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       Home:
Templates, Tools, and Recipes




                                2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
 for Building Education Data
            Shows
Otherwise Known As:




                        2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
   Cooking with Data!
What Is Your Relationship
 with Education Data?

          Nonexistent?

          Reactive?




                            2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
          Proactive?
       Cooking with Data in
         Four Easy Steps

 Build a Recipe of Key Questions
 Obtain Data to Answer Them
 Find the Storyline to Bring It All Together
 Use the Data to Communicate, Inform,




                                                2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
  Provoke, and Persuade ... and Improve Your
  System!
                 Don’t Delay

   Work for, BUT DON’T WAIT FOR, a
    perfect data system. Instead, start making
    the case with local, state, and federal data
    available to you right now.




                                                   2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
   Simple kinds of data analyses can go a long,
    long way.
       Basic Data Tools

    Do you have …
         “disaggregated”
         “longitudinal”
         “cross-tabulated”
                      … data?




                                      2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
… for digging beneath the averages!
Basic Ways to Analyze Data
   Start with simple statistics - averages, %’s




                                                   2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
 Basic Ways to Analyze Data
 Start with simple statistics - averages, %’s
 Disaggregate = “slicing” a piece of data

                         Average Score
                              149




                                                            2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
    African American Asian   Latino Native American White
           121        154     127         132        160
Basic Ways to Analyze Data
   Disaggregate




                             2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
 Basic Ways to Analyze Data
 Start with simple statistics - averages, %’s
 Disaggregate
 Longitudinate = “stretching” data out over time




                                                    2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
Basic Ways to Analyze Data
   Longitudinate




                             2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
 Basic Ways to Analyze Data
 Start with simple statistics - averages, %’s
 Disaggregate
 Longitudinate
 Cross-tabulate = “dicing” a piece of data




                                                 2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
          Basic Ways to Analyze Data
         Cross-tabulate
                       % passing 8th grade math test = 50%
          African American   Asian    Latino   Native American   White



Taking
Algebra        66%             70%    63%           60%          68%




                                                                         2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
Taking
General         33%            40%    35%          30%           38%
Math
Basic Ways to Analyze Data
   Cross-tabulate
             % passing 8th grade math test
       80%
                                             African
       70%                                   American

       60%                                   Asian

       50%
                                             Latino




                                                        2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
       40%
                                             Native
       30%
                                             American
       20%
                                             White
       10%

       0%
              Algebra     General Math
Use the Matrix ...

  to “dice your data”




                        2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
A Simple Template for Cross-Tabulations
1. What is your basic measure (e.g., test scores? graduation rates?)

2. What is the first characteristic for dividing into groups (e.g., race? poverty?)

  3. What is the second characteristic for dividing into groups? (e.g., type of




                                                                                      2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
  curriculum? teacher characteristics?)
           African American and Latino
           Freshmen Complete College
                  at Lower Rates
         100%

                                                                                                        75%
                                                                     61%

                                   45%




                                                                                                                2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
              0%
                         African American                           Latino                              White

Source: Adapted from Adelman, Clifford, U.S. Department of Education, “Answers in the Toolbox,” 1999.
A Simple Template for Cross-Tabulations
1. What is your basic measure (e.g., test scores? graduation rates?)                                                      college completion rate

2. What is the first characteristic for dividing into groups (e.g., race? poverty?)                                                      race

                                                                                                 Black   Latino   White       Asian      Native American
  3. What is the second characteristic for dividing into groups? (e.g., type of
                                                     high school curriculum




                                                                                    honors




                                                                                  college prep
  curriculum? teacher characteristics?)




