Delving into Dietary Fiber

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Delving into Dietary Fiber Powered By Docstoc
by Linda Milo Ohr

Delving into
Dietary Fiber                                                                                                  Cookie processors can deliver great-tasting, high-
                                                                                                               fiber, whole-grain cookies using Cargill’s Healthy

                                                                                                               Cookie Base formulated with OliggoFiber™ inulin.
      eart health, immunity, and weight manage-
                                                                                                               Photo courtesy of Cargill Health & Food Technologies
      ment are three major wellness concerns
      for today’s consumers. Dietary fiber in
its various forms can help in these areas, as
well as bone and digestive health. Here is a
look at some prebiotic fibers along with new
research and fiber ingredient developments.

Resistant Starch
Natural resistant starch is a prebiotic fiber and     to the
may be the next hot consumer buzzword thanks to       conclusion
recent media coverage on Prevention magazine’s        that their benefits
Web site and under the “Health and Fitness”           will likely be different, as well.
banner on The story, “Top Medical                Animal studies with rodents are helping to
Breakthroughs of 2008” (Landau, 2009), appeared       explain the mechanisms underlying the benefits
on both Web sites and referred to a Swedish study     of natural resistant starch. Researchers at the
in which healthy people ate bread rich in natural     Pennington Biomedical Research Center and
resistant starch at dinner and felt less hungry the   Louisiana State University are examining
next morning compared with healthy people who         the specific mechanisms: bulking, energy
had consumed plain white bread at dinner (Nilsson     density, or fermentation. They have found that
et al., 2008). The breads in the study included       the fermentation of Hi-maize resistant starch
white wheat flour bread enriched with Hi-maize®       turns on the genes that produce anti-diabetes/
natural resistant starch from National Starch Food    anti-obesity hormones linked to satiety.
Innovation, Bridgewater, N.J. (phone 800-797-4992,        Kendall et al. (2008) showed that other

Natural resistant starch is a prebiotic fiber and may be the next hot consumer buzzword., www.resistantstarch.          maize-based dietary fibers could lower glycemic
com), and barley-kernel bread, both of which          and insulin responses. In the study, 12 healthy
provided the satiety-inducing resistant starch.       volunteers consumed seven test beverages
    Hi-maize, from high-amylose corn, has been        containing maize-based fiber ingredients (25 g
shown in more than 70 published human clinical        total carbohydrate) along with two control meals
studies to support weight, energy, and glycemic       on separate occasions and in random order. The
management and digestive health, says Rhonda          maize-based ingredients were PROMITOR™
Witwer, Senior Business Development Manager,          Soluble Gluco Fiber and PROMITOR™ Resistant
Nutrition, National Starch Food Innovation. The       Starch from Tate & Lyle, Decatur, Ill. (phone
company offers Hi-maize brand whole-grain             800-526-5728,, www.
corn flour (Type 1 resistant starch) and Hi-maize All test fibers resulted in signifi-
brand corn starch (Type 2 resistant starch) from      cantly lower glycemic and insulinemic responses
high-amylose corn. Witwer explains that published     at all time points compared with the control. The
studies have shown that resistant starches from       researchers concluded that these fibers may be
different sources are structurally different and      effective in applications for dietary strategies to
impact intestinal fermentation differently, leading   control diabetes and other chronic diseases. »»

                                                                                                                03.09 •                                   63   pg

          Delving into Dietary Fiber continued...
                                       Maltodextrin                                            The soluble fiber is generally recognized
                                       Digestion-resistant maltodextrin added its fiber    as safe (GRAS) as maltodextrin and provides
                                       benefits to two new products last year. SOYJOY®     benefits for digestive health, weight manage-
                                       nutrition bars and Mott’s Plus Applesauce both      ment, and lower blood glucose after meals,
                                       feature Fibersol-2® from Matsutani America Inc.,    says Yuma Tani, Vice President, Matsutani
                                       Itasca, Ill. (phone 630-250-8720, www.fibersol-2.   America Inc. In a recent meta-analysis, Mattes
                                       com), each providing 3 g of fiber per serving.      and Popkin (2009) showed that maltodextrin can
                                                                                           attenuate the glycemic response to carbohydrate
                                                                                           foods. The addition of 6 g of maltodextrin to a
                                                                                           formulation attenuated glycemic response by
                                                                                           nearly 20% in drinks and by 10% in foods.

