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					Introduction
         What is Science?
• The observation, identification,
  description, experimental investigation
  and theoretical explanation of natural
  phenomena
      Characteristics of Science
•   Methodological activity
•   Inquisitive
•   Critical thinking
•   Empirical evidence
•   Logical reasoning
•   Patterns
   What is Animal Behavior?
• What an animal does as it interacts
  with its environment.
               Ethology
• The study of animal behavior
• Study proximate mechanisms and of
  animal behavior
• Field pioneered by Konrad Lorenz&
  Niko Tinbergen
  – The Study of Instinct, Tinbergen 1951
         Classic Ethology
• The Study of Instinct, Tinbergen 1951
  – How do physiological mechanisms control
    behavior
  – How do physiological mechanisms develop
    in individuals
  – What Is the adaptive value of a behavioral
    trait
  – How did the trait originate and become
    modified over evolutionary time
            Classic Ethology
• Focus of research was
  on proximate causes of
  behavior
  – How do physiological
    mechanisms control
    behavior
  – How do physiological
    mechanisms develop in
    individuals
         Classic Ethology
• Reflected science of the time
  – Technology available
  – Less knowledge of DNA and gene
    expression
  – Less knowledge of evolution
• Hierarchical perception of life on earth
• Focus on group selection
             Group Selection
• The process that occurs when groups
  differ in their collective attributes and
  the differences affect the survival
  chances of the group
  – i.e. the group is the level that is selected
    for not the individual (gene)
  – Genes increase frequency in a population
    because of the benefit to the group NOT
    the individual
           Paradigm Shift
• Greater understanding of evolution and
  natural selection caused a major shift
  in the understanding and study of
  animal behavior
  – George C. Williams, John Maynard Smith,
    C.M. Perrins
• 1975 Animal Behavior: An
  Evolutionary Approach John Alcock
  – Your text!!
• Rise in Behavioral Ecology &
  Sociobiology
       Behavioral Ecology
• The study of the evolutionary
  relationship between an animal’s
  behavior and its environment
• Evolutionary theory is the primary
  analytical tool
  – Ex. “What role did natural selection play
    in shaping the evolution of this society or
    that social behavior?”
       Behavioral Ecology
• Integrates both proximate and ultimate
  causation of behaviors
  – Neuroethology
  – Better understanding of role of genes in
    behavior
• More emphasis on ultimate factors
  influencing behaviors than classical
  ethology
  – What Is the adaptive value of a behavioral
    trait
  – How did the trait originate and become
    modified over evolutionary time
            Sociobiology
• The systematic study of the biological
  basis of all social behavior
  – E.O. Wilson
• A component of behavioral ecology
  that explores the effects of the social
  environment on behavioral evolution
                  Goals
• Understand scientific process &
  thinking
  – Scientific experimentation
• Understand the role of genes and the
  nervous system in animal behavior
  – Mechanisms of behavior
• Understand the role of evolution in
  driving and shaping animal behavior
• Understanding different types of
  animal behavior
   How do Scientists Study
         Behavior?
• Observation
  – Observation and careful description
  – Biased
• Hypothesis-based science
  – Testing explanations
  – Typically with experiments
  – Difficult to tease apart complex behaviors
 Observation Based Science
• Jane Goodall
         Experiment Based
• Niko Tinbergen &
  Digger wasps
• Used simple materials
  – Pine cones and stones
  – Simple procedure
The results led him to
  conclude that
digger wasps use a
  pattern of landmarks
 to find their nests.
           Scientific Method
•   Observation
•   Question
•   Hypothesis
•   Experiment
•   Conclusions
     Hypothesis vs Theory
• Hypothesis= educated guess that
  addresses cause and effect
  – Based on background information ie
    reasonable explanation
  – Testable question
  – Supported or not supported
                 Theory
• Mature coherent body of interconnected
  statements
• A scheme or system of ideas and statements
  held as an explanation or account of a group
  of facts or phenomena
• A series of hypotheses that has been
  confirmed or established by observation or
  experimentation
         Patterns in Science
•   Scale (perspective)
•   Form and function
•   Unity of life
•   Evolution (Context)
Scale
Scale
Scale
Scale
                       Scale
 Ecology & evolution