                                                                                                                                                           2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                                                                                  general ed




                                                                                   vocational
A Simple Template for Cross-Tabulations
1. What is your basic measure (e.g., test scores? graduation rates?)                                                       college completion rate

2. What is the first characteristic for dividing into groups (e.g., race? poverty?)                                                       race

                                                                                                  Black   Latino   White       Asian      Native American
  3. What is the second characteristic for dividing into groups? (e.g., type of
                                                     high school curriculum


                                                                                  rigorous high
                                                                                      school
                                                                                    curriculum



                                                                                  less rigorous
                                                                                   high school
                                                                                    curriculum
  curriculum? teacher characteristics?)




                                                                                                                                                            2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                A Strong H.S. Curriculum*
                  Equals Higher College
                       Completion
         100%                                                                                           86%
                                                       75%                                     79%
                                                                                   73%
                                           61%
                                45%




                                                                                                              2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
             0%
                              All college entrants                        Entrants who had strong h.s.
                                                                                   curriculum

                                              African American                Latino        White

*Completing at least “Algebra II” plus other courses.
Source: Adapted from Adelman, Clifford, U.S. Department of Education, “Answers in the Toolbox,” 1999.
   Minority students are less
likely to be enrolled in higher-
      level math courses.

  Is it because they just aren’t prepared
              to do the work?




                                            2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
   What if we “diced” the data by test
        scores as well as race?
A Simple Template for Cross-Tabulations
1. What is your basic measure (e.g., test scores? graduation rates?)                                                             % placed in Algebra

2. What is the first characteristic for dividing into groups (e.g., race? poverty?)                                                            race

                                                                                                      African
  3. What is the second characteristic for dividing into groups? (e.g., type of                      American   Asian   Latino       White
                                                     previous test scores




                                                                                  in top quarter




                                                                                    in second
                                                                                      quarter
  curriculum? teacher characteristics?)




                                                                                                                                                       2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                                                                                  in third quarter




                                                                                    in bottom
                                                                                      quarter
   Percentage of High Scoring
Students Placed in Algebra in One
Southern California School District
         100%                                            100%
                                                                                     88%



                                         51%
                                                                           42%




                                                                                                   2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
              0%
                                                        Top Quartile CTBS

                                 African American                      Asian     Latino    White

Source: The Achievement Council, Inc. Los Angeles, CA. Unpublished. 1991
   Percentage of High Scoring
Students Placed in Algebra in One
Southern California School District
         100%                        100%
                                                        88%
                                                                                 83%


                             51%                                                             50%
                                               42%




                                                                                                   2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                                                                           16%
                                                                                       11%

              0%
                                Top Quartile CTBS                          Second Quartile CTBS

                                 African American                      Asian   Latino    White

Source: The Achievement Council, Inc. Los Angeles, CA. Unpublished. 1991
A Simple Template for Cross-Tabulations
1. What is your basic measure (e.g., test scores? graduation rates?)                                                             % placed in Algebra

2. What is the first characteristic for dividing into groups (e.g., race? poverty?)                                                            race

                                                                                                      African
  3. What is the second characteristic for dividing into groups? (e.g., type of                      American   Asian   Latino       White
                                                     previous test scores




                                                                                  in top quarter




                                                                                    in second
                                                                                      quarter
  curriculum? teacher characteristics?)




                                                                                                                                                       2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                                                                                  in third quarter




                                                                                    in bottom
                                                                                      quarter
       Cooking with Data in
         Four Easy Steps

 Build a Recipe of Key Questions
 Obtain Data to Answer Them
 Find the Storyline to Bring It All Together
 Use the Data to Communicate, Inform,




                                                2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
  Provoke, and Persuade!
    A Generic Recipe:
  What Are the “Four Food
Groups” for Data Questions?


         Achievement
         Attainment
         Opportunities




                              2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
         Possibilities
            I. Achievement

 How high are students achieving in key subjects
  and grade levels?
 How does achievement differ for different groups
  of students?
 How has achievement changed over time?




