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Urbanization and services

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					URBANIZATION AND
    SERVICES
  UNIT 7: CHAPTERS 12/13
       KEY ISSUE 1: WHERE DID SERVICE
                 ORIGINATE?
• Three types of services
  • Consumer
    • Provide services to individual consumers who desire them and can afford to pay
      for them
        • Retail/Wholesale Services-15% of US jobs
        • Education Services-10% of US jobs
        • Health Services-12% of US jobs
        • Leisure and Hospitality Services-10% of US jobs
  • Business
    • Facilitate other businesses
    • 24% of US jobs
       • Financial-6% of US jobs
       • Professional-12% of US jobs
       • Transportation and Information-6% of US jobs
  • Public
    • Provide security and protection for citizens and businesses
    • 17% of US jobs
    • ¼ federal government, ¼ for one of the 50 state governments, ½ for a local
      government
          EMPLOYEE CHANGES

• 1972-2009
 • Teritary has increased
 • Primary/Secondary has declined

 • Expanding jobs in engineering, data processing, advertising,
   management, law, hospitals, nursing homes, education,
   entertainment, and recreation
 • Declining jobs in finance, transportation, retail
                          EARLY DAYS

• Migrating small groups decide to build permanent settlements.
• Early Consumer Services
  • Taking care of the dead (religious)
  • Manufacturing centers
  • Retail-type functions (trade service for service)
• Early Public Services
  • Protect group land
  • Protect food sources
  • Military Power (for above)
• Early Business Services
  • Transportation services
  • Warehousing centers
  • Trade among other groups
 EARLY URBAN SETTLEMENTS: SERVICES

• May have originated in Mesopotamia, diffused to Egypt,
  China, Indus Valley. Or originated individually.
• Ur: Mesopotamia (Iran): Oldest, well-documented
• Titris Hoyuk (Turkey):
 • 125 acre site w/ 10,000 population
 • Was abandoned, no newer buildings covered it
 • Well planned communities
 • Walls/Streets laid first, Homes in regular pattern
 • Palaces, temples, public buildings in center, cemeteries beyond
   city walls
 • Homes built around central courtyard
 • Extended families
                ANCIENT ATHENS

• Oldest: Knossos in Crete, Troy in Asia Minor (Turkey),
  and Mycenae in Greece
• Trading centers for islands in Aegean Sea and
  Mediterranean
• Athens-largest city-state in ancient Greece
  • 1st city to have a population of 100,000
  • Substantial contributions to development of culture,
    philosophy, and more
  • Urban settlement provided public services, consumer services,
    and cultural activities that rural settlements didn’t have.
                 ANCIENT ROME

• Rise of Roman Empire encouraged urban settlement
• Created as centers for administrative, military, public
  services
• Transportation/Utility services aided in trading: roads
  and aqueducts, security
• Rome: center of many activities had 250,000 in
  population (some claim it rose to 1 million)
• ‘All roads lead to Rome”
• Urban settlement declined when Roman Empire fell
• Large settlements declined or disappeared
• 100s of years, Europe’s culture shown through
  monasteries and rural areas
        SERVICES IN MEDIEVAL CITIES

•   11th century-urban life grows
•   Lords allow residents to establish cities for military services
•   Urbanites set up trade, surplus from rural went for sale in urban
•   Enhanced urban settlement trade with better roads and rivers
•   14th century-Europe had small market towns across the map
•   Large settlements were ‘power centers’ with palaces, churches
    and other public service buildings around a central market
    square.
•   Settlements surrounded by walls
•   Shops and homes built between walls and large buildings
•   5 most populous cities in the year 900: Baghdad, Constantinople
    (Istanbul), Kyoto (Japan), Changan and Hangchow (China)
•   Prior to the IR: Agra (India), Cairo, Canton(China), Isfahan (Iran),
    and Osaka among world’s most populous cities.
      KEY ISSUE 2: WHERE ARE
 CONTEMPORARY SERVICES LOCATED?
• Rural settlements: Clustered and Dispersed
  • Clustered rural
    • # of families live in close proximity to each other w/fields
      surrounding the houses/farm buildings
    • Homes, barns, schools, shops, churches
    • Hamlet or village
    • Allocated strips of land in fields (radius ½ to 1 mile from buildings)
    • Land is owned by farmers, Lords, or the settlement
    • Buildings/fields/homes arranged to culture/physical char
  • Circular rural
    • Central open space surrounded by structures
    • Ex: Kraal villages: livestock in center w/ring of homes
  • Linear rural
    • Buildings along a road or river
    • Fields extend in narrow strips behind buildings
• Dispersed rural: farmers living on individual farms isolated from
  neighbors rather than alongside other farmers in settlements
  • United States
    • Mid Atlantic-came individually with land from English govt or bought land
    • Midwest-settlers from Mid Atlantic-cheap land, buy much as they can
    • Land was bought, sold, traded, exchanged to make large continuous
      holdings
    • Clustered good w/small populations. Areas started to grow, people move
      to claim own land.
  • Great Britain
    • Clustered to dispersed to improve agriculture
    • More efficient, used enclosure movement: consolidate strips of land into
      single farm.
    • Enclosure destroyed village life, farmers/villagers move to urban (Inds Rev)
 SERVICES IN URBAN SETTLEMENTS

