Friedrich Nietzsche FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE Harrison

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Friedrich Nietzsche FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE Harrison Powered By Docstoc
					FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE
      Harrison Martin
          11/5/10
     Scholar’s Bowl -7th
WHO WAS FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE?
•   Born to Prussian Lutherans in 1844
•   Soon afterward, father succumbed to a
    brain disease; died in 1849.
•   Left Nietzsche and his younger sister
    in the care of his mother and paternal
    aunts
•   Entered University of Bonn in 1864-
    student of theology & philology
    (interpretation of classical and biblical
    texts)
•   Began a mandatory-at-the-time stint in
    the military at age 23; suffered a chest
    injury whilst attempting to “leap-mount”
    into his horse’s saddle. -F
I STILL DON’T KNOW WHO FRIEDRICH
NIETZSCHE WAS…
•   Met Richard Wagner in 1868- Two shared passion for Schopenhauer (later) and music;
    became besties
•   Became professor of classical philology at University of Basel at 24; unprecedented
•   1870- Serves as medical attendant during Franco-Prussian War (that go-to war).
    Contracts diphtheria and dysentery (syphilis?), which further hinder his already
    compromised health
•   Published first book B.O.T (1872…we’ll get to this)
•   1873-1876 Untimely Meditations- Collection of four essays; bridge works to…
•   Human, All-Too-Human (1878)- A year after which he would resign post at Basel due to
    escalating health problems
•   Renounced Prussian (German) citizenship, wandered for the rest of his life, spending time
    in Italy and France
•   Lou Salomé- <3 - Roma, 1882
  “Nietzsche’s philosophy…”
              -or-
“The point of the presentation”
MAJOR WORKS
•   Birth of Tragedy (1872)
     • Reworks understanding of Greek culture, it’s importance, and role
     • Subtitled “Hellenism and Pessimism” at one point
     • Theorizes that there are two distinct forces at work in the will and deeds of mankind:


          Dionysian                         v.                    Apollonian



           Free, open, pre-                           Wise, stoic, logical
           Socratic creativity                        post-Socratic drive
MAJOR WORKS
•   Human, All-Too-Human (1878)
     • Collection of aphorisms, assembled into a central body
     • Thusly, somewhat disjointed subject-matter
     • Begins to develop Nietzsche’s conceptualization of “power” as an explanation for
       cultural or social phenomena; the will to it would become a central theme in later
       works
MAJOR WORKS
•   The Gay Science (1882)
     • “God is dead”
          • Nietzsche’s own brand of atheism: just like mom used to make
          • Obviously, not literal- figurative decay and death of Christian morals.
          • BUT- where do you go from there? Nihilism??
          • Nietzsche worked his way around this with the will to power
     • “Eternal Recurrence”
          • “What if some day or night a demon were to steal after you into your loneliest
            loneliness and say to you: 'This life as you now live it and have lived it, you will
            have to live once more and innumerable times more‘
          • What would you say to this?
          • Becomes device utilized in his next book…
MAJOR WORKS
•   Also Sprach Zarathustra (1883-85)
     • Titular character is a strong-willed, prophetic recluse who is accompanied by an
       eagle and a snake
     • Theorizes the concept of a being superior to the common man in every way
       including, ironically, mental health
          • Dubbed the “Ubermensch”, or “Superman”
     • Eternal recurrence is applied to the ubermensch; he is able to embrace this, as he is
       superior, and lives a good life- contrast to the average human, who is looking forward
       to relief from this world in the next one
          • Nietzsche logically concludes that the state of being “man” should be a bridge to
            becoming “Superman”- one who is essentially satisfied with his life, and lives it
            well
     • In this way, ASZ is similar to Taoist principles… or The Dude
     • Narrative
MAJOR WORKS
•   Beyond Good and Evil (1886)
     • Corresponds to the ideas propounded in Human, and develops them.
     • A definitive work of Nietzsche’s ethics
     • Contends that philosophers are not scholars- rather, engaged people: “imagination,
       self-assertion, danger, originality and the ‘creation of values’ ”
     • Essentially, shades of gray; Exploitation, domination, etc... are not necessarily bad
       things
     •   “WILL TO POWER”- Know this!!!!!!!!!!!!
          • What does that mean?? It means that people do not continue to do what they do
            because of a Schopenhauer-ian “will to live”, but rather a drive to exert our
            influence, rather like the sun. We are both “dangerous” and radiant
     • Nietzsche ranks certain moral behaviors in terms of social status; there are plebeian
       morals, ascending to upstanding citizen morals- different things are appropriate for
       each (health)
MAJOR WORKS
•   On the Genealogy of Morals (1887)
     • 3 Essays on morals and ethics, continuing in the vein of B.G.A.E.
          • # 1- Master v. Servant morality (again), Christian morals are invalid as they
            were formed in a context of turmoil and vengeance
          • # 2- Guilt arises because of negative Christian viewpoints on nature of man.
            Argues that punishment, in the traditional sense, probably had its roots in
            economic practice…therefore, should we practice it?? (No, duh.)
          • # 3- Attacks clergy as “weak men” who lead “even weaker people”. Offers his
            view of perspectivism, or the idea that there is no “God’s p.o.v.” by which we can
            judge ourselves and others
     • “Good v. Bad” thinking is indicative of superior men- “Good v. Evil” thinking is
       indicative of inferior men
LESS-MAJOR WORKS
•   Ecce Homo (1888) – ok, I lied. Biography; a mental “house-cleaning”


•   The Case of Wagner (1888)


•   Twilight of the Idols (1888)


•   The Antichrist (1888)


•   Nietzsche Contra Wagner (1888)- They had a bit of a falling out, you see…
THAT’S VERY NICE, BUT WHO WAS FRIEDRICH
NIETZSCHE?!?!?!
•   As mentioned earlier, renounced citizenship, became a vagabond
•   Wrote most of his significant works while traveling
•   Turin-1889: Nietzsche breaks down
     • Actual events are sketchy
     • The legend goes that he witnessed the beating of a horse; proceeded to throw
       himself around the horse, appearing to protect it, then collapses
•   Spends the remainder of his life as an unproductive invalid
•   Believed to be syphilitic madness, but this is unconfirmed. Possible brain tumor or
    inherited disease (father’s death)
•   August 25th, 1900- dies in the care of his sister, Elisabeth
NIETZSCHE’S INFLUENCE AND SIGNIFICANCE
•   Was revered by 20th century avant-garde artists, who were pleased by both him and his
    advocacy of the “Dionysian”
•   Embraced by Germans as a native son; “Thus Spoke Zarathustra” is distributed to
    German soldiers in WWI as inspirational literature
•   Also embraced by German and Italian fascists who, with the aid of Elisabeth Nietzsche,
    twist his ideas to fit the needs of Nazism during WWII
•   Influenced countless minds of the 20th century like Heidegger and Strauss… for better or
    worse
•   Regarded, along with Kierkegaard, as one of the earlier Existentialists
•   Influenced by: Wagner, and Schopenhauer primarily
QUESTIONS?

				
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posted:5/7/2012
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