                                                     2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
 How much do cohorts gain from grade level to
  grade level? Are there grade levels where
  achievement stagnates?
            High School Achievement:
                Math and Science

      310


      300


      290




                                                                          2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
      280
                1986         1990        1992     1994      1996   1999

                                           Math   Science


Source: NAEP 1999 Trends in Academic Progress.
         U.S. Proficiency Gaps in 8th
              Grade Math (2000)
    50%

    40%                                                         35%

    30%                                                                                     African American
                                                                                            Latino
    20%                                                                                     White




                                                                                                                   2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                                                10%
    10%                        6%

      0%
                                       % Proficient
Source: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. NAEP 2000 Mathematics Report Card.
Washington, DC: US Department of Education, July 2001.
         U.S. Proficiency Gaps in 8th
            Grade Science (2000)
    50%
                                                                40%
    40%

    30%                                                                                      African American
                                                                                             Latino
    20%                                                                                      White
                                                11%




                                                                                                                2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
    10%                        6%

      0%
                                       % Proficient
Source: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. NAEP 2000 Science Report Card.
Washington, DC: US Department of Education, November 2001.
              U.S. 8th Graders Scoring
               Below “Basic” Level in
                     Math (2000)
    80%
                              68%
    70%                                         59%
    60%
    50%                                                                                     African American
    40%                                                                                     Latino
    30%                                                         23%                         White




                                                                                                                   2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
    20%
    10%
      0%
                            % BELOW "Basic" Level
Source: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. NAEP 2000 Mathematics Report Card.
Washington, DC: US Department of Education, July 2001.
              U.S. 8th Graders Scoring
               Below “Basic” Level in
                   Science (2000)
    80%                       76%
                                                67%
    70%
    60%
    50%                                                                                      African American
    40%                                                         28%                          Latino
    30%                                                                                      White




                                                                                                                2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
    20%
    10%
      0%
                            % BELOW "Basic" Level
Source: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. NAEP 2000 Science Report Card.
Washington, DC: US Department of Education, November 2001.
              African American-White
           Science Gap Grows Over Time
            60                                                                                 52
            50                       41                                43

            40
            30
            20




                                                                                                                2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
            10
             0


               9 year-olds in 1990                   13 year-olds in 1994                17 year-olds in 1999


Source: Education Trust, New Frontiers for a New Century, Spring 2001. www.edtrust.org
                                 Gap Narrows, Then Widens
                                    NAEP Math Scores,
                                       13 Year-Olds
                                     300
           Average Math NAEP Score




                                                                                                                               2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                                     200
                                           1973 1978 1982 1986 1990 1992 1994 1996 1999

                                                    African American              Latino           White

Source: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. NAEP 1999 Trends in Academic Progress (p. 108)
Washington, DC: US Department of Education, August 2000
                                 Gap Narrows, Then Widens
                                   NAEP Science Scores,
                                       13 Year-Olds
                                     300
           Average Math NAEP Score




                                                                                                                               2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                                     200
                                           1977   1982     1986    1990      1992         1994         1996        1999

                                                         African American         Latino           White

Source: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. NAEP 1999 Trends in Academic Progress (p. 108)
Washington, DC: US Department of Education, August 2000
                                 Gap Narrows, Then Widens
                                   NAEP Science Scores,
                                        9 Year-Olds
                                     250
           Average Math NAEP Score




                                                                                                                               2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                                     150
                                           1977   1982     1986    1990      1992         1994         1996        1999

                                                         African American         Latino           White

Source: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. NAEP 1999 Trends in Academic Progress (p. 108)
Washington, DC: US Department of Education, August 2000
       African American and Latino
      17 Year-Olds Do Math at Same
      Levels As White 13 Year-Olds
     100%




                                                                                          2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
        0%
                       200                      250          300              350

          White 13 yr-olds              Latino 17 yr-olds   African American 17 yr-olds

Source: USDOE, NCES 1999 NAEP Summary Tables online.
    African American and Latino 17
    Year-Olds Do Science at Same
     Levels as White 13 Year-Olds
      100%




                                                                                            2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
         0%
                      150                200            250         300           350

           White 13 yr-olds              Latino 17 yr-olds    African American 17 yr-olds

Source: USDOE, NCES, 1999 NAEP Summary Tables online.
                II. Attainment

   How many make it to - and beyond - key
    points in the system?
         Transition from middle school to high school
         High school diploma
         Matriculation at an institution of higher education




                                                                2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
         Persistence beyond freshman year
         Earning a college diploma
            II. Attainment
 How many make it to - and beyond - key
  points in the system?
 Who makes it to those key points?
 How many need remediation? Do
  remediation rates differ by race/poverty?
 How have the numbers changed over time?