• Louis Wirth: defines city as a perm settlement w/3
  characteristics
  • Applies in LDCs more now than MDCs where lines have
    blurred between urban/rural settlements
  • Large Size
    • Only know small % of people
    • Know many in specific, defined roles: typically contractual
  • High Density
    • Each person plays a role to allow system to run smoothly
    • People compete for survival in limited space
  • Social Heterogeneous
    • Larger the settlement, greater variety of people
    • More freedom to pursue different professions and interests
    • More tolerant of diverse behavior
                      URBANIZATION

• Process in growth of population in urban settlements
• 2 dimensions:
  • Increase in number of people in cities
    • MDCs have higher %, LDCs have more of very large settlements
    • 8/10 most populous cities are in LDCs
  • Increase in percentage of people in cities
    •   Large % reflect country’s development
    •   MDC-3/4; LDC-2/5
    •   Higher % in MDC is result of economic structure change (IR)
    •   MDCs are fully urbanized, LDCs are still urbanizing
 KEY ISSUE 3: WHY ARE CONSUMER SERVICES
   DISTRIBUTED IN A REGULAR PATTERN?

• Central Place Theory
 • Explains how the most profitable location can be identified
 • 1930s-Walter Christaller (German)
 • Central Place is the market center for exchange of
   goods/services by people attracted from the surrounding
   area
 • Centrally located to maximize accessibility.
 • Central places compete against each other to serve as
   markets for goods/services for the surrounding region.
      MARKET AREA OF SERVICE

• Market area or hinterland: area surrounding a
  service from which customers are attracted
• Market area is a nodal region: region with a core
  where the characteristics is most intense
• People prefer to get services from nearest location;
  closer to the center of circle get services from local
  places; closer to the periphery of circle get services
  from other nodes.
            SIZE OF MARKET AREA

• Determine size of market area, use two things:
• Range
  • Maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a
    service
  • Radius of circle/hexagon drawn to delineate a service’s
    market area
  • Range is modified to reflect terms of time not miles
• Threshold
  • Minimum number of people needed to support the service
  • Each business needs a minimum # of people to generate
    sales for a profit
  • Must determine if location is suitable by looking at potential
    customers
           MARKET-AREA ANALYSIS

• Profitability of location:
  • 1. Compute the range:
    • Survey local residents and determine that people are generally willing to
      travel up to 15 min to reach a convenience store
  • 2. Compute the threshold:
    • Convenience store must sell $10,000 a week to make profit; customer
      spends $2.00 a week.
    • Store needs 5,000 customers a week to make the $10,000.
    • If a customer goes once a week, the threshold is 5,000
  • 3. Draw the market area:
    • For proposed location, draw irregular circle with 15 min travel radius
    • Count # of people within circle, if more than 5,000, then threshold is high
      enough to place store in community
    • May need larger threshold and range if there is competition is nearby
          OPTIMAL LOCATION WITHIN A
                   MARKET
• Linear settlement
  • Service located where ½ customers are North and ½ are South
  • Gravity Model: predicts the optimal location of a service is
    directly related to the number of people in the area inversely
    related to the distance people travel to access it
      • Greater the # of people in area, greater # of potential customers
      • Further away from service less likely to use it
• Non-linear settlement
  •   1. identify possible site
  •   2. within range of service, identify home of potential user
  •   3. measure distance from service site to potential user
  •   4. divide each user by the distance to service site
  •   5. sum all results of users divided by distances
  •   6. select 2nd possible location, repeat steps 2-5
  •   7. compare results of step 5 for all possible sites. Site with highest
      score is optimal location
        HIERARCHY OF SERVICES AND
              SETTLEMENTS
• People spend little time and effort in obtaining
  consumer services, we go to the nearest place to
  fulfill needs
• Travel greater distances only if price is much lower
  and/or it is not available locally
• Four levels of market area: hamlet, village, town, city
• Seven sizes of settlement: 1. market hamlet, 2. township center,
 3. county seat, 4. district city, 5. small state capital, 6. provincial head
 capital, 7. regional capital city
Hamlet


