Ethnic Geography.ppt by zhaonedx

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									Culture regions

   Ethnic regions
   Cultural diffusion and ethnicity
   Ethnic ecology
   Ethnic cultural integration
   Ethnic landscapes
Migration and ethnicity
   Chain migration is usually involved
       An individual or small group decides to migrate
        to a foreign country
       These “innovators” are natural leaders who
        influence others, especially family and friends
        to migrate with them
       Word spreads to nearby communities starting
        a sizable migration from a small district
       All gather in a comparably small area or
        neighborhood in the destination country
Migration and ethnicity

   Chain migration is usually involved
       The first to opt for emigration often
        rank high in the social order as
        hierarchical diffusion comes into play
       The decision to migrate spreads by
        both hierarchical and contagious
        diffusion
       Actual migration represents relocation
        diffusion
Migration and ethnicity

   Chain migration is usually involved
       Chain migration continues as migrants
        write letters back home extolling the
        virtues of their new life and imploring
        others to join them
       Letters written from the United States
        became known as America letters
Migration and ethnicity
   Chain migration caused movement of
    people to become channelized
       Linked a specific source region to a particular
        destination
       Neighbors in the old country became neighbors
        in the new country
       It started three centuries ago and still operates
        today
       Example of the recent mass migration of Latin
        Americans to Anglo-America
       Different parts of the Southwest draw upon
        different source regions in Mexico
Migration and ethnicity
   Involuntary migration contributes to
    ethnic diffusion and formation of ethnic
    culture regions in the United States
       Refugees from Cambodia and Vietnam
        immigrated
       Guatemalans and Salvadorans fled political
        repression in Central America
       Forced migrations often result from policies of
        “ethnic cleansing” — countries expel
        minorities to produce cultural homogeneity in
        their populations
       Newly independent country of Croatia has
        systematically expelled its Serb minority —
        ethnic cleansing
Migration and ethnicity
       Following forced migration, relocated groups
        often engage in voluntary migration to
        concentrate in some new locality
          Cuban political refugees, scattered widely in
           the 1960s then reassembled in South Florida
          Vietnamese continue to gather in southern
           California and Texas
   Return migration — involves the
    voluntary move of a group back to their
    ancestral native country or homeland
Migration and ethnicity
   Large-scale channelized return migration
    of African-Americans to their Black Belt
    ethnic homeland in the South has
    occurred since 1975
       Over two-thirds of the migrants “follow well-
        worn paths back to homeplaces or other
        locations where relatives have settled”
       Seven percent of blacks in Los Angeles County,
        California, moved away between 1985 and
        1990
       Many went to the American South
       By the year 2000, the dominantly-black-South-
        Central district of Los Angeles became largely
        Hispanic
Migration and ethnicity

   Many of the about 200,000
    expatriate Estonians, Latvians, and
    Lithuanians left Russia and former
    Soviet republics to return to newly
    independent Baltic home countries
    in the 1990s, losing their ethnic
    status in the process
Simplification and isolation
   In theory, migrant groups that become
    ethnic in a new land could introduce, by
    relocation diffusion, the totality of their
    culture
   Instead of introducing their total culture
    overseas a cultural simplification occurs
       Happens in part because of chain migration
       Only areal fragments of a culture diffuse
        overseas
       Some simplification occurs at the point of
        departure
Simplification and isolation
   Instead of introducing their total
    culture overseas a cultural
    simplification occurs
       Only selected traits are successfully
        introduced
       Other traits undergo modification
        before becoming established in the new
        homeland
       Absorbing barriers prevent the diffusion
        of many traits
       Permeable barriers cause changes in
        many other traits simplifying the
        migrant culture
Simplification and isolation
   Instead of introducing their total culture
    overseas a cultural simplification occurs
       Choices that did not exist in the old home
        become available
       They can borrow alien ways or modify them
        from groups they encounter.
       They can invent new techniques better suited
        to the adopted place
       Most ethnic groups resort to all these devices,
        in varying degrees
Simplification and isolation
   If remote, how an ethnic group’s
    new home affects their culture
       Diffusion of traits from the Old World is
        more likely
       Rare contact with alien groups allow for
        little borrowing of traits
       Allows preservation in archaic form of
        cultural elements that disappear from
        their ancestral country
Simplification and isolation
   If remote, how an ethnic group’s new
    home affects their culture
       Language and dialects offer examples of
        preservation of the archaic
          Germans living in ethnic islands in the Balkan
           region preserve archaic South German
           dialects better than in Germany
          Some medieval elements of Spanish are still
           spoken in the Hispano homeland of New
           Mexico
          Irish Catholic settlers in Newfoundland retain
           far more of their traditional Celtic culture than
           did fellow Irish who colonized Ontario
Culture regions