                                                 2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
 How does curriculum and achievement
  affect attainment rates and attainment rates
  for different groups?
                  Grad Rates Flat; More
                 Non-Traditional Diplomas

          1998                                     75%                                     10%          = 85%




          1990                                       80%                                      6% = 86%




                                                                                                                  2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                 0%                                                                                        100%

                                  Regular H.S. Diploma                 GED, other non trad

                                       (18-24 Year-Old High School Completers)

Source: US Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Current Population Survey (CPS) October 1998
                       Students Graduate
                       From High School
                    At Different Rates, 2000
         100%                                                94%                                 91%
                                            87%

                                                                               62%




                                                                                                            2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
             0%
                                                                  (AGE 24)

                                         African American               Asian         Latino        White
Source: US Bureau of Census, Current Population Reports, Educational Attainment in the United States:
March 2000, Detailed Tables No. 2
              When Asked Students’ Main
               Plan After High School,
                Expectations Differed
     80%                                                Responses From
                        71%
                                                                                                         4-year college
                                                              52%                                        Work full-time
    percent




                                                                                                   32%
                                                                                                              28%




                                                                                                                          2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                                                                        11%
                                    5%
         0%
                          Students                              Parents                             Teachers
                                                      (Secondary School)
Source: Metropolitan Life, Survey of the American Teacher 2000: Are We Preparing Students for the 21st Century?,
September 2000, p. 80.
            Most High School Grads Go
              On To Postsecondary
                  Within 2 Years
                   Entered 2 Year Colleges                                                           26%
                   Entered 4 Year Colleges                                                           45%
                   Other Postsecondary                                                                  4%




                                                                                                                          2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                   Total                                                                            75%

Source: NELS: 88, Second (1992) and Third (1994) Follow up; in, USDOE, NCES, “Access to Postsecondary Education for the
1992 High School Graduates”, 1998, Table 2.
       Low-Income Students Attend
      Postsecondary at Lower Rates

          Achievement                                      Low-                              High-
          Level (in quartiles)                            Income                            Income
          First (Low)                                      36%                               77%
          Second                                           50%                               85%




                                                                                                                      2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
          Third                                            63%                               90%
          Fourth (High)                                    78%                               97%

Source: NELS: 88, Second (1992) and Third Follow up (1994); in, USDOE, NCES, NCES Condition of Education 1997 p. 64
              Many Freshmen Must Take
                 Remedial Courses

                                                               All                       High Minority
                                                             Colleges                       Colleges
               Reading                                        13%                            25%
               Writing                                          17%                                29%




                                                                                                                            2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
               Math                                             24%                                35%
               Reading,                                         29%                                43%
               Writing or Math


Source: USDOE, NCES, PEQUIS, Remedial Education at Higher Education Institutions in fall 1995 (1996), in The Condition of
Education 1999, p. 88
                     Students Requiring
                   Extensive Remediation
                  Graduate at Lower Rates
                                                                Earned BA
                 No Remedial Courses                              54%
                 One Remedial Course                              45%




                                                                            2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                 Three Remedial Courses                           18%
                 More than Two                                     9%
                 Semesters of Reading

Source: Adelman, Cliff in Crosstalk. Vol 6 No.3, Summer 1998.
         College Graduates by Age 24



                         Young People From                                                      48%
                         High Income Families
                         Young People From                                                        7%