Village



Town



City
         RANK-SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF
               SETTLEMENTS
• Rank-size Rule:
  • The country’s nth-largest settlement is 1/n the population of
    the largest settlement
  • Example: the 2nd largest city is ½ the size of the largest, the 4th
    largest city is ¼ the size of the largest, etc.
  • When plotted this will form a straight line
  • Most US cities follow this rule
                PRIMATE CITY RULE

• Primate City Rule:
  • Largest settlement has more than twice as many people as
    the second ranking settlement
  • The country’s largest city is called the primate city
  • Examples
    • Copenhagen, Denmark
      • 1 million inhabitants
      • 2nd largest is Arhus w/ 200,000 population
    • London, England
      • 8 million
      • 2nd largest, Birmingham has 2 million
                  PERIODIC MARKETS
• Collection of individual vendors who offer goods/services on
  specified days
• May be set up in a street or public space
• Early morning until dusk, then move for the following day
• LDCs and rural MDCs, cater to sparse populations and low
  incomes
• Give services to areas that may not have them otherwise
• Markets may arrive according to culture
• Example:
  • Muslim countries: once a week in 6 cities, no Friday
  • Rural China: 3 city, 10 day cycle:
    •   Central market: days 1, 4, 7
    •   Second location: days 2, 5, 8
    •   Third location: days 3, 6, 9
    •   No market on day 10, follows lunar month
       KEY ISSUE 4: WHY DO BUSINESS
        SERVICES CLUSTER IN LARGE
              SETTLEMENTS?
• Hierarchy of Business Services
• World Cities part of the global economy because at
  center of information and capital
 • Business Services of World Cities
   • Clustered together, most managed by Boards/Support staff far from
     factories
   • Attract headquarters of major business institutions
 • Consumer Services of World Cities
   • Retail services with extensive market areas
   • Leisure services cluster within world cities
 • Public Services of World Cites
   • Center of national or international political power
   • Most are national capitals
   • Government businesses
       4 LEVELS OF BUSINESS SERVICES

• 1. World Cities
  • Dominant World Cities
     • London, NYC, Tokyo
  • Major World Cities
     • Chicago, Los Angeles, Washington, DC, Paris, Frankfurt
  • Secondary World Cities
     • Houston, Miami, San Francisco, Toronto, Hong Kong, Madrid, Rio de Janeiro, Sydney
• 2. Command and Control Centers
  • HQ of large corporations, developed banking facilities
  • Regional and Subregional Centers
• 3. Specialized Producer-Service Centers
  • Highly specialized services.
  • Motor Vehicles in Detroit, steel in Pittsburgh or major universities

• 4. Dependent Centers
  •   Resort, Retirement, and Residential Centers-south and west
  •   Manufacturing Centers-Northeastern manuf belt
  •   Military Centers-South and West
  •   Mining Centers-Clustered in mining areas
        BUSINESS SERVICES IN LDC

• Two types of business services
  • 1.Offshore financial services
    • Provides two important functions in global circulation of capital
       • Taxes- low or nonexistent, companies incorporated w/offshore center
         will have tax-free status. US loses $70 billion revenue a year
       • Privacy-bank secrecy laws help individuals and companies evade
         disclosure, protect assets from the law to avoid it being taken away
       • Many use it for schemes and tax dodging
       • Some offshore centers include:
          • Cayman Islands, British Virgin Islands, Bahamas, St Lucia, Bahrain,
             Liberia, Monaco..etc.
• 2. Back Offices
  • Business Process Outsourcing (BPO)
  • Functions include: insurance claim processing, clerical work,
    payroll, transcription, call centers
  • Expensive rent has led businesses to outsource this work, LDCs
    are attractive
    • 1. Low wages
    • 2. Ability to speak English
 ECONOMIC BASE OF SETTLEMENTS
• Settlements economic structure comes from its basic
  industries (export to consumers outside of settlement)
• Non-basic industries have customers that live in same
  community
• Economic base is a community’s unique collection of
  basic industries.
  • Important-exporting w/basic industries brings money to
    economy and increases use of non-basic industries
  • Basic Industries bring workers and their families, which brings
    more consumer services
  • Basic industries determined:
    • % of workers employed in a business in a community compared to
      the % of workers employed in same business in the country.
    • High % in community than country = basic economic activity
                    EXAMPLES

