VOIP and home file server presentation - PowerPoint Presentation.ppt by suchufp


									Matt’s Talk on VOIP and
setting up a home File Server
   I’m a self confessed geek who
   generally likes playing around with

  Matthew Smith, works for big blue and is a certified IT Architect.
  Note all content is my personal opinion and not that of my employer.
    Why would I be interested? – Cost Savings
    VOIP Terms
    How does it work?
    What do I need to run it?
         Basics
         Cheap easy trial
         All out install
         Mega geeky install or SOHO
         Bandwidth requirements
    Things to watch out for
         Locked ATA’s
         Monthly Fee’s
         Should you get an inbound number..?
         Inbounds are tied to your provider ie can’t move..
    Resources for more info
Cost Savings
 Our example - 2 phone lines. When i work from home i need to be able to distinguish the 200 calls
 per day my wife receives from the 3 or 4 work calls :-)

 2 x $27 rental and 1 x $20 mobile = $74
 + approx 120 local calls @ 17.5c = $21
 Calls to mobiles approx $30
 and then STD calls to family approx 30@$2.50 $75
 Total approx $200 but varies between $190 - $220
 1 x $18 line rental 1 x $20 mobile = $38
 GoTalk $20 plan which gives me $15 worth of calls with 1 inbound number so don't need two lines
 Approx 150 calls @ 10c = $15
 Calls to mobiles approx $30
 Total $88 (Including $5 effective rental from gotalk)

 Saving per month approx $112..!
VOIP Terms
    VOIP – Voice Over IP
    ATA – Analog Telephone Adaptors, box that plugs into your network on
     one side and a phone on the other.
    Softphone – Similar concept to the ATA but runs as software on your
    VSP – Voice Service Provider, the company that provides the VOIP
    PSTN – Public Switched Telephone Network (ie a normal phone line)
    Broadband – Highspeed internet, much faster than using the older dial
     up modems.
    Router – The box most people have which connects them to broadband
    Skype – Well known VSP great for free computer to computer calls, but
     call rates to land lines are not so competitive. Also doesn’t use standard
     codecs so cannot use standard ATA’s.
How does it work..?
    Surprisingly the same as most mobile phones
        Take your analogue voice and digitises it and then
         send it via a carrier.. Mobile phones use GSM and
         VOIP uses IP network.. Hence Voice Over IP.
  So instead of the phone breaking up your
   voice and sending it over the air, VOIP breaks
   it up and sends it over the internet.
  So if you can use a mobile you can use VOIP..
   As for call quality.. Generally similar to a
   mobile phone call. Like mobiles though it can
FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

  Can I call normal phones – Yes
  Can I get rid of my normal phone – Kinda
      000 problems
      Internet outages

      VSP reliability

      No number portability
VOIP Terms
    Codec – Software for the conversion of analogue (voice) to digital.
     Most commonly used in Australia are 729a and 711a
         729a – Good compressed with some minor sacrifice of quality. Some
          ability to deal with network data loss.
         711a – No compression, best voice quality but uses significant
          bandwidth and not good with data loss.
              Codec            Approx          Approx
                               bandwidth       bandwidth
                               required per    used in 1 hour

              729a             *31kbps         14Mb

              711a             *87kbps         40Mb

 *Note Kilobits per second ie same measure as your broadband ie 256/64
Resources for more information
    Whirlpool VOIP Forums
        http://forums.whirlpool.net.au/forum-threads.cfm?f=107
    OZVOIP Forums
        http://forums.ozvoip.com/
    Dial plan Generator for SPA-3000
        http://www.taet.com.au/dp.nsf/SPADialPlan?OpenForm
    Excellent step by step guide to SPA-3000
        http://www.jmgtechnology.com.au/spa_3000_guide.pdf
    VOIP Wiki
        http://www.voip-info.org
Basic Option
What do I need to give it a go?
    This is the cheapest and most simple way of
     testing VOIP.
        Broadband internet connection
        Cheap $15 headset from Harvey Norman or Dick
        Skype and purchase of some credit on SkypeOut
        An account with a VSP (ie $10)
        Free Softphone software.
Basic Option
    Software phone
      Requires a PC to use it.
      Not much good for in coming calls as the
       computer needs to be on 24x7 and you
       need to be near it.
      Acceptable call quality but not generally as
       good as a dedicated ATA
      Able to select a range of VSP’s and obtain
       good cost savings, particularly for STD and
       International calls.
Basic VOIP - Setup
Integrated VOIP