                                                                                                             2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                         Low Income Families



Source: Tom Mortenson, Research Seminar on Public Policy Analysis of Opportunity for Post Secondary, 1997.
             III. Opportunities

   Basic data and “sliced-and-diced” data on
    important factors for student learning:

    –   Teacher Quality
    –




                                                2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
        Curriculum and Expectations
    –   Instructional Practices
    –   Investments
                  2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
Teacher Quality
     Many Secondary Students Have
      Teachers Without a Major or
        Minor in Teaching Field
       45%


                                                                                                        31%

                          24%
                                                    19%                        20%




                                                                                                               2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
         0%
                        English              Social Studies                 Science                     Math

Source: Richard M. Ingersoll, "The Problem of Underqualified Teachers in American Secondary Schools,"
Educational Researcher, Vol. 28, Number 2, March 1999
        Classes in High Poverty High
        Schools More Often Taught by
          Underqualified* Teachers
         50%
                         40%

                                                                             31%
                                28%
                                                   20%                               19%               18% 16%
                                                           14%




                                                                                                                              2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
           0%
                            Math                    Science                   English             Social Studies

                          greater than 49% Free Lunch                        less than 20% Free Lunch
*Teachers who lack a major or minor in the field
Source: National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future, What Matters Most: Teaching for America’s Future (p.16) 1996.
         More Classes in High-Poverty,
         High-Minority Schools Taught
           by Out-of-Field* Teachers
                                     25%
         25%                                                                          22%


                                                     15%                                             16%




                                                                                                           2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
           0%

                                  High-poverty schools                       Low-poverty schools
                                  High-minority schools                      Low-minority schools

*Teachers lacking a major or minor in field.
Source: Education Trust Analysis of Schools and Staffing Survey (1994-95) by Richard M. Ingersoll.
              Poor and Minority Students
               Get More Inexperienced*
                      Teachers
         25%
                                     20%                                              21%



                                                     11%                                               10%




                                                                                                               2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
           0%

                                  High-poverty schools                       Low-poverty schools
                                  High-minority schools                      Low-minority schools

*Teachers with 3 or fewer years of experience. “High” and “low” refer to top and bottom quartiles.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics, “Monitoring Quality: An Indicators Report,” December 2000.
           High-Poverty Schools Get
          More Low-Scoring* Teachers
         50%
                                            42%


                                                                          28%




                                                                                                  2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
           0%

                                     High-poverty* schools       All other schools

*Teachers scoring in the bottom quartile on on SAT/ACT. “High-poverty” schools have 2/3 or more
students eligible for reduced-price lunch.
Source: Education Week, “Quality Counts 2001,” January 2001.
       Classroom Value-Added
              Analyses
 Pre- and post-testing/District
  assessments
 Controls for key outside factors
 Examines effectiveness, defined as
  raising student achievement




                                           2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
    … but unlike the other tools shown
    here, this one is far from “simple”!
             Teacher A

35
30
25
20
15




                                        2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
10
 5
 0
     1   3   5   7   9   11   13   15
             Teacher B

35
30
25
20
15




                                        2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
10
 5
 0
     1   3   5   7   9   11   13   15
                            2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                                                17
                                                15
                                                13
Teacher C




                                                11
                                                9
                                                7
                                                5
                                                3
                                                1
            25

                 20

                      15

                           10

                                  5

                                           0
                            2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                                                17
                                                15
                                                13
Teacher D




                                                11
                                                9
                                                7
                                                5
                                                3
                                                1
            25

                 20

                      15

                           10

                                  5

                                           0
             2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
Curriculum
Low-Income Students Less Likely to be Enrolled in a
           College Preparatory Track
       70                                                                                                            65.1
 Percent Enrolled




                                                                         48.8


                             28.3




                                                                                                                                            2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
       20
                             Low                                     Medium                                         High
                                                        Socio-Economic Status
Source: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988: Second
Follow-Up, 1992 in: A Profile of the American High School Senior in 1992 .( p. 36) Washington, DC: US Department of Education, June 1995.

