by Linda Milo Ohr
Dietary Fiber Cookie processors can deliver great-tasting, high-
fiber, whole-grain cookies using Cargill’s Healthy
Cookie Base formulated with OliggoFiber™ inulin.
eart health, immunity, and weight manage-
Photo courtesy of Cargill Health & Food Technologies
ment are three major wellness concerns
for today’s consumers. Dietary fiber in
its various forms can help in these areas, as
well as bone and digestive health. Here is a
look at some prebiotic fibers along with new
research and fiber ingredient developments.
Natural resistant starch is a prebiotic fiber and to the
may be the next hot consumer buzzword thanks to conclusion
recent media coverage on Prevention magazine’s that their benefits
Web site and under the “Health and Fitness” will likely be different, as well.
banner on MSN.com. The story, “Top Medical Animal studies with rodents are helping to
Breakthroughs of 2008” (Landau, 2009), appeared explain the mechanisms underlying the benefits
on both Web sites and referred to a Swedish study of natural resistant starch. Researchers at the
in which healthy people ate bread rich in natural Pennington Biomedical Research Center and
resistant starch at dinner and felt less hungry the Louisiana State University are examining
next morning compared with healthy people who the specific mechanisms: bulking, energy
had consumed plain white bread at dinner (Nilsson density, or fermentation. They have found that
et al., 2008). The breads in the study included the fermentation of Hi-maize resistant starch
white wheat flour bread enriched with Hi-maize® turns on the genes that produce anti-diabetes/
natural resistant starch from National Starch Food anti-obesity hormones linked to satiety.
Innovation, Bridgewater, N.J. (phone 800-797-4992, Kendall et al. (2008) showed that other
Natural resistant starch is a prebiotic fiber and may be the next hot consumer buzzword.
www.foodinnovation.com, www.resistantstarch. maize-based dietary fibers could lower glycemic
com), and barley-kernel bread, both of which and insulin responses. In the study, 12 healthy
provided the satiety-inducing resistant starch. volunteers consumed seven test beverages
Hi-maize, from high-amylose corn, has been containing maize-based fiber ingredients (25 g
shown in more than 70 published human clinical total carbohydrate) along with two control meals
studies to support weight, energy, and glycemic on separate occasions and in random order. The
management and digestive health, says Rhonda maize-based ingredients were PROMITOR™
Witwer, Senior Business Development Manager, Soluble Gluco Fiber and PROMITOR™ Resistant
Nutrition, National Starch Food Innovation. The Starch from Tate & Lyle, Decatur, Ill. (phone
company offers Hi-maize brand whole-grain 800-526-5728, www.promitorfiber.com, www.
corn flour (Type 1 resistant starch) and Hi-maize tateandlyle.com). All test fibers resulted in signifi-
brand corn starch (Type 2 resistant starch) from cantly lower glycemic and insulinemic responses
high-amylose corn. Witwer explains that published at all time points compared with the control. The
studies have shown that resistant starches from researchers concluded that these fibers may be
different sources are structurally different and effective in applications for dietary strategies to
impact intestinal fermentation differently, leading control diabetes and other chronic diseases. »»
03.09 • www.ift.org 63 pg
Delving into Dietary Fiber continued...
Maltodextrin The soluble fiber is generally recognized
Digestion-resistant maltodextrin added its fiber as safe (GRAS) as maltodextrin and provides
benefits to two new products last year. SOYJOY® benefits for digestive health, weight manage-
nutrition bars and Mott’s Plus Applesauce both ment, and lower blood glucose after meals,
feature Fibersol-2® from Matsutani America Inc., says Yuma Tani, Vice President, Matsutani
Itasca, Ill. (phone 630-250-8720, www.fibersol-2. America Inc. In a recent meta-analysis, Mattes
com), each providing 3 g of fiber per serving. and Popkin (2009) showed that maltodextrin can
attenuate the glycemic response to carbohydrate
foods. The addition of 6 g of maltodextrin to a
formulation attenuated glycemic response by
nearly 20% in drinks and by 10% in foods.