                                                                                           Beta-glucans are classified as water-soluble
                                                                                           dietary fiber, have been shown to lower low-
                                                                                           density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and are
                                                                                           present in cereal grains such as barley and oats.
                                                                                           Both barley and oat beta-glucans have FDA-
                                                                                           approved health claims linking them to a reduced
                                                                                           risk of cardiovascular disease. Barliv™ barley beta-
                                                                                           glucan from Cargill, Minneapolis, Minn. (phone
                                                                                           866-456-8872,, is extracted
                                                                                           from barley and boasts > 70% beta-glucan. Accord-
                                                                                           ing to the company, a human clinical study using
                                                                                           Barlív revealed that people who consumed the bar-
                                                                                           ley beta fiber for six weeks reduced their LDL
                                                                                           cholesterol by 10 percent on average. Researchers
                                                                                           also added that barley beta fiber may also help
                                                                                           in weight loss and management of blood sugar
                                                                                           levels, though further research is needed.
                                                                                               In addition to the FDA-approved health
                                                                                           claim in the United States, an oat beta-glucan
                                                                                           health claim was approved in France early in
                                                                                           2008. CreaNutrition (phone 41 41 747 01 99,
                                                                                  is the Swiss-based oat bran
                                                                                           specialist that applied for the claim. Approved by
                                                                                           the French Food Safety Agency (AFSSA), it reads:
                                                                                           “Consumption of oat bran containing foods and
                                                                                           other eligible oat sources containing oat soluble
                                                                                           fibers (oat beta-glucan), as part of a balanced diet,
                                                                                           without excess of particularly saturated fats, and
                                                                                           physical exercise together help to reduce your
                                                                                           cholesterol.” In its letter affirming the success of
                                                                                           CreaNutrition’s application, AFSSA recommended
                                                                                           that, for products to bear the claim, they should
                                                                                           contain 3 g of beta-glucan per 100 g, or 1.5 g of
                                                                                           beta-glucan per 100 kcal. A similar beta-glucan
                                                                                           claim related to reduction of blood glucose and
                                                                                           insulin response has been in place in Sweden
                                                                                           since 2002, and the UK approved a claim in 2004.
                                                                                               CreaNutrition develops, produces, and sells
                                                                                           OatWell® oat bran products rich in beta-glucan,
                                                                                           up to 28%. Only 2.68 g of the oat bran needs to be
                                                                                           added in a formula to ensure 0.75 g of beta-glucan
                                                                                           per serving. Oat Ingredients LLC, Boulder Colo.
                                                                                           (phone 303-818-1117,,

pg   64          03.09 •
is a U.S.
of OatWell®.
oat beta-
glucan ingredient,                           Start using Fibersol®-2 digestion resistant maltodextrin to add fiber to
OatVantage™ from
GTC Nutrition, Golden,                           your beverages and consumers will start looking at fiber in a whole
Colo. (phone 800-522-4682,,                               new way. Fibersol®-2 is completely soluble, as well as clear and
contains 54% beta-glucan. It
increases the viscosity of stomach                       transparent in solution so beverages will have a clean taste
contents, which slows stomach
emptying, prolongs the absorption                            with no added flavor, odor or unwanted texture. And
of energy from a meal, and decreases
the absorption of fat. These effects exert                      with the other positive functional and physiological
strong control over insulin release, which
reduces cholesterol production, extends
                                                                    properties of Fibersol®-2, consumers won’t just
satiety, and benefits heart and glycemic health.
     Natural oat fiber and an organic oat fiber,
                                                                        want your products because they’re good for
produced from oat hulls, are available from
Grain Millers, Eugene, Ore. (phone 800-443-
                                                                            them…they’ll want them because they’re
8972, To help add oat fiber
                                                                                just, well, good!
to baked goods, cereals, and snacks, the fibers are
offered with two different water absorptions.

In addition to heart health and weight management, certain
forms of dietary fiber also benefit bone health, digestive health,
and immunity. For example, Paineau et al. (2008) conducted
a multi-center study that included 105 human subjects in two                                        it’s the fiber you want
groups who, over a 6-week period, received either 5 g/day
of NutraFlora ® short-chain fructooligosaccharide (scFOS ®)
prebiotic fiber from GTC Nutrition ( or
5 g/day of a placebo. Data showed that the intensity of minor             a longer period
functional bowel disorders decreased by 43.6 percent in the               of time, enhanc-
scFOS group, while the placebo group showed a 13.8 increase.              ing the body’s
Further, the symptoms of minor functional bowel disorders                 natural processes for
were less frequent in 75 percent of the scFOS group, while                mineral absorption.
53.8 percent of the placebo group experienced no change.                       In November
    In addition, NutraFlora has also been shown to increase               2008, the company
calcium absorption. According to GTC, prebiotics help create an           also launched a prebiotic
environment in the digestive tract that allows minerals, including        galactooligosaccharide (GOS),
calcium, to stay in a form that is easily absorbed by the body for        Purimune™. It is 90% GOS and
                                                                          supports the immune system by
                                                                          nourishing and stimulating the growth
Defining Fiber                                                            of beneficial microflora in the colon.

