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The Scientific Method The Scientific Method

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									The Scientific Method

      A Way of Knowing
     Characteristics of
   The Scientific Method
Empirical
 Objective v. subjective
 Experimental
 Reproducible
 Independent verification
Self-correcting
The Scientific Method: An Outline
 1. On the basis of having observed
     everything related to the
     problem/question, state the problem
     to be solved/the question to be
     answered.
 2. Find out what is already known about
     the problem/question. Typically this
     involves a literature search.
The Scientific Method: An Outline
 3. Using what data are available, form a
   hypothesis, a tentative explanation that
   seems to fit everything known about
   the problem/question to this point.
 4. Construct univariate, controlled
   experiments to try to test the
   hypothesis.
The Scientific Method: An Outline
 5. The observed results of the experiment
   will provoke the researcher to...
   A. Continue testing the hypothesis as it
    is... OR...
   B. Modify the hypothesis and continue
    testing it... OR...
   C. Discard the hypothesis and form a
    new one to be tested.
The Scientific Method: An Outline
 In each case, the researcher using the SM
   cycles between #4 and #5...until...

 6. At some point the body of evidence
   supporting the hypothesis may become
   so great that we re-label it theory.
 7. Construct univariate, controlled
   experiments to try to test the theory.
The Scientific Method: An Outline
 8. The observed results of the experiment
   will provoke the researcher to...
   A. Continue testing the theory as it is...
   OR...
   B. Modify the theory and continue
   testing it... OR...
   C. Discard the theory and form a new
   theory to be tested.
The Scientific Method: An Outline
 In each case, the researcher using the SM
   cycles between #7 and #8 ...until...

 9. At some point the body of evidence
   supporting the theory may become so
   great that it is acknowledged to be
   universally true. At this point, we
   re-label it scientific law or principle.
What makes a discipline “science”?
  It uses a form of the scientific method
   Name some disciplines that are
    “science”
   Name some disciplines that are not
    “science”
   Name some disciplines that are part
    “science” and part “non-science”
    What makes a question or a
      statement “scientific”?

 A statement or question is scientific if it
  can be tested using the scientific method
Try these:
1. “Matter is made up of particles so tiny
  that they never will be discovered.”
2. “Mars is composed of cottage cheese.”
             Comparison
 Compare this presentation to the way
  the text describes the scientific method
 Find similarities and differences
 Are these differences significant?
 Are “science” & “technology”
          the same?
Science discovers facts, laws, principles
Technology uses these discoveries to
  make something
Principle: “As a liquid evaporates, it
  absorbs heat.”
People applied this principle to make…?

								
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