Beta-glucans are classified as water-soluble
dietary fiber, have been shown to lower low-
density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and are
present in cereal grains such as barley and oats.
Both barley and oat beta-glucans have FDA-
approved health claims linking them to a reduced
risk of cardiovascular disease. Barliv™ barley beta-
glucan from Cargill, Minneapolis, Minn. (phone
866-456-8872, www.cargillhft.com), is extracted
from barley and boasts > 70% beta-glucan. Accord-
ing to the company, a human clinical study using
Barlív revealed that people who consumed the bar-
ley beta fiber for six weeks reduced their LDL
cholesterol by 10 percent on average. Researchers
also added that barley beta fiber may also help
in weight loss and management of blood sugar
levels, though further research is needed.
In addition to the FDA-approved health
claim in the United States, an oat beta-glucan
health claim was approved in France early in
2008. CreaNutrition (phone 41 41 747 01 99,
www.oatwell.com) is the Swiss-based oat bran
specialist that applied for the claim. Approved by
the French Food Safety Agency (AFSSA), it reads:
“Consumption of oat bran containing foods and
other eligible oat sources containing oat soluble
fibers (oat beta-glucan), as part of a balanced diet,
without excess of particularly saturated fats, and
physical exercise together help to reduce your
cholesterol.” In its letter affirming the success of
CreaNutrition’s application, AFSSA recommended
that, for products to bear the claim, they should
contain 3 g of beta-glucan per 100 g, or 1.5 g of
beta-glucan per 100 kcal. A similar beta-glucan
claim related to reduction of blood glucose and
insulin response has been in place in Sweden
since 2002, and the UK approved a claim in 2004.
CreaNutrition develops, produces, and sells
OatWell® oat bran products rich in beta-glucan,
up to 28%. Only 2.68 g of the oat bran needs to be
added in a formula to ensure 0.75 g of beta-glucan
per serving. Oat Ingredients LLC, Boulder Colo.
(phone 303-818-1117, www.oatingredients.com),
pg 64 03.09 • www.ift.org
is a U.S.
glucan ingredient, Start using Fibersol®-2 digestion resistant maltodextrin to add fiber to
GTC Nutrition, Golden, your beverages and consumers will start looking at fiber in a whole
Colo. (phone 800-522-4682,
www.gtcnutrition.com), new way. Fibersol®-2 is completely soluble, as well as clear and
contains 54% beta-glucan. It
increases the viscosity of stomach transparent in solution so beverages will have a clean taste
contents, which slows stomach
emptying, prolongs the absorption with no added flavor, odor or unwanted texture. And
of energy from a meal, and decreases
the absorption of fat. These effects exert with the other positive functional and physiological
strong control over insulin release, which
reduces cholesterol production, extends
properties of Fibersol®-2, consumers won’t just
satiety, and benefits heart and glycemic health.
Natural oat fiber and an organic oat fiber,
want your products because they’re good for
produced from oat hulls, are available from
Grain Millers, Eugene, Ore. (phone 800-443-
them…they’ll want them because they’re
8972, www.grainmillers.com). To help add oat fiber
just, well, good!
to baked goods, cereals, and snacks, the fibers are
offered with two different water absorptions.
In addition to heart health and weight management, certain
forms of dietary fiber also benefit bone health, digestive health,
and immunity. For example, Paineau et al. (2008) conducted
a multi-center study that included 105 human subjects in two it’s the fiber you want
groups who, over a 6-week period, received either 5 g/day
of NutraFlora ® short-chain fructooligosaccharide (scFOS ®)
prebiotic fiber from GTC Nutrition (www.nutraflora.com) or
5 g/day of a placebo. Data showed that the intensity of minor a longer period
functional bowel disorders decreased by 43.6 percent in the of time, enhanc-
scFOS group, while the placebo group showed a 13.8 increase. ing the body’s
Further, the symptoms of minor functional bowel disorders natural processes for
were less frequent in 75 percent of the scFOS group, while mineral absorption.
