Assessing Globalization: Benefits and 2. Do you think government should help regulate
Drawbacks of Trade and Integration globalization? If so why and how? If not why not? Use the
chart above to support your answer.
Globalization continues to be controversial. Some look at
Pictured are statistics about Walmart, one of the world's
the rapid economic and political changes around the
largest global companies. They employ workers
world and see injustice. Others view these same changes
throughout the world in stores and factories. Keep in
as progress. Research suggests most people cautiously
mind the list of pros and cons you created when you
embrace the idea of a globalized world.
read the article above.
Economic effects of globalization are generally accepted.
Part 2: Graphics About Walmart
People tend to believe their countries benefit from trade
and investment by foreign companies, especially in
many of the world's poorest countries. However,
enthusiasm for economic globalization has decreased
over the last few years in many wealthy nations,
especially in Western Europe and the U.S.
People worry about globalization's downsides. Many are
concerned about the disadvantaged in society who are
left behind by economic growth caused by globalization.
Increasingly, they are alarmed by the negative effects of
growth on the environment. Nearly everywhere, people
worry about the potential loss of their own traditions
and cultures in an interconnected world. Many are also
troubled by the growing flow of immigrants.
For instance, even though they believe global trade and
free markets can lead to economic growth, they realize
this growth will not benefit everyone equally. In many
countries, there is a strong and growing concern about This graphic shows Walmart’s growth since 1962. In
the gap between rich and poor. In countries such as 1962, Walmart had 1 store in Arkansas. By 1996, there
South Korea, Kenya, Indonesia, and Chile, large groups were 2,943 stores; by 2008, there were 8,970 stores.
named the growing gap between rich and poor as one of 3. How many stores were added between 1962-1996?
the top two dangers facing the world. How many years did this take?
4. How many stores were added between 1996-2008?
The survey also revealed an overwhelming consensus 5. How long did this take?
that governments should be responsible for taking care 6. Why do you think it didn't take nearly as long to add
of those left behind by globalization. Most people polled so many stores from 1996-2008 as compared to
agreed that government should take care of the poorest 1962-1996?
in society who cannot help themselves. Although free 7. List at least five types of jobs that Walmart is
responsible for creating. Consider the activities we
markets are broadly embraced, few want a totally
have done over the past unit and people's roles in
laissez-faire approach; instead, there is widespread industry to help answer this question.
agreement that government has a role to play.
Part 1: Why is globalization controversial?
Pros of Globalization: List 3 Cons of Globalization: List 3
Critical Thinking Questions:
1. Do you think globalization is more helpful or harmful to a
country? Use the chart to support your answer. Give 3 8. How and why do you think it is possible that Walmart
reasons to support your answer. employs 2.1 million employees (equal to the world’s
50 smallest countries combined)? Give at least 3
reasons to support your answer.
Christman, Chin, Lucchessi (Class Set) 1
This graphic shows how many kilowatts PER HOUR
Walmart uses. The state of Vermont uses 5 Billion But that figure doesn't include Walmart's supply chain of
kilowatts per hour. over 100,000 suppliers worldwide. Most of these
companies fall into 2 categories: Some make house-brand
products for Walmart: Great Value (food), Mainstays
(furniture), and George (clothing), Then there are name-
brand products, like Del Monte, Coleman tents, and Bic.
Sometimes, a brand makes a Walmart-specific product;
General Electric, for instance, sells kitchen appliances
exclusive to Walmart and is subject to Walmart's factory
regulations. But neither house-brand nor name-brand
suppliers necessarily produce the jeans, tents, or pens
they sell to Walmart. That work is done by contractors &
9. How much MORE electricity per hour does Walmart subcontractors, which include unregulated factories—and
use PER HOUR than Vermont? that's where some of the most carbon-heavy, polluting
10. What kind of impact do you think this use of parts of the manufacturing process happen.
electricity has on the environment? Provide an
example to support your answer. Linda Greer, public health program director at the Natural
Resources Defense Council, and her team assembled 10
Walmart's stores' area total 35.3 square miles. best practices to reduce water, chemical, and energy use
Manhattan (downtown NYC) is 23.7 square miles. at mills. Their advised repairs and upgrades paid for
themselves in 8 months and sometimes saved energy use
by 25-30%. The next step was putting the guidelines into
practice and showing their benefits to get other mills into
the program. She asked the corporate partners for the
names of 4-5 mills. Nike, Gap, and the others came
through. Walmart gave her only one viable factory.
