Who does what?




            HUL 211 OBJECT PERCEPTION AND MEMORY
What does physiology say about objects?




 The dorsal stream (green) and ventral stream (purple);
 respectively the where and what pathways. They originate
 from a common source in visual cortex
                    HUL 211 OBJECT PERCEPTION AND MEMORY
What does psychology say about objects?

                                     ASSUMPTIONS
Rather different assumptions regarding objects can be discerned in Psychology:

-The first, following from the philosophical tradition, thinks of objects as entities that can
be perceived and that are external to the self.

-The second, following from the physiological notions, recognizes that object perception is
a process of bringing together information that goes to different areas of the brain.

-Third, Psychology considers objects to be the basic building blocks in the cognitive
process.




                               HUL 211 OBJECT PERCEPTION AND MEMORY
What does psychology say about objects?


                THE COGNITIVE PROCESS



    SENSATION          PERCEPTION                      MEMORY




                HUL 211 OBJECT PERCEPTION AND MEMORY
What does psychology say about objects?
                          SENSATIONS
Receiving information from the external world through eyes, ears,
nose, tongue, and skin.
Types of sensations:
Visual
Auditory
Haptic
Gustatory
Olfactory
Kinesthetic
Proprioceptive
Others?

Impossible to experience pure sensations

                     HUL 211 OBJECT PERCEPTION AND MEMORY
What does psychology say about objects?
                           PERCEPTION
Perception is giving meaning to sensations

Types:
Perception of form – contrasts, contours, and shapes
Perception of colour – brightness, hue, and saturation
Perception of motion – real and apparent
Perception of space – depth and orientation

Illusions – False perception

Hallucinations – Perception without sensation

Bistable percepts – ambiguous figures which ‘suddenly’ reverse

                      HUL 211 OBJECT PERCEPTION AND MEMORY
What does psychology say about objects?
        MEMORY – Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)




               HUL 211 OBJECT PERCEPTION AND MEMORY
What does psychology say about objects?
        WORKING MEMORY – Baddeley (2000)




              HUL 211 OBJECT PERCEPTION AND MEMORY
What does psychology say about objects?
             THE COGNITIVE PROCESS



                       SENSATION




           PERCEPTION                  MEMORY




             HUL 211 OBJECT PERCEPTION AND MEMORY
What does psychology say about objects?
                       CURRENT RESEARCH

Current research focuses on finding similarities and differences
between sensation, perception, and memory, of objects
Some questions/ debates are:
1. Is object perception immediate or does it take time?
2. Is object perception conscious or unconscious?
3. Is object perception effortful or not, i.e., does it require
   focused attention?
4. Is the search process for objects serial or parallel? Does the
   search process differ in perception and memory?
5. How many objects can be perceived and then retained in
   memory at any moment of time?
6. What are the top down influences on object perception? How
   do they work?
                     HUL 211 OBJECT PERCEPTION AND MEMORY
            HUL 211
OBJECT PERCEPTION AND MEMORY
                     Course objective

 To acquire an understanding of the
 psychological principles and factors involved
 in object perception and memory, with the
 ultimate aim of applying this knowledge to
 diverse areas, such as human-computer
 interface, designing intelligent systems,
 improving communication through visual
 media, etc.


          HUL 211 OBJECT PERCEPTION AND MEMORY
               COURSE CONTENT
1.   Why study objects?
2.   Defining an object
3.   Bottom-up and top-down views
4.   Methods of studying objects: Issues in experimental
     design and analyses, Change detection and change
     blindness, Illusions

1.   The role of location in object perception and memory
2.   Orientation, shape, and colour of objects
3.   Temporal factors in object perception and memory
4.   Multisensory integration

1.   Perception of real world objects
2.   The role of long-term memory in object perception
3.   Linguistic factors in object perception
4.   Emotions in object perception and memory
                         HUL 211 OBJECT PERCEPTION AND MEMORY
   PRACTICAL COMPONENT

PROJECT WORK

Each student to independently design and
conduct one experiment with at least two
independent variables, involving normal
human subject(s)




        HUL 211 OBJECT PERCEPTION AND MEMORY
                   EVALUATION
Project
     • write up                             30%
     • viva voce                            10%

Mid term assessment
     Short answer questions                 20%
Pre-major
     Long answer question                   10%
End of term major assessment
Short answer and one long answer question   30%
TEXTS / JOURNALS FOR REFERENCES
Texts for reference:
Goldstein, E.B. (2010) Encyclopedia of Perception.
London: Sage Publications
Goldstein, E.B. (2010) Sensation and Perception. USA:
Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Regan, D.M. (2000) Human Perception of Objects. USA:
Sinauer Associates
Wolfe, J.M. et al. (2008) Sensation and Perception. USA:
Sinauer Associates
Journals:
Visual Cognition
Cognitive Psychology
Perception and Psychophysics
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human perception
and Performance

                   HUL 211 OBJECT PERCEPTION AND MEMORY
            SEARCH ONLINE

Google with the title or part of the title

Medline

Web of Knowledge

Websites of the authors

Seek help from the librarian



Ask me?????

           HUL 211 OBJECT PERCEPTION AND MEMORY
         Thank you




HUL 211 OBJECT PERCEPTION AND MEMORY

				
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Description: Object Perception and Memory Lecture Series