   Ethnic regions
   Cultural diffusion and ethnicity
   Ethnic ecology
   Ethnic cultural integration
   Ethnic landscapes
Cultural preadaptation
   Defined — involves a complex of adaptive
    traits possessed by a group in advance of
    migration that gives them the ability to
    survive, and a competitive advantage in
    colonizing a new environment
   Most often results from groups migrating
    to a place environmentally similar to the
    one they left
   Results in what Zelinsky called the first
    effective settlement allowing them to
    perpetuate much of their culture
Cultural preadaptation
   In most cases the immigrants chose a
    colonization area physically resembling
    their former home
   Examples in the state of Wisconsin
       Finns — from a cold, thin-soiled glaciated,
        lake-studded, coniferous forest zone, settled
        the North Woods
       Icelanders — from a bleak, remote island in
        the North Atlantic, located their only Wisconsin
        colony on Washington Island, an isolated
        outpost surrounded by Lake Michigan
Cultural preadaptation
   Examples in the state of Wisconsin
       The English — used to good farmland,
        generally founded ethnic islands in the
        better agricultural districts of southern
        and southwestern Wisconsin
       Cornish miner — from the Celtic
        highland of western Great Britain
        sought out lead-mining communities in
        the southwestern part of the state
Cultural preadaptation
   Wheat growing Russian-Germans from
    open steppe grasslands of south Russia
       Settled the prairies of the Great Plains
       Established wheat farms like those of their east
        European source area
       Used varieties of grain brought from their
        semiarid homeland
   Ukrainians in Canada chose the aspen
    belt
       Mixture of prairie, marsh, and scrub forest
       Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta because
        it resembled their former European home
Cultural preadaptation

   Ethnic niche-filling has continued to
    present day
       Cuban in southernmost Florida because
        it has a tropical savanna climate
        identical climate to that in Cuba
       Vietnamese settled as fishers on the
        Gulf of Mexico, especially in Texas
        Ethnic environmental perception
   Some immigrant groups had an accurate
    environmental perception of the new land
   Generally immigrants perceived the new
    ecosystem to be more like their old home
    than it actually was
       Perhaps the search for similarity resulted from
        homesickness
       May have resulted from an unwillingness to admit
        migration brought them to an alien land
       Maybe growing to adulthood in a particular kind of
        physical environment retards one’s ability to
        accurately perceive a different ecosystem
        Ethnic environmental perception

   Distorted perception occasionally
    caused problems for ethnic farming
    groups
       Trial and error was often necessary to
        come to terms with New World
        environment
       If economic disaster resulted, and the
        ethnic island had to be abandoned,
        maladaptation is said to have occurred
        Ethnic environmental perception

   Examples of groups who picked rural
    settlement sites different from the
    homeland
       Germans and Czechs consistently chose
        the best farmland
       Findings of geographer Russel Gerlach
        who researched German communities in
        the Ozarks
            Appalachian southern settlers chose easy-to-
             work sandy and bottom- land soil
    Ethnic environmental perception

   Findings of geographer Russell Gerlach
    who researched German communities in
    the Ozarks
      Germans often chose superior soils that were
       harder to work
      In Lawrence County, Missouri, Germans were
       latecomers, but still obtained the best land
       by picking dark-soiled prairie land avoided by
       earlier Anglo-American settlers
      “A map showing the distribution of Germans
       can also be a map of the better soils in the
       region”
    Ethnic environmental perception

   Ability to select choice soils can be
    detected among Czechs in Texas
      Texas has the largest rural population of
       Czechs in the United States
      Czech farming communities are concentrated
       in tall-grass prairie regions underlain by
       dark, fertile soils
      Anglo-Texans tended to avoid open prairies
       as farming sites
Ecology of ethnic survival

   Many groups become ethnic only
    when their ancestral home districts
    are conquered and surrounded by
    invading people
       Examples — American Indians,
        Australian Aborigines, and
        Scandinavian Sami
       Owe their survival to an adaptive
        strategy that allows occupancy of a
        difficult physical environment where
        invaders proved maladapted
Ecology of ethnic survival
   Distribution of Indian groups in Latin
    America
       Indian population clustered in mountainous
        areas, many above 10,000 foot elevation
       European invaders never adjusted well to high
        altitudes
   Many other factors are involved in the
    differential survival of American Indians
   Terrain, climate, and indigenous adaptive
    strategy play a role in survival
Culture regions

   Ethnic regions
   Cultural diffusion and ethnicity
   Ethnic ecology
   Ethnic cultural integration
   Ethnic landscapes
Introduction

   Ethnicity is firmly integrated into
    the fabric of culture
   One aspect of culture acts on and is
    acted on by all other aspects
   Integration never happens exactly
    the same way in any two groups
    that results in an unique ethnic
    distinctiveness
Introduction