Part 3: Is There A Solution Where Globalization Can
Provide Jobs and NOT harm the Environment?
14. How many countries does the article mention Walmart
does business with? List the counties.
11. There are 28 million square feet in one square mile.
15. Which are LDCs and which are MDCs?
How many square feet are in Walmart's 35.3 square
16. How many companies does Walmart do business with?
Provide ONE example of HOW this helps other
12. A single bedroom apartment is about 600 square feet,
companies make business.
how many one bedroom apartments can you fit into
17. How does Walmart's wide variety of goods it sells help
all of the Walmarts combined? (hint: you are dividing
make it so much money?
18. How can Walmart boost profits by not regulating the
13. Do you think this is a good use of land and resources?
environmental practices of its factories?
Why or why not? Give three reasons why or why not.
19. Why does Walmart use factories other than ones in the
U.S. to supply goods? Give 2 examples.
Are Walmart's Chinese Factories As Bad As Apple's?
20. Walmart has proposed opening a store next to SSICP.
By Andy Kroll | March/April 2012 Issue of Mother Jones
They are willing to hire 300 students to work after
Since starting its sustainability program, Walmart school. You have been asked to write a letter that
supports or refutes the store opening. Your letter must
pledged to eliminate waste, use only renewable energy,
sell more organic produce, support small farmers, and 1 Main Idea
slash its energy footprint. That's no easy task: Each 3 Pieces of Evidence
second, 330 people buy from one of Walmart's 8,970 3 Links and
stores. With 2.1 million workers, it is the world's largest 1 Conclusion
private employer. Its carbon footprint—from its stores,
distribution centers, company offices, corporate jets, and YES THIS IS A MEL-CON!
so on—totaled 21.4 million metric tons in 2010, more
than that of half the world's countries, according to data USE YOUR answers from the questions to form a main
Walmart provided to the Carbon Disclosure Project. idea and evidence.
Christman, Chin, Lucchessi (Class Set) 2
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a measure of The HDI was created to emphasize that people and their
human development. It measures the average capabilities should be the ultimate criteria for assessing
achievements in a country in three basic dimensions of the development of a country, not economic growth
human development: a long and healthy life (health), alone.
access to knowledge (education) and a decent standard
of living (income).
The chart below shows the HDI for some of the countries where Walmart does business:
Country-rank on HDI Life Expectancy Average Years Expected Years Gross National
at birth of School of Schooling Income per Capita (GNI)
United States- 4 78.5 Years 12.4 Years 16 years- college degree $43,107
Cambodia-139 63.1 5.8 9.8 $1,848
Dominican Republic-98 73.4 7.2 11.9 $8,087
Mexico- 57 77.0 8.5 13.9 $13,245
Turkey-92 74.0 6.5 11.8 $12,246
China-101 73.5 7.5 11.6 $7,476
Use the chart above to answer the following questions:
21. Put the countries on the table in order by HDI. Put the highest ranking first and the lowest ranked last. Which
countries do you think are LDCs? Why do you think this?
22. Where do you think Walmart's worldwide corporate head quarters is located? Why do you think this?
23. Why do you think Walmart has a lot of factories in China and Cambodia?
24. Even though Mexico has one of the highest levels of GNI (Gross National Income), why would it be beneficial
to have factories there over a place like the Dominican Republic? (hint: The Dominican Republic is an island)
25. Do you think there is a relationship between the average income a person earns and education? If so, what is
it? If not, why doesn't it matter?
Christman, Chin, Lucchessi (Class Set) 3
Two developmental models are often fused into economic geography are Walt Whiman Rostow’s model and Richard
Nolan’s stages of growth model. There is also Dependency Theory, discussed at the bottom of this page.