     or information on the Guidelines for Use of Nutrition Claims:        Inulin
     Draft Table of Conditions for Nutrient Contents (Part B Contain-     Inulin is a prebiotic found in bananas, artichokes,
     ing Provisions of Dietary Fiber), which was discussed at the         and onions. Commercial forms are extracted from
30 th Session of the Codex Committee on Nutrition and Foods for           chicory. For example, Oliggo-Fiber™ inulin from
Special Dietary Uses, visit           Cargill is a naturally occurring fructan extracted from
mentarius/Delegate_Report_30CCNFSDU/index.asp. Delegates                  chicory root. It is fermented in the lower intestine by
discussed the topic of revising the draft definition for dietary fiber.   bifidobacteria, resulting in the production of short-chain
                                                                          fatty acids. This can cause a lowering of the pH in the large

pg   66                  03.09 •

                         Delving into Dietary Fiber continued...
                intestine and result in increased calcium absorption,      N.Y., delivers digestive and
                  as well as slower growth of certain bacteria that        bone health benefits with 3 g/serving of Orafti®Synergy1
                    can weaken the immune system. OliggoFiber™             oligofructose-enriched inulin from BENEO-Orafti,
                       inulin was recently added to Cargill’s Healthy      Morris Plains, N.J. (phone 973-867-2140, www.orafti.
                         Cookie Base. The convenient new base              com). This enriched prebiotic fiber helps stimulate
                            makes it easy to create whole-grain            the growth and activity of beneficial bacteria in the
                              cookies and bars with added fiber. In        digestive tract. In addition, it has been clinically shown
                                addition to inulin, it also contains       to provide an extra boost to calcium absorption and
                                  the company’s GrainWise™ Wheat           bone health. Abrams et al. (2005) gave 100 adolescents
                                     Aleurone and WheatSelect™             either 8 g Orafti®Synergy1 or an equivalent amount
                                       White Whole Wheat.                  of placebo every day for a year. Calcium absorption
                                              An oligofructose-enriched    and bone mineral density were improved in those
                                            inulin was recently added      who consumed the oligofructose-enriched inulin.
                                              to a new cottage cheese      At six-week and one-year interventions, calcium
                                                 product. Friendship       absorption had increased significantly. After one
                                                   All Natural Digestive   year, bone mineral density was significantly higher.
                                                       Health Cottage
                                                         Cheese (Friend-   Larch arabinogalactan
                                                           ship Dairies,   Larch arabinogalactan (LAG) is a natural soluble
                                                             Friendship,   fiber extracted from harvested Larch trees and is
                                                                           GRAS. LAG consists of galactose and arabinose in a
                                                                           6:1 ratio. It has been found to offer many significant
                                                                           benefits, the most important ones being in the fields
                                                                           of digestive health and immune support.
                                                                               As a prebiotic fiber, FiberAid ™, a form of LAG for
                                                                           digestive health produced by Lonza, Allendale, N.J.
                                                                           (phone 201-316-9200,, provides the
                                                                           ability to increase beneficial microflora, thus improving
                                                                             gastrointestinal heath. It has been shown to decrease
                                                                                the generation and absorption of ammonia in the gut.
                                                                                  High levels of ammonia in the large intestine appear
                                                                                     to contribute to detrimental health conditions,
                                                                                        having a toxic effect toward epithelial cells.
                                                                                              Lonza also offers a new LAG ingredi-
                                                                                             ent, ResistAid ™, for use in immune
                                                                                               formulations. The LAG in ResistAid ™
                                                                                                  consists of polyphenols and has
                                                                                                    already been shown to increase the
                                                                                                      proliferation of immune cells.
                                                                                                             In 2008, the Australian
                                                                                                           authorities approved LAG as
                                                                                                              a therapeutically active
                                                                                                                 ingredient for oral use.
                                                                                                                   In Australia, LAG had
                                                                                                                      been approved
                                                                                                                        before as a food
                                                                                                                           additive only. »»

