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             Italian Unification
   North: Austria ruled Venetia and Lombardy
    and dominated Tuscany, Modena, Parma &
   South: Spain ruled Kingdom of the Two
   Kingdom of Sardinia: strongest Italian state
    and run by an Italian dynasty.
    Factors Favoring Italian Unification
   Common culture, history, traditions,
    language (though diff. dialects)
   Common Religion: Roman Catholic
   Dislike for Austria who prevented earlier
    attempt to unite
    Roadblocks to Italian Unification
   Opposition by state rulers who were backed by
    Austria, so wanted Austria to remain powerful
   Pope feared losing power over Papal States
   Disagreement over type of government once
    united: democratic republic (favored by Mazzini),
    constitutional monarchy (favored by Cavour),
    confederation under Pope
   Foreign Opposition:
       Austria would lose territory and influence
       France feared a powerful neighbor
    Wars to Win Italian Unification
   Austro-Sardinian Wars (1859): Napoleon III helped b/c of
    promise of Nice and Savoy, and Sardinia got Lombardy
   Conquest of 2 Sicilies by Garibaldi (1861): Kingdom of Italy
    declared, but Rome not capital because in hands of Pope &
    protected by French troops
   Austro-Prussian War (1866): Italy allied with Prussia and
    gained Venetia
   Franco-Prussian War (1870-71): French troops removed from
    Italy to fight Germany, Rome now capital
   World War I (1914-18): Italy claimed rest of land still under
    Austrian rule.
Alliance with Napoleon III
   Cavour saw Austria as the biggest
    roadblock to unification
   Napoleon thought France could be
    strongest nation in Europe of Austria
   Secretly agreed for France to drive Austria
    out of N. Italy in return for Nice and Savoy
Austro-Sardinian War 1859
   French-Sardinian Army defeat Austria
   N. Italy hold revolts against Austria and
    demands to be ruled by Sardinia
   Napoleon panics, not wanting a strong Italy
   Cavour had kept good relations with rest of
    Europe, so Napoleon could not go to war
    with Sardinia
   1860 N. Italy is annexed by Sardinia
     Leaders in Italian Unification
   Soul: Mazzini
   Sword: Garibaldi
   Brains: Cavour
The Brain
   Cavour– named prime minister to King
    Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia
   He believes nationalism can only happen
    through smart diplomacy and well-chosen
The Soul
   Mazzini had led first efforts of unification in
   Inspired city-states to unify
The Sword
   Garibaldi was leading a small group of
    nationalists in the south, with the financial
    support if Cavour
   In 1860, he and his 1100 soldiers the “Red
    Shirts” won Sicily
   In 1861, the Italian parliament met and
    named Victor Emmanuel II king of Italy
Italy is Unified!
   In 1866 Venetia joins Italy
   In 1871, Pope finally allows Papal States,
    including Rome to become part of Italy.
   Final Unification
   German plan for government that meant:
    Calculating politics in which idealism played
    no part.

   Utopian Socialism was its nemesis.
Factors Favoring German Unification
   Common language, history, culture,
   Industrial Revolution: Roads, railroads,
    growing trade united German states
   Zollverein– customs union, NO tariffs within
    German Confederation EXCEPT Austria
Roadblocks to German Unification
   Opposition by state rulers who feared
    losing power
   Religion: Protestant North, Catholic South
   Jealousy & fear of Prussia; largest state
   Rivalry between Austria and Prussia over
    control of smaller German states
   Opposition from France who feared a
    powerful bordering neighbor
Austria v. Prussia
   39 German states, including Austria and
    Prussia formed a confederation
   Austria considered natural leader b/c
    former home of HRE
   Prussia was more industrially developed
   Prussia had strongest army in central
        Wars of German Unification
   Wars to win Unification
       1863 v. Denmark for territory; Schleswig- Holstein
       1866 Austro-Prussian War. Germans defeated Austria,
        and were very lenient in treaty, to keep Austria as ally in
        future war with France.
       1870-71 Franco-Prussian War. Only a war against a
        foreign enemy could unite Protestant North with Catholic
        South. Bismarck wanted Germany united!
       1914-18 World War I
War with Denmark 1864
   Bismarck fights a quick war with Denmark
    to increase the feeling of nationalism and
    support for Prussia
   Outcome: annex two small states,
    Schleswig and Holstein
Austro-Prussian War 1866
   Bismarck’s cunning way managed to provoke
    Austria into declaring war against Prussia–
    important that Prussia not appear the aggressor
   Due to Prussia’s superior industrialization, their
    RR moved troops to Austria faster than Austria
    could defend itself
   Superior equipment from industrialization proved
    no match for Austria
Results of War with Austria
   Austria is humiliated
   Lost some German lands to Prussia
   Forced to withdraw from the German
   Prussia now controlled all of North
   Austria becomes Austria-Hungary 1867
Franco-Prussian War 1870
   Bismarck deliberately gave misleading
    stories to newspapers to provoke France
    into declaring war (Prussia the victim)
   Purpose is to give N. German protestants
    and S. German Catholics a common
   France is defeated
Results of Franco-Prussian War
   Prussia humiliated France in the peace
    treaty (keep an eye on the karma after
   During the war even Napoleon III had been
    captured and held prisoner
   Forced to pay 5 billion francs
   Took Alsace and Lorraine (France’s richest
    coal and iron deposits)
Leaders of the German Unification
   Three major players:
       The Soul: Kaiser Wilhelm II
       The Sword: von Moltke
       The Brain: Bismarck
The Brain & The Soul
   1862 King William I chose Bismarck as his
    prime minister.
   Bismarck was a exceptionally skilled at
    realpolitik and wanted to unite Germany
    under Prussia.
   Bismarck says unification can only by
    “Blood and Iron” (War and Industrialization)
Germany is Unified!
   January18, 1871--The Second Reich
   Will be ruled under Kaiser William I
   German industrialization quickly surpassed
    even Britain to become the second largest
    producer of manufactured goods (after
The Road to WWI has begun
   France had total disdain for Germany and
    insists they will get Alsace and Lorraine
   There are 6 Great Powers in Europe
       Most Powerful– Germany & Britain
       Medium– France
       Weak– Russia, Italy & Austria

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