Rostow’s Model Richard Nolan’s Stages of Growth Model
Walt Whitman Rostow created a model of development This model describes individual companies’ adaptation of
(also known as the take-off model) to show five stages that technology to be competitive in the economy. This model is
a country progresses through in its development. similar to Rostow’s but has six stages. Also, Nolan’s model
deals more with the integration of technology into a society
In traditional society, most workers are involved in the whereas Rostow’s model deals more with the principles of
primary sector of the economy and practice subsistence capitalism, such as investing and savings.
farming. Trade involves farmers and their agricultural
products. Mass production is not yet developed. During the initiation stage, technology is used sparingly
and primarily for data processing. The few technology
In the second phase, preconditions for takeoff (sometimes users do so to reduce costs of human processing of data.
called the transitional phase) material conditions, such as
transportation or infrastructure, improve. Entrepreneurs In the contagion stage, like a disease in a contagious
are beginning to see money-making opportunities, and the diffusion pattern, technology spreads. There are more uses
economy shifts from primary to secondary activities. for technology and often bugs need to be worked out of a
During this phase, expendable income begins to rise, and system before people will buy the product.
more people can invest in entrepreneurial activities.
In the control stage, management is more frustrated with
During the takeoff stage, more companies become involved technology because employees don’t always have the
in manufacturing. Remaining farmers become less reliant training or hardware to maximize their productivity.
on subsistence farming and sell more of their produce. People are confused and frustrated, but they also see the
Food is largely being processed for resale. Regions where technology’s possibilities. An example of this phase is a
growth occurs are usually around large urban centers. person buying a new computer and then, instead of using
However, growth is only taking place in a few industries. the computer for work, they simply use it to play solitaire.
During the drive to maturity, the technology that was open During the integration stage, users have come to terms
to only a few companies during the takeoff stages is being with technology and have found practical uses for it.
diffused and integrated into all areas of manufacturing.
In the data administration stage, technology is used
The final phase is the age of mass consumption. Workers mostly in the collection and the storage of data. Less work
are skilled in their professions and use their strength for the is done by computer programs, while more use is made of
overall benefit of the economy. Productivity, earnings, and computers’ ability to store data.
savings are at all-time highs. Society has shifted from
secondary sectors to more of a tertiary or service-based The last phase is the maturity stage. New uses for
economy. Manufacturing is still occurring but has shifted technology are being integrated into the workplace. During
from traditional sectors to consumer goods. this stage, the organization is looking for ways to use
technology to advance beyond its competitors.
Rostow’s model is based on the principal that consumers
will save and invest personal wealth to improve their Nolan’s model pertains more to individual organizations
ecomomic status. Industry needs this capital to grow and than to countries as a whole. But as companies begin to get
then generates a return on investment to shareholders. more adept with technology, they are usually at the
forefront of the infusion of technology into the daily lives of
Rostow’s critics cite the level of development in sub- their workers. Companies usually initiate technological
Saharan countries as examples where his model does not development because they possess the resources to
apply. Others point to inequities of resource distribution purchase new technology when it is still relatively
worldwide and the lack of capital to invest in some areas. expensive. Cost decreases as the technology ages.
Development is hard to quantify. Recently, new ways of measuring development, such as the HDI and the Physical
Quality of Life Index, have tried to quantify the different levels of development for countries worldwide.
Many countries that are less developed are still in a colonial mentality. They depended upon their colonial powers
for defense and, in exchange, gave up many of their raw materials. Neocolonialism, where less developed countries
are still economically dependent upon the more developed countries, still exists today. This is sometimes called
Christman, Chin, Lucchessi (Class Set) 4
Models of Development – Activity (Modified from: www.bized.co.uk › Learning Zone)
The aim of this activity is to look at the characteristics of three countries to identify some of the similarities and differences
in the problems they face and their relevance of the Rostow model of development.
Images: Children in a rural village outside East
London in the eastern Cape, South Africa.