1998 by The Education Trust, Inc.
African American and Latino 10th
Graders Less Likely to be Enrolled
 in a College Preparatory Track
         45%                                             42.1%

                                                                                                     34.1%

                                   25.7%
                                                                               22.6%




                                                                                                                               2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
           0%
                                                              Race/Ethnicity

                                           African American            Asian       Latino       White

Source: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988:
“First Follow-Up Student Study.”
         Students Taking a Rigorous
        Math Curriculum Score Higher
         360




                                                                                                                          2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
         240
                   Pre-Algebra or           Algebra I            Geometry             Algebra II         Precalculus or
                   General Math                                                                            Calculus

                                            African American                  Latino          White

Source: National Assessment of Educational Progress, 1992 Mathematics Trend Assessment, National Center for Educational
Statistics. NAEP 1992 Trends in Academic Progress (p 113). Washington, DC: US Department of Education. 1994
    Low Quartile Students Gain More
      From College Prep Courses*
                              30                      27.6
            NELS Score Gain




                                         19                                                             19.9
                                                                                          15.5




                                                                                                                                 2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                              0
                                              Math                                            Reading

                                                         Vocational          College Prep
*Grade 8-12 test score gains based on 8th grade achievement.
Source: USDOE, NCES, Vocational Education in the United States: Toward the Year 2000, in Issue Brief: Students Who Prepare for
College and Vocation
                               Advanced Math Classes:
                                Minority Interest Far
                                 Exceeds Availability
       100%
                                                                                 74%
                                                     69%                                                     67%
         75%             65%                                    61%
                                                                                                                       52%
                                    46%                                                    45%
         50%


         25%




                                                                                                                             2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
           0%
                      Minority Boys               Non-Minority                Minority Girls              Non-Minority
                                                        Boys                                                     Girls


                                                      Interest              Availability
Source: National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering, Progress Toward Power: A Follow-Up Survey of Children’s and
Parents’ Attitudes About Math and Science. Research Letter, October 2001. Survey conducted by Harris Interactive, 1999.
                Who’s Discouraging Students from
                    Taking Advanced Math?

       30%

       25%
                                                    19%
                                                                                          18%
       20%                       17%

       15%
                                                                                                              9%
       10%




                                                                                                                             2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
         5%

         0%
                          Discouraged by Friends                                 Discouraged by Teachers


                                                   Minority              Non-Minority

Source: National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering, Progress Toward Power: A Follow-Up Survey of Children’s and
Parents’ Attitudes About Math and Science. Research Letter, October 2001. Survey conducted by Harris Interactive, 1999..
                        2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
Classroom Instruction
      African American 8th Graders
     Are Less Likely to Get Hands on
            Science Activities
        100%
                                                               14%
                                      37%


                                                               86%
                                      63%




                                                                             2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
           0%
                             African American                 White

                               Once A Week or More   Twice a Month or Less

Source: NCES, NAEP Summary Data Tables, 1996.
          African-American 8th Graders
          Are Less Likely to Be Taught
                   Lab Skills
        100%
                                                                    10%
                                      26%
                                                                    46%
                                      38%




                                                                                        2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                                      36%                           43%
           0%
                             African American                       White

              Heavy Emphasis                    Moderate Emphasis     Little Emphasis



Source: NCES, NAEP Summary Data Tables, 1996.
       African Americans 8th Graders
        Less Likely to Be Assigned
          Complex Math Problems
        100%

                                                                       45%
                                      62%


                                                                       55%




                                                                               2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                                      38%
           0%
                             African American                          White

                                                A Lot   Some or None

Source: NCES, NAEP Summary Data Tables, 1996.
           Comparison of Letter Grades and
           Test Scores in English Language
                         Arts

          50
                                                            38                                        41
                                                                                                               35
                         31
Percentage of
  Students