53.8 percent of the placebo group experienced no change. In November
In addition, NutraFlora has also been shown to increase 2008, the company
calcium absorption. According to GTC, prebiotics help create an also launched a prebiotic
environment in the digestive tract that allows minerals, including galactooligosaccharide (GOS),
calcium, to stay in a form that is easily absorbed by the body for Purimune™. It is 90% GOS and
supports the immune system by
nourishing and stimulating the growth
Defining Fiber of beneficial microflora in the colon.
or information on the Guidelines for Use of Nutrition Claims: Inulin
Draft Table of Conditions for Nutrient Contents (Part B Contain- Inulin is a prebiotic found in bananas, artichokes,
ing Provisions of Dietary Fiber), which was discussed at the and onions. Commercial forms are extracted from
30 th Session of the Codex Committee on Nutrition and Foods for chicory. For example, Oliggo-Fiber™ inulin from
Special Dietary Uses, visit http://www.fsis.usda.gov/codex_ali- Cargill is a naturally occurring fructan extracted from
mentarius/Delegate_Report_30CCNFSDU/index.asp. Delegates chicory root. It is fermented in the lower intestine by
discussed the topic of revising the draft definition for dietary fiber. bifidobacteria, resulting in the production of short-chain
fatty acids. This can cause a lowering of the pH in the large
pg 66 03.09 • www.ift.org
Delving into Dietary Fiber continued...
intestine and result in increased calcium absorption, N.Y., www.friendshipdairies.com) delivers digestive and
as well as slower growth of certain bacteria that bone health benefits with 3 g/serving of Orafti®Synergy1
can weaken the immune system. OliggoFiber™ oligofructose-enriched inulin from BENEO-Orafti,
inulin was recently added to Cargill’s Healthy Morris Plains, N.J. (phone 973-867-2140, www.orafti.
Cookie Base. The convenient new base com). This enriched prebiotic fiber helps stimulate
makes it easy to create whole-grain the growth and activity of beneficial bacteria in the
cookies and bars with added fiber. In digestive tract. In addition, it has been clinically shown
addition to inulin, it also contains to provide an extra boost to calcium absorption and
the company’s GrainWise™ Wheat bone health. Abrams et al. (2005) gave 100 adolescents
Aleurone and WheatSelect™ either 8 g Orafti®Synergy1 or an equivalent amount
White Whole Wheat. of placebo every day for a year. Calcium absorption
An oligofructose-enriched and bone mineral density were improved in those
inulin was recently added who consumed the oligofructose-enriched inulin.
to a new cottage cheese At six-week and one-year interventions, calcium
product. Friendship absorption had increased significantly. After one
All Natural Digestive year, bone mineral density was significantly higher.
Cheese (Friend- Larch arabinogalactan
ship Dairies, Larch arabinogalactan (LAG) is a natural soluble
Friendship, fiber extracted from harvested Larch trees and is
GRAS. LAG consists of galactose and arabinose in a
6:1 ratio. It has been found to offer many significant
benefits, the most important ones being in the fields
of digestive health and immune support.
As a prebiotic fiber, FiberAid ™, a form of LAG for
digestive health produced by Lonza, Allendale, N.J.
(phone 201-316-9200, www.lonza.com), provides the
ability to increase beneficial microflora, thus improving
gastrointestinal heath. It has been shown to decrease
the generation and absorption of ammonia in the gut.
High levels of ammonia in the large intestine appear
to contribute to detrimental health conditions,
having a toxic effect toward epithelial cells.
Lonza also offers a new LAG ingredi-
ent, ResistAid ™, for use in immune
formulations. The LAG in ResistAid ™
consists of polyphenols and has
already been shown to increase the
proliferation of immune cells.