                                                                                                   P: 217.451.4377
SupplySideEast Booth #1242                                                               

                                        ADM / Matsutani LLC

                      Delving into Dietary Fiber continued...
                                                                                                                    a NutrAward at this year’s
                                                                                                                    Nutracon in Anaheim, Calif. The
                                                                                                                    water-soluble dietary formula is
                                                                                                                    supported by more than 60 clini-
                                                                                                                    cal trials and 14 safety studies
                                                                                                                    for promoting healthy weight
                                                                                                                    loss in overweight individuals.
                                                                                                                    LuraLean interacts with liquid in
                                                                                                                    the stomach to swell to nearly
                                                                                                                    200 times its original size. Once
                                                                                                                    expanded in the system, it
                                                                                                                    promotes a feeling of satiety
                                                                                                                    while traveling through the
                                                                                                                    gastrointestinal tract, causing
                                                                                                                    individuals to eat less. Addition-
                                                                                                                    ally, the glucomannan acts as a
                                                                                                                    magnet, attracting and binding
                                                                                                                    excess oils and calories and
                                                                                  Glucomannan                       carrying them out of the system
     Natural resistant starch delivers satiety        In the European Union,      A refined glucomannan             through normal digestion.
     benefits and helps support weight and            arabinogalactan is listed   ingredient, LuraLean® from
     glycemic management.
    Photo courtesy of National Starch Food Innovation
                                                      in the Novel Food Catalog   AHD International, Atlanta, Ga.   Soluble Cellulose Fiber
POS IFTAd 2.0:Card1.2 2/26/09 2:55 PM Page 2008, for  published on June 17,1      (phone 404-233-4022, www.         High-viscosity hydroxypropyl-
                                                      use as a food supplement., is a finalist for   methylcellulose (HV-HPMC)

                Delving into Dietary Fiber continued...
                                                                                  insulin excursions in overweight and        human digestive enzymes. After
                                                                                  obese men and women (Maki et al.,           ingestion, it passes intact into the
                                                                                  2007; Maki et al., 2008). This may help     colon, where it is partially fermented
                                                                                  delay glucose absorption and alter          by the colonic microflora.
                                                                                  risks for diabetes and cardiovascular            As a prebiotic, Litesse®
                                                                                  disease. The glucose-control effect         polydextrose from Danisco, Elmsford,
                                                                                  was also demonstrated in type II            N.Y. (phone 913-764-8100, www.
                                                                                  diabetic patients (Reppas et al., , has shown its positive
                                                                                  1993). In addition, nine human trials       effects at doses as low as 4 g/day
                                                                                  (Dressman et al., 1993; Reppas et           in humans. Its ingestion has been
                                                                                  al., 1993; Maki et al., 2000) showed        shown to increase the amount of
                                                                                  that HV-HPMC significantly lowered          beneficial bacteria in the lower
                                                                                  cholesterol at well-tolerated doses in      intestine and to decrease the amount
                                                                                  mildly hypercholesterolemic humans.         of detrimental bacteria. Fermenta-
                                                                                       Another ingredient introduced last     tion of Litesse® by the beneficial
                                                                                  year by Dow was SATISFIT™ Weight            bacteria leads to a lower fecal pH
                                                                                  Care Technology. Derived from cel-          through the production of important
                                                                                  lulose, it is a 100%, highly functional     short-chain fatty acids, notably
                                                                                  soluble dietary fiber. “In pre-clinical     butyric acid, which are believed to
                                                                                  studies, SATISFIT was shown to              play a role in reducing cancer risk.
                                                                                  reduce absorption of saturated and               Information from Danisco
                                                                                  trans fats, reduce weight gain, and         reports that a large, double-blind,
                                                                                  promote healthy fat metabolism,”            placebo-controlled study confirmed
                                                                                  says Stephanie Lynch, Global Market         the physiologic benefits of Litesse® as
                                                                                  Manager, Dow Food & Nutrition.              a fiber. It concluded that daily intake
                                                                                  “The animal studies showed that             of 4–12 g of polydextrose improved
                                                                                  consuming a diet with SATISFIT™             gastrointestinal function without
Novel fiber ingredients can be added to baked goods and snacks to boost their     resulted in a 7% reduction in weight        adverse effects. In addition, other
health appeal. Photo courtesy of Dow Food & Nutrition                             gain compared to the control diet.          human clinical studies have shown
                                                                                  Another advantage is that it does           that Litesse® can actually reduce
                            FORTEFIBER ™ is a modified cellulose                  not add calories to formulations.”          subsequent food intake, with total
                            fiber produced by Dow Food &                                                                      caloric reductions of 5–25%. FT
                            Nutrition, Midland, Mich. (www.                       Polydextrose
                  , that affects glycemic                       Polydextrose is a highly branched                        Linda Milo Ohr,
                            response and cholesterol. It was                      polymer of glucose. Its unique                           Contributing Editor,
                                                                                                                                           Denver, Colo.
                            shown in two separate studies to                      arrangement of glycosidic linkages                       •
                            reduce postprandial glucose and                       makes it resistant to hydrolysis by