                                                                      20                    23


                                                                                                           8




                                                                                                                    2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                                     4

                0
                    Advanced or                     Proficient or                  Basic or Mostly Below Basic or
                     Mostly A's                      Mostly Bs                            Cs         Ds and Fs

                                             Grades             SC State PACT 2000


 Source: South Carolina State Department of Education Office of Research Education Research Report;
 South Carolina Standards-based Education Design Team - Morh, Holton, & Keim
                               Large City Profile F:
                                  SAT 9 vs. Awarded "C"
                          or Better Grades for Grade 10 English
100




  50




                                                                                                  2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
   0
         1     2     3     4     5    6     7    8    9    10     11   12   13     14   15   16
                   Low to High Poverty - Comprehensive High Schools
                               SAT 9%>= 50th Percentile In Reading
                               % Greater than or = "C" on Grade 10 English Grade

Source: Accountability Targets Summary, San Diego, Spring, 1998
2000 by The Education Trust, Inc.
              2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
Investments
          Poor Children Receive Fewer
                   Resources
        $7,000
                                                                                  $6,067
        $6,000
                                           $4,928
        $5,000
        $4,000
        $3,000




                                                                                                       2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
        $2,000
        $1,000
                $0
                          Districts with Highest* Child                 Districts with Lowest* Child
                                     Poverty                                       Poverty
*Refers to top and bottom quartiles by percentage of children who are poor.
Source: Education Trust analysis of federal data by Greg F. Orlofsky.
                Minority Children Receive
                   Fewer Resources
        $7,000
                                                                                   $5,785
        $6,000
                                           $4,806
        $5,000
        $4,000
        $3,000




                                                                                                          2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
        $2,000
        $1,000
                $0
                        Districts with Highest* Minority                Districts with Lowest* Minority
                                   Enrollment                                     Enrollment
*Refers to top and bottom quartiles by percentage of minority students.
Source: Education Trust analysis of federal data by Greg F. Orlofsky.
         African-American 8th Graders
         Less Likely to Have Adequate
               Science Facilities
        100%                                                          8%
                                      32%
                                                                     42%
                                      35%

                                                                     50%




                                                                                            2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                                      34%
           0%
                             African American                        White

         In Lab with Water           Access to Lab and Water   No Access to Lab and Water



Source: NCES, NAEP Summary Data Tables, 1996.
           IV. Possibilities

 Which schools and districts have the highest
  performance for poor and minority students?
 Are there high-poverty and high-minority
  schools and districts that also have very high
  achievement?




                                                   2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
 What is the range of performance for poor
  and minority students among the state’s
  schools and districts?
  Why do poor and minority
  students have lower test
scores and lower educational
        attainment?




                               2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
    What We Hear Adults Say:

 They’re poor;
 Their parents don’t care;
 They come to schools without breakfast;
 Not enough books;




                                            2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
 Not enough parents . . .
 But if they’re right, then why
are poor and minority children
  performing so high in some
          schools . . .




                                  2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                           Mount Royal School
                             Baltimore, MD
        About 75% Low-Income
        About 99% African American
        Highest 5th grade math results in the state
         for two years in a row (1999-2000), and in




                                                                          2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
         top ten for three years in a row (1999-2001).



Source: Maryland Department of Education Website. 1999 and 2000 scores.
                      Dunbar-Erwin School
                     Newport News, Virginia

            Percent 8th Graders Passing SOL Science                    93% African-American
100%                                                    91%            92% Low Income
              87%                  86%
                                                                       In 1998 scored in
75%
                                                                        bottom half of VA
50%                                                                     schools in 8th grade
                                                                        science




                                                                                                   2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
25%                                                                    In 2001 outscored three-
                                                                        quarters of VA schools
 0%
              1999                2000                 2001
                                                                        in 8th grade science