  Ok, you have trialled it and are happy so
   now its time to get serious.
  The aim is to integrate it into your home
   so that when anyone picks up the normal
   phone it’s going out via VOIP.
  Also incoming calls ring on the same
Integrated - Setup
A good quality router is highly
     Router with good quality QoS (Quality of
       Why do I need it..? When you use your
        internet connection for uploading/
        downloading files unless you have QoS
        your VOIP calls are going to get broken up.
       Most routers provided by ISP’s have fairly
        limited QoS capability…
       A good quality router will cost around $200.
Integrated - ATA

    ATA
      An ATA connects to your network on one
       side and your phone on the other.
      Good quality phone calls.

      Most are programmable so you can have
       mobile phones go to one VSP and STD to
       another and local to another. Allowing you
       to mix and match. Unless yours is locked
       then you are tied to a single VSP…
Go with a ‘locked ATA’?

  There are companies like Engin who
   offer a complete VOIP service, however
   that only applies if you accept a locked
  Benefit, is that its plug-in and up and
   running good support.
  Downfall is that you cannot add other
   VSP or customise the configuration at all
   and typically comes with a monthly fee.
Advanced VOIP

    Asterisk software PABX feature
      Voicemail
      Multiple Extensions

      Redirection to extension based on the
       calling number.
      Full call monitoring and reporting

      More information here http://www.asterisk.org/features
Advanced - Typical setup
Advanced VOIP

    Asterisk
      Opensource PABX
      Offers excellent features and zero cost

      Whilst there is some excellent “How To
       Guides” does take reasonable computer
       skills to get up and running.
      Does require a dedicated pc to run on and
       needs to be on 24x7.

    IP Phones
        Excellent way of deploying VOIP if you are
         going to have multiple handsets as the
         handset simply plugs into your network.
         Some models even come with a mini
         network switch so you can plug your PC into
         your phone
    Multiple ATA’s and phones, usually the
     more expensive option but does allow
     you to connect any normal phone.
Home File Server
    Why would I be interested?
        Multimedia PC’s
        Protecting important files from disk failure
        Share files / printers without having to leave all the
         computers on all the time.
  How does it work?
  Base Technologies
        RAID
        Linux / Samba (Compared with Windows Server)
        Networking, wired and wireless
        Backups? (Using Windows backup and DVD’s)
Networking / File Server Terms

  RAID – Redundant Array of Inexpensive
   Disks. Typically used to provide data
   protection if one of the drives fail.
  Network Switch – Device to allow
   multiple Ethernet devices to connect
  NAS – Network attached storage
NAS – Easy inexpensive option

  NAS Devices are small and robust,
   whilst they won’t have the performance
   of a dedicated server, they are affordable
   and easy to manage.
  Generally only support a single drive.
  Some have aftermarket firmware
   allowing limited support for RAID.
  Pricing generally around $200-$300
  After a period of time all disks WILL fail. RAID
   provides redundancy in the event of a failure.
  RAID 1 mirrors two disks, in the event that one
   fails the other still has 100% of the data. Mirror
   = 50% overhead.
  RAID 5 stripes data over the disks so that any
   single drive failure won’t loose data. More
   economical as only a single disk is lost for
   redundancy ie 4 disks, 1 redundant therefore
   25% overheard.
Hardware v’s Software RAID

  Hardware RAID is done via a dedicated
   card added to the computer, cards with a
   dedicated RAID processor typically cost
   around $1,500..!
  Software RAID means that the computer
   has to do all the calculations for RAID.
   This typically doesn’t perform as well,
   however doesn’t cost anything above the
Looking after the disks