In 2008, the Australian
authorities approved LAG as
a therapeutically active
ingredient for oral use.
In Australia, LAG had
before as a food
additive only. »»
SupplySideEast Booth #1242 www.fibersol2.com
ADM / Matsutani LLC
Delving into Dietary Fiber continued...
a NutrAward at this year’s
Nutracon in Anaheim, Calif. The
water-soluble dietary formula is
supported by more than 60 clini-
cal trials and 14 safety studies
for promoting healthy weight
loss in overweight individuals.
LuraLean interacts with liquid in
the stomach to swell to nearly
200 times its original size. Once
expanded in the system, it
promotes a feeling of satiety
while traveling through the
gastrointestinal tract, causing
individuals to eat less. Addition-
ally, the glucomannan acts as a
magnet, attracting and binding
excess oils and calories and
Glucomannan carrying them out of the system
Natural resistant starch delivers satiety In the European Union, A refined glucomannan through normal digestion.
benefits and helps support weight and arabinogalactan is listed ingredient, LuraLean® from
Photo courtesy of National Starch Food Innovation
in the Novel Food Catalog AHD International, Atlanta, Ga. Soluble Cellulose Fiber
POS IFTAd 2.0:Card1.2 2/26/09 2:55 PM Page 2008, for published on June 17,1 (phone 404-233-4022, www. High-viscosity hydroxypropyl-
use as a food supplement. ahdintl.com), is a finalist for methylcellulose (HV-HPMC)
Delving into Dietary Fiber continued...
insulin excursions in overweight and human digestive enzymes. After
obese men and women (Maki et al., ingestion, it passes intact into the
2007; Maki et al., 2008). This may help colon, where it is partially fermented
delay glucose absorption and alter by the colonic microflora.
risks for diabetes and cardiovascular As a prebiotic, Litesse®
disease. The glucose-control effect polydextrose from Danisco, Elmsford,
was also demonstrated in type II N.Y. (phone 913-764-8100, www.
diabetic patients (Reppas et al., litesse.com), has shown its positive
1993). In addition, nine human trials effects at doses as low as 4 g/day
(Dressman et al., 1993; Reppas et in humans. Its ingestion has been
al., 1993; Maki et al., 2000) showed shown to increase the amount of
that HV-HPMC significantly lowered beneficial bacteria in the lower
cholesterol at well-tolerated doses in intestine and to decrease the amount
mildly hypercholesterolemic humans. of detrimental bacteria. Fermenta-
Another ingredient introduced last tion of Litesse® by the beneficial
year by Dow was SATISFIT™ Weight bacteria leads to a lower fecal pH
Care Technology. Derived from cel- through the production of important
lulose, it is a 100%, highly functional short-chain fatty acids, notably
soluble dietary fiber. “In pre-clinical butyric acid, which are believed to
studies, SATISFIT was shown to play a role in reducing cancer risk.