  Source: The Education Trust, Dispelling the Myth Online, www.edtrust.org
                       2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
some districts . . .
                                 Aldine, TX: Raising
                               Achievement for All While
                                   Narrowing Gaps
                               100%                                                                  94%
                                                                                                     91%
      Passing TAAS math test




                                                                                                     85%

                               75%    72%


                                      55%
                               50%
                                      42%




                                                                                                           2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                               25%


                                0%
                                       1994     1995    1996     1997        1998          1999   2000

                                              African American       Latino           White

Source: Texas Education Agency-Academic Excellence Indicator System Report 1994 through 2000.
                               2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
And some entire states . . .
                        4th Grade Math
                    African American Gains
                    Between 1992 and 2000

                   United States                                                              +13
                   North Carolina                                                             +25




                                                                                                    2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                   Texas                                                                      +21
                   Indiana                                                                    +20

Source: USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Summary Data Tables
           African Americans in Texas
           Write as Well or Better Than
                Whites in 7 States
                                             NAEP Grade 8 Writing 1998

                     Texas                                                                          146
             Lousisiana                                                                             146
             Mississippi                                                                            146

                 Missouri                                                                           146




                                                                                                                2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                       Utah                                                                         146

          West Virginia                                                                       145
                Arkansas                                                         143
                    Hawaii                                  140
                              136          138           140           142           144        146       148


Source: USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Summary Data Tables
       Cooking with Data in
         Four Easy Steps

 Build a Recipe of Key Questions
 Obtain Data to Answer Them
 Find the Storyline to Bring It All Together
 Use the data to communicate, inform,




                                                2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
  provoke, and persuade!
       Decide on Your Slides!

   Balance of analytical tools – average,
    disaggregate, longitudinate, cross-tabulate

   Relevance – both “external” and “internal”




                                                  2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
   Understandability

   Impact
       Cooking with Data in
         Four Easy Steps

 Build a Recipe of Key Questions
 Obtain Data to Answer Them
 Find the Storyline to Bring It All Together
 Use the data to communicate, inform,




                                                2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
  provoke, and persuade!
 Political Leaders and Others
 Must Begin to Demand More
  Data from School Systems

 Don’t take “no” for an answer unless you’re
  sure you can’t get it!
 Ask again and again if they say, “No, you
  can’t have it.”




                                                2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
 Ask again and again if they say, “No, we
  don’t have it.”
   “Children in the highest-poverty, highest-minority and
    lowest-achieving schools are roughly five times more
    likely to be taught by teachers who failed at least one
    teacher certification test than children in the lowest-
    poverty, lowest-minority, highest-achieving schools, the
    Chicago Sun-Times has found.”

   “Teachers in the schools with the fewest white students
    were:
    * Five times more likely to have failed at least one test




                                                                2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
    * More than 23 times more likely to have failed five or
    more tests”

--- “Poorest kids often wind up with the weakest
    teachers,” Chicago Sun-Times, September 7, 2001
       Cooking with Data in
         Four Easy Steps

 Build a Recipe of Key Questions
 Obtain Data to Answer Them
 Find the Storyline to Bring It All Together
 Use the data to communicate, inform,




                                                2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
  provoke, and persuade!
2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                           2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
Push For Data Creativity
       Push For Data Creativity
San Puree Unified tells you it can’t dice teacher
certification by school poverty level, because it
“doesn’t have all of those things in one file.”
   A course-level file including who teaches the
    course




                                                          2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
   A teacher-level file with each teacher’s subject-
    area certification and which school he or she is at

   A school-level file with student demographics
       Cooking with Data in
         Four Easy Steps

 Build a Recipe of Key Questions
 Obtain Data to Answer Them
 Find the Storyline to Bring It All Together
 Use the data to communicate, inform,




                                                2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.
  provoke, and persuade!
   “Without the possibility of
action, all knowledge comes to
  one labeled ‘file and forget,’
and I can neither file nor forget.”

           -- Ralph Ellison, Invisible Man




                                             2001 by The Education Trust, Inc.

				
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