   Ethnicity plays a role in determining
    role in many facets of cultural
    integration
       What the people eat, religious faith
        practiced, how they vote
       Also influenced is whom they marry,
        how they earn a living, and ways they
        spend leisure time
       Ethnoburbs influence spatial
        distribution of diverse cultural
        phenomena
Introduction

   Geographer Hansgeorg
    Schlichtmann’s views
       Speaks of economic performance,
        meaning level of success “in making a
        living and accumulating wealth”
       Ethnic groups exhibit contrasts in
        economic orientation
Ethnicity and business activity
   Differential ethnic preferences give rise to
    distinct patterns of purchasing goods and
    services
   These differences are reflected in the
    business types and services offered in
    different ethnic neighborhoods of a city
   Keith Harries made a detailed study of
    businesses in the Los Angeles urban area
    comparing three different ethnic
    neighborhoods
Ethnicity and business activity
   East Los Angeles Chicano neighborhoods
       Reflects dominance of small corner grocery
        stores and fragmentation of food sales among
        several kinds of stores
       Large number of eating and drinking places is
        related to Mexican custom of gathering in
        cantinas, where much social life is centered
       Abundant small barbershops provide one
        reason why personal service establishments
        rank so high
Ethnic Business:
East Los Angeles

   This
    Latino/Chicano
    neighborhood has
    a prevalence of
    restaurants, food
    stores, auto repair
    shops,
    immigration and
    other services.
   This restaurant
    specializes in
    carnitas – pork.
Ethnic Business:
East Los Angeles

   Pictured on one door
    is the Virgen de
    Guadalupe,
    paramount saint in
    Mexico.
   Los Angeles is the
    capital of Joel
    Garreau’s
    “MexAmerica” and
    East LA is home to
    more than one million
    Mexican Americans.
Ethnicity and business activity

   Black south Los Angeles
       Secondhand shops are very common
       No antique or jewelry stores
       Only one book-stationery shop
       The distinctive African-American
        shoeshine parlor is found only in south
        Los Angeles
Ethnicity and business activity
   Anglo neighborhoods
       Rank high in professional and financial service
        establishments, such as doctors, lawyers, and
        banks
       Professional and financial establishments are
        much less common in non- Anglo
        neighborhoods
       Furniture, jewelry, antique, and apparel stores
        are also more numerous
       Full-scale restaurants are also more common
Ethnicity and business activity
   Contrasts can also be found in rural and
    small-town areas
   Example of an ethnic island in
    southwestern Michigan
       Settled by Dutch Calvinists in the mid-
        nineteenth century
       Their descendants adhered to a strict moral
        code
       Tended to regard non-Dutch Calvinists world
        as sinful and inferior
       Adherence to precepts of their church was
        main manifestation of their ethnicity
Ethnicity and business activity
   Example of an ethnic island in
    southwestern Michigan
       Dutch language had died out in the area
       Impact of Calvinist code of behavior on
        business activity
          As recently as 1960, no taverns, dance
           halls, or movie theaters existed
          No business activity was permitted on
           Sunday
          Because they believe leisure and idleness
           are evil, most present- day farmers work
           at second jobs during slack farming
           seasons
Ethnicity and type of employment

   In many urban ethnic
    neighborhoods, some groups
    gravitated early to particular kinds
    of jobs
   Because of advancing acculturation
    job identification lessened as time
    passed
Ethnicity and type of employment
   Ethnic group and job type is
    sufficiently strong to produce
    stereotyped images in the American
    popular mind
       Irish police
       Chinese launderers
       Korean grocers
       Italian restaurant owners
       Jewish retailers
Ethnicity and type of employment

   Certain groups proved highly
    successful in marketing versions of
    their traditional cuisines to the
    population at large
       Chinese, Mexican, and Italian
       Each dominates a restaurant region far
        larger than their ethnic homelands,
        islands, or neighborhoods
Ethnicity and type of employment
   Italians in northeastern United States still
    control the terrazzo and ceramic tile
    unions
   Czechs dominate the pearl button
    industry
   In many cases, job identities were related
    to occupational skills developed in the
    European homeland
   More recently Basques from Spain serve
    as professional jai alai players in southern
    Florida
   Earlier Basques concentrated in sheep
    ranching areas of the American West
Ethnicity and farming practices

   Study of Alabama’s German farmers
    in the 1930s done by Professor
    Walter Kollmorgen
       German-Americans practiced a more
        diversified agriculture
       Had a higher income
       More often owned land than Anglos
Ethnicity and farming practices
   One example of a recently arrived Asian
    immigrant group, the Hmong — and the
    introduction of intensive gardening to
    America
       From Laos, 50,000 of whom now live in
        California
       Cultivate their distinctive gardens in and
        around cities such as Chico and Redding
       Utilize interstate highway easements and other
        odd parcels of land Americans would never
        think of using
       Typical Hmong gardens includes mustard
        greens, bitter melon, chili peppers, and other
        crops needed for their traditional cuisine
Culture regions