• US settlements classified according to their basic
  services
• Business Services: Chicago, NY, LA
• Data processing: Boston
• High tech: Austin, Orlando
• Military support services: Norfolk, Colorado Springs
• Management /consulting: Washington, DC
• Consumer services: Entertainment: Las Vegas
• Medical Services: Rochester, Minnesota
• Public Services: State Capitals, Large Universities,
  Military Bases
      DISTRIBUTION OF TALENT

• Those with special talents tend to gravitate toward
  larger cities for more job opportunities
• Looking for more cultural diversity
• High cultural diversity = high % of talented
  individuals
• Washington, DC, Boston, Seattle at the top; Las
  Vegas at the bottom
• Getting talented people is important, can promote
  economy and new business.
CHAPTER 13
 URBAN PATTERNS
        KEY ISSUE 1: WHY DO SERVICES
           CLUSTER DOWNTOWN?
• Central Business District (CBD) = Downtown
  • Less than 1% of urban land use, high % of services
  • Three types of retail services in the CBD
    • *This is not a typical situation in current times*
    • 1. Retailers with a high threshold
        • Department stores
        • Accessible to many, clustered near main intersection
        • High rent = location, location, location
        • Most reside now in suburban malls
    • 2. Retailers with a high range
        • Specialists w/infrequent customers- jewelers
        • Most reside now in suburban malls, though some stay in CBD with pretty settings
    • 3. Retailers serving downtown workers
        • Serve those who work downtown and shop during lunch
        • Office supplies, electronics, dry cleaning etc.
        • This is increasing in CBDs
      BUSINESS SERVICES IN THE CBD

• Cluster for accessibility
• Advertising, banking, finance, law workers prefer to be
  close to colleagues
• Ex: Lawyers will be near government offices and courtrooms
• Location helps to employ and keep a diverse group of
  employees.
  COMPETITION FOR LAND IN THE CBD

• High land costs
  • Due to shortage of land and building space in many areas
  • Intensive land use
    • CBD goes up and down; instead of out
  • Skyscrapers
    • Created due to demand of space
    • Make for distinct downtown skyline
    • Retailers pay high $$ for street level; Professionals have the middle;
      and apartments up high for view and less noise
• Activities excluded from the CBD
  • High rents/less land make industrial and residential activities stay
    away
  • Industry-Need large areas of land, one story,
  • Residential-desire for larger homes, better schools, privacy
    CBD OUTSIDE OF NORTH AMERICA

• Most have churches, palaces, less commerical places
• May limit high rise to preserve history
• More live in cities
• Will have grocery stores, bakery, food stores, but rarely
  a 24 hour market
• Pedestrian only areas
• Higher rents than in comparable US cities
   KEY ISSUE 2: WHERE ARE PEOPLE
 DISTRIBUTED WITHIN URBAN AREAS?
• Concentric Zone Model:
 • E.W. Burgess-1923
 • City grows outward from a central area in a series of concentric
   rings.
 • Size/width of rings vary from city to city
 • Burgess gives 5 rings
   • 1. CBD-innermost ring-nonresidential activities
   • 2. Zone in transition-industry, poor housing, rooming houses
   • 3. Zone of working class homes-modest older houses for stable
     families
   • 4. Zone of better residences- newer, more spacious homes, middle
     class
   • 5. Commuters’ zone-beyond city buildup, small villages for
     commuters
                SECTOR MODEL

• 1939-Homer Hoyt
• City develops in a series of sectors, not rings
• Areas are more attractive than others for activities
• As a city grows, activities expand out in a wedge
  from the center
• District with high class buildings will have most
  expensive housing built on the outer edge further
  from the center
• Industry/retail develop in another sector along good
  transportation
        MULTIPLE NUCLEI MODEL

• C.D. Harris and E.L. Ullman-1945
• City is a complex structure that includes more than
  one center around which activities revolve
• Some activities are attracted to particular nodes,
  others may avoid them
• Ex: University node attracts educated residents, pizza
  shops, bookstores; Airports attract hotels
• Less clustering- Heavy industry and high class housing
  are not found together
              APPLYING THE MODELS

• US geographers will combine all three to analyze a CBD, each
  individually is too weak to represent the true layout of a city.
• Outside North America, $$ live in inner rings of city
• LDCs-
   •   Poor in suburbs
   •   Rich in cities
• Pre-colonial,
   •   center was a religious structure, market, and government buildings.
   •   Rich in center
   •   Poor in outer edges
• Colonial cities
   •   built like a grid centered around a church and central plaza,
   •   walls around homes with neighborhoods built around smaller plazas
              Squatter Settlements

• Created because of overpopulation in LDCs
• Lack of housing for the poorer population and
  immigrants
• Known as barriadas, favelas (Latin America),
  bidonvilles (North Africa), Bastees (India), gecekondu
  (Turkey), kampongs (Malaysia), barong-barong
  (Philppines). Think “Cardboard cities”
• 175 million in squatters in 2003
• Few services: no schools, phones, sewers, paved
  roads
• Designated bathrooms, well water or from rations
• Most walk to destination
     Key Issue 3: Why do Inner Cities face
            distinctive challenges?
• Inner Cities Physical Problems: Deterioration

• Filtering-The process of dividing up a large home into small apartments for low income
  families. So what is the problem with that?