 Abrams, S.A., Griffin, I.J., Hawthorne, K.M.,                      Maki, K.C., Davidson, M.H., Malik, K.C.,            Nilsson, A.C., Östman, E.M., Holst, J.J., and
 Liang, L., Gunn, S.K., Darlington, G., and Ellis,                  Albrecht, H.H., O’Mullane, J., Daggy,               Björck, I.M.E. 2008. Including indigestible car-
 K.J. 2005. A combination of prebiotic short- and                   B.P. 1999. Cholesterol lowering with                bohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects
 long-chain inulin-type fructans enhances calcium                   high-viscosity hydroxypropylmethylcel-              improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory
 absorption and bone mineralization in young                        lulose. Am. J. Cardiol. 84: 1198–1203.              markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent
 adolescents. Am. J. Clinical Nutrition. 82: 471-476.                                                                   standardized breakfast. J. of Nutr. 138: 732-739.
                                                                    Maki, K.C., Carson, M.L., Miller, M.P., Turowski,
 Dressman, J.B., Adair, C.H., Barnett, J.L.,                        M., Bell, M., Wilder, D.M., and Reeves, M.S.        Paineau, D., Payen, F., Panserieu, S.,
 Berardi, R.R., Dunn-Kucharski, V.A., Jarvenpaa,                    2007. High-viscosity hydroxypropylmethylcel-        Coulombier, G., Sobaszek, A., Lartigau, I.,
 K.M., Parr, D.D., Sowle, C.A., Swidan, S.Z.,                       lulose blunts postprandial glucose and insulin      Brabet, M., Galmiche, J.P., Tripodi, D., Sacher-
 and Tobey, S.W. 1993. High-molecular-weight                        responses. Diabetes Care 30: 1039-1043.             Huvelin, S., Chapalain, V., Zourabichvili, O.,
 hydroxypropylmethylcellulose. A cholesterol-                                                                           Respondek, F., Wagner, A., and Bornet, F.R.J.
 lowering agent. Arch. Intern. Med. 153: 1345-1353.                 Maki, K.C., Carson, M.L., Miller, M.P., Turowski,   2008. The effects of regular consumption of
 Kendall, C.W.C., Esfahani, A., Hoffman, A.J.,                      M., Bell, M., Wilder, D.M., Rains, T.M., and        short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides on digestive
 Evans, A., Sanders, L.M., Josse, A.R., Vidgen,                     Reeves, M.S. 2008. Hydroxypropylmethylcel-          comfort of subjects with minor functional bowel
 E., and Potter, S.M. 2008. Effect of novel maize-                  lulose and methylcellulose consumption reduce       disorders. British J. of Nutr. 99(2): 311-318.
 based dietary fibers on postprandial glycemia and                  postprandial insulinemia in overweight and
 insulinemia. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 27: 711-718.                       obese men and women. J. Nutr. 138: 292-296.         Reppas, C., Adair, C.H., Barnett, J.L., Berardi,
                                                                                                                        R.R., DuRoss, D., Swidan, S.Z., Thill, P.F., Tobey,
 Landau, M.D. 2008. Top medical breakthroughs                       Mattes, R.D., and Popkin, B.M. 2009. Nonnutri-      S.W., and Dressman, J.B. 1993. High viscosity
 of 2008 for women. Dec. 24.                           tive sweetener consumption in humans: effects       hydroxypropylmethylcellulose reduces postprandial
 Landau, M.D. 2009. Top medical breakthroughs                       on appetite and food intake and their putative      blood glucose concentrations in NIDDM patients.
 of 2008. January.                              mechanisms. Am. J. Clinical Nutr. 89: 1-14.         Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 22(1): 61-69.

pg   70                        03.09 •

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