Docstoc

Slide 1 Department of Political Science (PowerPoint download)

Document Sample
Slide 1 Department of Political Science (PowerPoint download) Powered By Docstoc
					                                World Politics -- 2520

1. Class Slides
                   http://politicalscience.dal.ca/Classes

2. TA Office Hours:
    Tuesday         13h00-14h00 Navid               <nv794791@dal.ca>
    Wednesday       15h00-16h00 Matilka             <matilkakrow@gmail.com>
    Thursday        13h00-14h00 Mike                <mc208718@dal.ca>

                   Political Science Lounge -- 3rd Floor Henry Hicks

3. Guest Speaker -- Thursday, October 14
         Professor David Dewitt -- York University

4. Mid-term Exam -- Tuesday, October 19

5. Final Exam -- Friday, December 17 -- 8:30 am

6. Note Taker Request -- Please contact The Office of Student Accessibility &
                                        Accommodation (OSAA) -- sasnotes@dal.ca
                  Obsolescence of State-Centric Perspective

Strength of State (security and defence)
    - ability to protect citizens from external enemies, invasion, attacks;
    - ability to protect citizens from internal conflict, revolution, civil war/unrest;
    - ability to promote economic security (economic well being).

Deficiencies of States
   1. security against modern weapons technology?
   2. security against extremism and terrorism?
                 TERRIRST INCIDENTS

  600
  500
  400
  300
  200
  100
    0
        2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

January      February    March        April
May          June        July         August
September    October     November     December
                  TERRIRST INJURIES

 3000
 2500
 2000
 1500
 1000
  500
    0
        2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

January     February      March       April
May         June          July        August
September   October       November    December
                  TERRIRST DEATHS

 3500
 3000
 2500
 2000
 1500
 1000
  500
    0
        2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

January     February     March      April
May         June         July       August
September   October      November   December
            Pessimists’ Outlook on the Inevitability of High Impact Terrorism

1. The “Democratization of Technology” and Knowledge (Thomas Friedman)
    - Lower costs and increasing accessibility to technology and knowledge means...
    - Capacity to inflict unacceptable levels of pain and suffering on a larger number of targets
    and people is spreading to more groups and individuals

2. Miniaturization of Weaponry and Lethality
    - Weaponry is becoming smaller, more transferable and more lethal.
    - Effects of small amounts of chemical and biological weaponry extremely deadly.

3. “Privatization of War” (Joseph Nye)
    - connections among:
           * increasing number of potential terrorists...
           * with various motivations to terrorize...
           * and accessibility through the "democratization of technology" and knowledge
                     ...means that war is becoming privatized
    - Individuals who are committed to their own causes become relevant players with a
    potentially limitless list of personal grievances they want resolved….
-   e.g., The 2001 anthrax attacks in Florida, Nevada, Washington D.C., New York and
    New Jersey (all from spores with the identical strain) were planned and carried out by a
    single person.

-   e.g., A relatively straightforward attack by 19 individuals on 9/11 transformed the core
    interests of a superpower and, as a result of its response, the priorities of an entire
    international system.

-   Key Problem: - increasing number of committed spoilers
                 - increasing intractability of existing rivalries (e.g., Middle East)

4. Privatization of Political Power
- Fewer people can control outcomes of major democratic elections
          e.g.,     - Madrid Bombing (191 deaths) on March 11, 2004 (3 days b/f election)
                    - Government blamed Basque separatists (deflect backlash for Iraq war)
                    - Resulted in defeat of Jose Maria Aznar (who was leading in the polls)

5. Rational Extremism
    - Terrorists rationally seek to provoke a disproportionate response by major powers.
    - Indiscriminate retaliation produces civilian deaths.
    - Casualties alter preferences of moderates and produce greater support for extremists.
    - Paradox -- successful military operations often provoke extremism.
6. Declining utility of Coercive Diplomacy
    - Coercive military diplomacy and credible threats were once pretty simple:
          * Capabilities, Commitment, Communication and Resolve
          * If costs outweigh benefits, threat should work
    - Coercion difficult when costs and benefits are identical to a terrorist

Conclusion

Combining all six elements explains why terrorism is viewed as inevitable.
                 Obsolescence of State-Centric Perspective
Deficiencies of States continued...
   1. security against modern weapons technology?
   2. security against extremism and terrorism?
   3. security against non traditional threats?
         Depletion of natural resources; environmental pollution; global warming; overpopulation;
         urbanization; deforestation; expanding gap b/w rich and poor; underdevelopment; HIV/AIDS
         pandemic; etc.
   4. losing capacity to protect/control economies.

Summary
  States are poorly equipped to meet responsibilities to citizens;
  State system is poorly equipped (dysfunctional) to meet global challenges

Section 4 Readings
   Reading 4.1 -- Robert Jackson and Georg Sorensen -- Chapter 4 Liberalism.
   Reading 4.2 -- Edward Morse “Transformation of Foreign Policy”
   Reading 4.3 -- Robert Keohane and Joseph Nye “Complex Interdependence”

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:8
posted:5/6/2012
language:
pages:10