reduce absorption of saturated and Information from Danisco
trans fats, reduce weight gain, and reports that a large, double-blind,
promote healthy fat metabolism,” placebo-controlled study confirmed
says Stephanie Lynch, Global Market the physiologic benefits of Litesse® as
Manager, Dow Food & Nutrition. a fiber. It concluded that daily intake
“The animal studies showed that of 4–12 g of polydextrose improved
consuming a diet with SATISFIT™ gastrointestinal function without
Novel fiber ingredients can be added to baked goods and snacks to boost their resulted in a 7% reduction in weight adverse effects. In addition, other
health appeal. Photo courtesy of Dow Food & Nutrition gain compared to the control diet. human clinical studies have shown
Another advantage is that it does that Litesse® can actually reduce
FORTEFIBER ™ is a modified cellulose not add calories to formulations.” subsequent food intake, with total
fiber produced by Dow Food & caloric reductions of 5–25%. FT
Nutrition, Midland, Mich. (www. Polydextrose
dow.com), that affects glycemic Polydextrose is a highly branched Linda Milo Ohr,
response and cholesterol. It was polymer of glucose. Its unique Contributing Editor,
shown in two separate studies to arrangement of glycosidic linkages • email@example.com
reduce postprandial glucose and makes it resistant to hydrolysis by
Abrams, S.A., Griffin, I.J., Hawthorne, K.M., Maki, K.C., Davidson, M.H., Malik, K.C., Nilsson, A.C., Östman, E.M., Holst, J.J., and
Liang, L., Gunn, S.K., Darlington, G., and Ellis, Albrecht, H.H., O’Mullane, J., Daggy, Björck, I.M.E. 2008. Including indigestible car-
K.J. 2005. A combination of prebiotic short- and B.P. 1999. Cholesterol lowering with bohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects
long-chain inulin-type fructans enhances calcium high-viscosity hydroxypropylmethylcel- improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory
absorption and bone mineralization in young lulose. Am. J. Cardiol. 84: 1198–1203. markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent
adolescents. Am. J. Clinical Nutrition. 82: 471-476. standardized breakfast. J. of Nutr. 138: 732-739.
Maki, K.C., Carson, M.L., Miller, M.P., Turowski,
Dressman, J.B., Adair, C.H., Barnett, J.L., M., Bell, M., Wilder, D.M., and Reeves, M.S. Paineau, D., Payen, F., Panserieu, S.,
Berardi, R.R., Dunn-Kucharski, V.A., Jarvenpaa, 2007. High-viscosity hydroxypropylmethylcel- Coulombier, G., Sobaszek, A., Lartigau, I.,
K.M., Parr, D.D., Sowle, C.A., Swidan, S.Z., lulose blunts postprandial glucose and insulin Brabet, M., Galmiche, J.P., Tripodi, D., Sacher-
and Tobey, S.W. 1993. High-molecular-weight responses. Diabetes Care 30: 1039-1043. Huvelin, S., Chapalain, V., Zourabichvili, O.,
hydroxypropylmethylcellulose. A cholesterol- Respondek, F., Wagner, A., and Bornet, F.R.J.
lowering agent. Arch. Intern. Med. 153: 1345-1353. Maki, K.C., Carson, M.L., Miller, M.P., Turowski, 2008. The effects of regular consumption of
Kendall, C.W.C., Esfahani, A., Hoffman, A.J., M., Bell, M., Wilder, D.M., Rains, T.M., and short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides on digestive
Evans, A., Sanders, L.M., Josse, A.R., Vidgen, Reeves, M.S. 2008. Hydroxypropylmethylcel- comfort of subjects with minor functional bowel
E., and Potter, S.M. 2008. Effect of novel maize- lulose and methylcellulose consumption reduce disorders. British J. of Nutr. 99(2): 311-318.
based dietary fibers on postprandial glycemia and postprandial insulinemia in overweight and
insulinemia. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 27: 711-718. obese men and women. J. Nutr. 138: 292-296. Reppas, C., Adair, C.H., Barnett, J.L., Berardi,
R.R., DuRoss, D., Swidan, S.Z., Thill, P.F., Tobey,
Landau, M.D. 2008. Top medical breakthroughs Mattes, R.D., and Popkin, B.M. 2009. Nonnutri- S.W., and Dressman, J.B. 1993. High viscosity
of 2008 for women. www.MSN.com. Dec. 24. tive sweetener consumption in humans: effects hydroxypropylmethylcellulose reduces postprandial
Landau, M.D. 2009. Top medical breakthroughs on appetite and food intake and their putative blood glucose concentrations in NIDDM patients.
of 2008. www.Prevention.com. January. mechanisms. Am. J. Clinical Nutr. 89: 1-14. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 22(1): 61-69.
pg 70 03.09 • www.ift.org