  Heat is the enemy of hard drives,
   keeping them cool will significantly
   improve their life expectancy.
  Make sure you keep a flow of air over
   the drives, when you stack more 2-3 in a
   case they generate a lot of heat. It’s as
   easy and cheap as a $5 computer fan
   and some silicon 
Linux V’s Windows for Server
    Linux = Free..!!!!
    Linux has lots and lots and lots of HowTo’s and free information
     on the internet. Great community that’s generally happy to help
     and share.
    Linux easy to install these days.
    Linux runs well on old computers.
    Linux has software RAID 5 included. (So does Windows 2003
    Setting up SAMBA (File and printer shares for Windows) is still
     harder than Windows networking.
    Linux generally just runs and runs and runs… Server running for
     6 months without reboot is common.
    Webmin is a web based interface that will make managing and
     configuring the server much easier.
Hardware for a Linux File Server

  Basically any old computer. For RAID5 I’d
   recommend a Pentium 500 minimum with
   256Mb of RAM. (Can be built with
   significantly lower spec’s but performance will
   suffer) Note old computer, but NEW drives..!
  I also like to add a Gigabit Ethernet card which
   is helps if multiple people are playing video
   from the server at the same time.

    Eventually you will accidentally delete a
     file or suffer from a disk failure or
      Windows XP comes with MS Backup Free.
       Also plenty of low cost options available.
      Schedule it to backup the network volume to
       your local computer on a regular basis
      Copy the backup onto DVD’s for safe
       keeping, make sure good quality DVD’s
Cable Networking
  For the average home network a 100Mb
   switch is fine. If you want to be able to move
   large amounts of files ie 100Gb then consider
   going with a Gb ethernet switch.
  Without Gb network you will be limited to
   backup to DVD at 6x unless you copy the files
   over the network to your computer first.
  A Gigabit switch costs around $200 and a
   Gigabit network card is approx $50. Most new
   computers come with a Gb networking.
Wireless Networking

  Generally pretty easy
  Check your channel is clear before using
   it otherwise you may suffer reduced
   distances and drop outs etc. Network
   Stumbler is an excellent free tool.
  SECURITY..!!!!
Wireless Security
   My approach is to use layers, anything single
    approach isn’t enough.
   Things I’d recommend
         Change the default admin password on your
          wireless router.
         MAC filtering, whilst this can be ‘spoofed’ I’ve never
          seen anyone actually do it. It’s a good start.
         Encryption using WEP or WPA. WPA is better but
          some computers will not have support. If using
          WEP make sure your key is long and complex.
         Hiding SSID, don’t bother causes problems with
          getting pc’s to connect and doesn’t help security.

From my home there are 3 other wireless networks in range, 2 are not secured.!!
Network Security

    Should I enable user accounts on the file
     server or not?
      Simple answer would you care if someone
       got access to those files?
      Particularly if you go with wireless ensure
       your network is locked down. That way if
       someone does get into the network they
       won’t gain access to your files.
      I also restrict access ie the kids can view
       movies but not delete or move etc.
Converting DVD’s to files

  Why..? Means the discs don’t get lost /
   damaged. With compression my server
   can store 100’s of movies.
  Kids don’t fight over the latest DVD.
  Opensource / Freeware available to ‘rip’
   the DVD. This is now legal in Australia
   as long as you own the original.
  VLC Great free player also has inbuilt
   streaming server.
How to play movies over the
    Media PC – Connected to a TV or Projector
        Full PC includes a full range of options. Can even
         get PC’s in small cases the size of a VCR now.
    Xbox
        If you have an Xbox they support streaming of
         movies over the network
    Media Centre
        Dedicated box for reading network drives and
         playing movies / music to the tv / stereo.
    2.4Ghz Antenna to beam from computer to TV
The end
    The brave knight slayed (well almost) the evil
     telecommunications Dragon who was stealing
     from the hard working peasants. Then with the
     gold the villagers game him, he setup a home
     theatre that was enjoyed by all those in the

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