Why did they
The largest group of people
that immigrated to St.
Clements were from central
and eastern Europe.
This happened between the
1880’s and 1920’s.
Life was not good in Europe
at this time.
There were money, political,
and ethnic problems.
In The West
Austria-Hungary was the
most powerful empire in
They were in charge of the western Ukrainian
provinces called Galicia and Bukovina.
Austria-Hungary let the Polish landlords stay in
charge of the Ukrainian people. They were not
They would not let the Ukrainian people believe
in their traditional church called the Orthodox
In The East
Russia was in charge of the
eastern provinces of
Ukraine and treated them
worse than Austria-
They wouldn’t even let them speak their
Russian Tsarist Minister of Education,
Count Pyotr Valuyev, said, “The Ukrainian
language never existed, does not exist, and
never can exist.”
None of the peasants had enough land to live on.
The peasants weren’t even given enough land to
build a small farm to grow their own food.
Out of 2,300,000 people living on the land, only
50,000 lived comfortably. That is not even 2
The Hutterites from Germany and the
Mennonites and Doukhobors from Russia were
having the same problems.
Looking for a Better Life
► Everyone was looking for a better place to live.
► Canada, the United States, and Brazil opened their
doors to immigrants.
► Hundreds of thousands of Ukrainian, Polish,
German, and Russian immigrants left their homes
and families, looking for a better life.
Immigrating to Canada
► Canada and the United States had the best land to
► Between 1890 and 1914, it is estimated that 100,000 -
200,000 Ukrainians arrived in Canada from the
► The boats that brought the immigrants were stuffed
► A lot of people died on the boats from diseases
because there were too many people on board.
Arriving in Canada
► As soon as the boats landed in
Canada, the immigrants took trains
to the wide-open West.
► Many went to Winnipeg, but
immigrants coming to St. Clements
East Selkirk stopped at the East Selkirk
Immigration Shed Immigration shed.
► The first group of immigrants who
arrived at the shed included 1,700
Doukhobors. They were followed by
six hundred Galicians. Thousands
more Galicians and Russians over
the next few years.
Building a Homestead
After they arrived immigrants were given 160 acres of
land free. In Europe they were only living on about 7
The Ukrainians liked to live on bush land with water
and trees. They used wood for fuel and building
They built their homes in two ways. The first was a
Galician-style house with two large rooms. The second
was a Bukovinian style with three rooms.
Some of the men found work on logging, railway, and
Most of the settlers became vegetable farmers. One day
these settlers would be known as the Market Gardeners.
The Ukrainian immigrants settled in block communities.
This meant they lived near each other so they could lend a
Racism happened a lot to these people because they were
Naming their Towns
The immigrants settled in rural East Selkirk,
Libau, the Beaches, and in Narol-Gonor.
The new settlers named some of the towns to
remind them of their homeland. Libau, which
was settled by German immigrants, was named
from the Lettish city, Leipaja. The name Narol
came from a district in the county of Lubaczow,
Manitoba was the first of the three prairie
provinces to organize schools where the
The Ukrainian people were scared that they were
trying to stop them from speaking Ukrainian.
The English teachers only taught in English.
Balsam Bay School
Until 1916, in Manitoba school could not be taught
in anything other than English.
After this, the Ukrainian people were allowed to
hire Ukrainian-speaking teachers for their schools.
The provincial government even opened a school
to train Ukrainian-speaking teachers.
Happy Thought School is an example of the
Ukrainian Bilingual teachers.
Happy Thought School
In 1914 World War I began.
Austro-Hungary became Canada’s enemy.
Austria still controlled parts of Ukraine and
Ukrainians were considered to be enemy
Ukrainian immigrants in St. Clements, as well
as across Canada, were not treated nicely.
In Manitoba, a delegation of English-speaking
citizens petitioned their government to
imprison and exile all Ukrainians in the
Thousands of Ukrainians were rounded up by police, and
placed in guarded concentration camps.
Here, they were imprisoned behind fences with barbed
They were also used as forced labour to help build Banff
National Park, BC and Maritime mines, and Ontario steel
Most of them were able to return to their homes two years
after the end of the war.
With the creation of the United Soviet Republic of Ukraine
in Russia, all of these people were finally referred to as
Ukrainians in Canada.
This presentation brought to you by the St. Clements Heritage
- “preserving our community’s heritage one story at a time” –
Information Compiled/Presentation Created by Jared Laberge
St. Clements Historical Committee. East Side Of The Red. Winnipeg: Inter-Collegiate
InfoUkes Inc. Staff. Internment of Ukrainians in Canada.
<http://www.infoukes.com/history/internment/>. April 10th 2005 .
Piniuta, Harry. Land Of Pain Land Of Promise. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan: Prairie