                               Organ systems
                               & functions



 Cell structure
 & function

DNA structure
& function
Form and Function
Form and Function
Form and Function
      Form and Function-
         Populations
• Wolves       • Bees
                 – Queen
                 – Worker
                 – Drones
Patterns of Form and Function
  occurs at all scales of Life
Behaviors Exhibit Patterns of
     Form & Function
• Springbok pronking
• http://www.youtube.co
  m/watch?v=FlddKpKV
  XV4&feature=related
          Unity of life




We share unity in form & function
We share morphology, we share behavior
History of Life
Evolution
“Nothing in biology makes sense except
 in the light of evolution”

    Theodosius Dobzhansky
Brain & Neurons
        Structures responsible for
        coordination and
        production of behaviors
Communication
Predator Avoidance
Feeding Behaviors
Kin Recognition
        • Ability of animals to
          recognize closely
          related individuals
Sex Differences
Sexual Dimorphism
          Sexual Conflict
-Male Alliance
 formations
 -2-3 males in a
 group.
 -Eat, roam, and
 mate.
-Alliance formations
 corral a female for
 each member of the
 group to copulate.
-Can last from a few
 minutes up to a
Spotted Hyaena
              Role Reversal
• Female inserts her eggs in
  males pouch




 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fNJ39Mhsszw
       Fathers that give Birth
                                 • Male seahorses take
                                   care of the eggs alone




http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BPlnqckOPdY
Altruism
    • Behavior that is not
      directly beneficial
      (or may be harmful)
      to an individual
   Sexual Reproduction
Influences Social Systems
Life as a Ground Squirrel
Aggression & Conflict
Copulatory Plug
Copulatory Plug
It’s a Tough Life
            Parental Care
• Process of
  promoting and
  supporting the
  physical, emotional,
  social and
  intellectual
  development of the
  offspring
• Can involve single
  or both parents
     Gastric Brooding Frog
• Female swallow eggs after fertilization
• Mother incubated in stomach
Scorpion with Babies
               Monogamy

• Mating system
  where individuals
  choose one mate at
  a time
  – Seasonal
  – Serial
              Prarie Vole
• Male will mate
  exclusively with the
  first female he loses
  his virginity to
• Will attack other
  females
      Extra Pair Copuations
• Dispelling the myth
  of monogamy
• Why be
  promiscuous?
Slutty Animals
  Promiscuity- Wooly Spider
           Monkey
• Mating systems
  where there are no
  stable relationships
               Polygyny
• One male, Multiple
  females
              Polyandry
• One Female,
  Multiple males
• Wied’s Marmoset
• Females mate with
  multiple males
• Hold territories
• Mate guard
Satin Bowerbird
Magnificent Bowerbird
There is only one way to
    understand this
         Survival of the Fittest
• Competition to survive
• To survive is to reproduce

• Every organism is a product of
  evolution by natural selection, a
  process that favors characteristics
  that pay off in reproduction Daly & Wilson,
  1984
   Mechanisms of Evolution
• Natural selection

  – Differential reproductive
    success- individuals
    best suited for a given
    environment will survive
    and contribute more off
    spring to the next
    generation
      Proximate Causation
• Sensory systems
  – Need to be able to perceive danger
• Mechanisms that drive muscles that
  elicit behavior
• Need to be able to contract muscles to
  run
• Cellular activities regulate
  development
• Nerve function
          Ultimate Causation
•   How does the internal machinery work
•   Why does machinery work that way
•   Is that behavior an adaptation
•   Does that behavior allow males to
    more territory
    – i.e. access to more females (increased
      reproductive fitness)
• How does that behavior allow the
  individual to survive, find food, find
  mates, escape predators, communicate

				
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posted:5/6/2012
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