   Ethnic regions
   Cultural diffusion and ethnicity
   Ethnic ecology
   Ethnic cultural integration
   Ethnic landscapes
Introduction

   Many rural areas bear an ethnic
    imprint on the cultural landscape
   Often the imprint is subtle,
    discernible only to those who pause
    and look closely
   Sometimes the imprint is quite
    striking, flaunted as an “ethnic flag”
Finnish landscapes in America

   The Sauna from Finland
       Small steam bathhouses used by the
        Finns in cold weather
       After a steam bath they would often
        take a naked romp in the snow
       An important element in the cultural
        landscape of Finland
Finnish landscapes in America
   Matti Kaups and Cotton Mather made a
    study of this Finnish landscape feature in
    Minnesota and Michigan
       Excellent visual indicator of Finnish-American
        ethnic islands
       In the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, 88 percent
        of all Finnish-American residences had a sauna
        behind the house
       In northern Minnesota, 77 percent of Finnish
        houses had saunas adjacent
       Only 6 percent of non-Finnish residences in the
        same district had saunas
Finnish landscapes in America
   Cultural landscapes can lie or at least
    distort reality
       Professor Kaups discovered a sizable element,
        the so-called “Red fins”
          Those with leftist political affiliations

          Essentially invisible

          Very numerous in mining and logging towns of
           Upper Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota
          Left almost no landscape trace

          Kaups found the Communist hammer-and-
           sickle carved on gravestones
       One must always look for the subtle as well as
        overt in cultural landscapes
Ethnic settlement patterns
   The imposed government survey system
    did not deter ethnic groups from having
    their own distinctive cultural settlement
    pattern
       Example of Germans and non-Germans in the
        Missouri Ozarks
       German-American farmsteads much less
        frequently lie on public roads then non-German
        farms
       In many cases their farmhouses are a half-mile
        from the nearest public road
Ethnic settlement patterns
   The imposed government survey system
    did not deter ethnic groups from having
    their own distinctive cultural settlement
    pattern
       Example of Russian-German Mennonites in the
        prairie provinces of Canada
          Created clustered street villages in a
           rectangular survey area
          Duplicated their villages in Russia

          Wanted to be close to others like themselves

          Other farmers in the area lived on dispersed
           farmsteads
Ethnic settlement patterns

   Example of the Mescalero Apache
    Indians of New Mexico
       Federal government tried to make
        them live in dispersed settlements
       After 100 years they still cluster into
        villages matrilocally
       “Continue to display vestiges of the
        precontact heritage”
Ethnic Landscape:
Rotorua, New Zealand
                      This dwelling
                       symbolizes both
                       Maoritanga, the Maori
                       way of life, and
                       cultural integration.
                      It is a non-Maori
                       house type with Maori
                       décor and it is this
                       décor that is an ethnic
                       flag.
                      Maoris comprise eight
                       percent of the New
                       Zealand population
                       and are two-thirds
                       urban.
Ethnic Landscape:
Rotorua, New Zealand
                      Like this house, most
                       are of mixed origins.
                      Carving is the supreme
                       indigenous art. Carvings
                       record history,
                       mysteries, legends, and
                       ancestral achievements.
                      The degree of
                       adornment on a house
                       reflects the status of the
                       occupants.
                      The tekoteto at the front
                       is a symbol of defiance
                       traditionally employed
                       around village palisades.
Urban ethnic landscapes
   Ethnic cultural landscapes appear in both
    neighborhoods and ghettos
   Example of wall murals found in Mexican-
    American neighborhoods in the
    southwestern United States
       Began to appear in Los Angeles in the 1960s
       Exhibit influences rooted in both Spain and the
        Indian cultures of Mexico
       Found on a variety of wall surfaces from
        apartment houses and store exteriors to bridge
        abutments
Urban ethnic landscapes
     Subjects range from religious motifs to
      political ideology, and from statements
      of historic wrongs to urban zoning
      disputes
     Many are specific to the site
      heightening sense of place and ethnic
      “turf”
     Many contain no written message,
      relying on sharpness of image and
      vividness of color to make a statement
        Urban ethnic landscapes
   Some ethnic groups have color preferences
    that can be revealed in their landscape
       Red is a venerated and auspicious color to the
        Chinese Light blue is a Greek ethnic color, derived
        from their flag
       Greeks avoid red, perceived as the color of their
        ancient enemy, the Turks
       Green, an Irish Catholic color, also finds favor in
        Muslim neighborhoods

								
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