Sydney Australia’s Harbour Bridge and Opera
Below is a series of data relating to the three countries:
Sector composition Infant mortality
Labor force by
Country (Agriculture, Industry, (Deaths per 1000
Services) live births)
Agricultural sector: 21.7% Agriculture - 63%
Bangladesh 1,900 141.3 Industry sector: 26.6% Industry - 11% 64.32 61
Service sector: 51.7% Services - 26%
Agricultural sector: 3.5%
Djibouti 1,300 0.467 Industry sector: 15.8% N/A 105.54 42
Service sector: 80.7%
Agricultural sector: 22.5% Agriculture - 50%
Guatemala 4,100 14.2 Industry sector: 18.9% Industry - 15% 36.91 65
Service sector: 58.5% Services - 35%
Source of data: CIA World Factbook
Bangladesh Djibouti Guatemala
1. Using the data above, what stage in the Rostow model would you
classify each of the three countries and why? Provide at least two
reasons why you classified them how you did.
2. From the data given what would you consider to be the key factors preventing the further development of the three
economies? In other words, what might prevent them from developing money and industry?
3. Considering the data given, what other features of each country might you expect to see that could limit the
potential for growth?
4. AP/Honors: To what extent are these factors able to be controlled or influenced by internal or external bodies such
as governments or international agencies, e.g. the World Bank?
5. AP: Given the research you have conducted, to what extent can the Rostow model help to explain economic
Christman, Chin, Lucchessi (Class Set) 5
If you really look at Rostow’s model, much of it correlates with the three Agricultural Revolutions. Your mission is to
compare and contrast WHICH Agricultural Revolution corresponds with Rostow’s model. Use the diagram below to
help. Also, the notes on the three agricultural revolutions have been attached to this document. Compare and
Contrast the Industrial Revolution to each stage of Rostow’s model.
Agricultural Which stage(s) of Rostow’s Why did you compare How do the agricultural
Revolution Model can be compared to this/these stage(s) to this revolution and the stage(s)
this agricultural particular revolution? Give 3 of Rostow’s model differ?
revolution? reasons. Give 3 examples.
The Evolution of Agriculture
Before the First Agricultural Revolution: Causes for the Second Agricultural Rev
Nomadic Lifestyle Civilization develops
• People lived in small groups o Farmers are taxed
• Lived very short lives, up to maybe 25 years old o Farmers produce for everyone
• Never had a permanent home, always on the move Global Trade: Chocolate, corn, sugar, potatoes
Hunting: 3 field rotation system
• People followed herds of animals Tools: Plow, scythe, saws, hammers, nails, iron, horse
• People used weapons or traps to get animals collar, horseshoe
Gathering: People searched for berries, nuts, greens Second Agricultural revolution 1800s
New Banking: Loans to farmers help buy machines
Causes for the First Agricultural Rev Cash crops
Improved Fire Techniques Fertilizers
Invented better hunting tools: Spear; bow/arrow; axe Machines: Seed drill, planting in rows, railroad, tractors
Better Fishing Tools: net; harpoon; fish hook; tools with engines
Better food supplies led to: more time to store food
and more strategizing about hunting and gathering Causes Third Agricultural Revolution
Fed a lot more people
First agricultural revolution 8000 BCE Railroad was created; transported food & machines
Plant Domestication Industrial Revolution
o Root Crops: Cut part of plant to grow another, o Factories, cities, airplanes tons of inventions!
such as yams, cassava o Technological Inventions
o Seed Crops : Wheat, barley, corn, squash, beans Electricity
o Time the harvest, water, pick the best plants to Healthcare Developments
take seeds and plant again Growing world population
Animal Domestication: Humans captured animals &
Third Agricultural Revolution AKA Green Revolution 1940s
kept them for food. Examples: sheep, goat, pigs,
Genetically Modified Organisms
This happened over thousands of years: 8000-5000BCE
o 8000BCE Systematic Agriculture (plan what you plant) Billions of people were saved from starvation in
o 6700BCE Farming Villages in Middle East (Fertile Asia and the Americas
o 5000BCE Rice is grown in Southeast Asia Super-pests
Having more calories and stable food supply led people Elimination of the small farmer
to setup towns and villages around farms and animals Environmental damage
Civilization developed and advanced, perfecting farming
and domestication. Trade and world exploration began.
Christman, Chin, Lucchessi (Class Set) 6