   • Landlords stop maintaining houses
   • Buildings deteriorate and grow unfit for occupancy
   • Owners abandon the property
   INNER CITIES PHYSICAL PROBLEMS:
            DETERIORATION
• Redlining- drawing lines on a map to identify areas in which
  they will refuse to loan money. So what is the problem with
  that?
• Families who try to fix up homes in the area have difficulty
  borrowing money.
     INNER CITY PHYSICAL PROBLEMS:
            URBAN RENEWAL
• Public Housing-is housing reserved for low-income
  households, who must pay 30% of their income for rent.
  So what is the problem with fixing these places?
  • Reduction of public housing because of cost
  • Considered unsatisfactory environments for families with children.
    The elevators are broken, juveniles terrorize other people in the
    hallways, and drug use and crime rates are high.
  • Residence are displaced so that the homes can be demolished.
INNER CITIES PHYSICAL PROBLEMS:
        URBAN RENEWAL
 Gentrification-the process by which middle-class people move
 into deteriorated inner-city neighborhoods and renovate the
 housing. So what is the problem?

    • Lower incomes home owners or renters are forced out their homes
      because of the rise in taxes or rent.
      INNER CITY SOCIAL PROBLEMS:
              UNDERCLASS
• They are trapped in an unending cycle of economic and social
  problems.
• Lack of job skills: they lack technical skills or don’t have any
  means to get to work
• Homelessness: lack of job or regular income
         INNER-CITY SOCIAL PROBLEMS:
             CULTURE OF POVERTY
• 80% of children in the inner city live with only one parent.
  So what is the problem?
  • High crime rates because of drugs, gangs, or other felonies.
  • Leads to ethnic and racial segregation.
INNER-CITY ECONOMIC PROBLEMS

• Require services but can’t pay for them. So cities
  either raise taxes or provide incentives to bring
  businesses to downtown.
• Annexation-the process of legally adding land area
  to a city.
   SUBURB PROBLEMS: PERIPHERAL
             MODEL
• An urban area consisting of an inner city
  surrounded by large suburban residential and
  business areas tied together by a beltway or ring
  road
• Edge cities spring up around the beltway or ring
  road
  SUBURBAN PROBLEMS: SPRAWL

• Progressive spread of development over the
  landscape
• New Roads and new utilities may be added to the
  cost of the home
• Waste land: loss of arable land
• Wastes more energy: dependence on
  transportation to get every where
• Rush Hour
        SUBURBAN SEGREGATION

• The modern residential suburb is segregated in two
  ways.
• First, residents are separated from commercial and
  manufacturing activities.
• Second, a given suburban community is usually built for
  people of a single social class, with others excluded by
  virtue of the cost, size, or location of the housing.
CONTRIBUTION OF TRANSPORTATION
      TO SUBURBANIZATION
• Urban sprawl makes people more dependent on
  transportation for access to work, shopping, and
  leisure activities.
• More than half of all trips are work-related.
• Shopping or other personal business and social
  journeys each account for approximately one-fourth
  of all trips.
• Historically, the growth of suburbs was constrained
  by transportation problems.
              MOTOR VEHICLES

• The suburban explosion in the twentieth century has
  relied on motor vehicles rather than railroads,
  especially in the United States.
• Rail and trolley lines restricted suburban
  development to narrow ribbons within walking
  distance of the stations.
• The motor vehicle is an important user of land in the
  city.
• An average city allocates about one- fourth of its
  land to roads and parking lots
        PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION

• Because few people in the United States live within walking
  distance of their place of employment, urban areas are
  characterized by extensive commuting.
• As much as 40 percent of all trips made into or out of a CBD
  occur during four hours of the day—two in the morning and
  two in the afternoon.
• Rush hour, or peak hour, is the four consecutive 15-minute
  periods that have the heaviest traffic.
• Public transportation is cheaper, less polluting, and more
  energy-efficient than the automobile.
• Its use is increasingly confined in the United States to rush-hour
  commuting by workers in the CBD.

				
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