Slide 1 District 196 (PowerPoint) by ert554898


									      Chapter 27 Overview
Empire and Expansion, 1890-1909
         Imperialism Defined
• Imperialism refers to the domination of another
  society against the expressed will of its people.
  Imperialism can be both formal and informal. In
  the case of formal empire—as in the British rule
  over the thirteen American colonies during the
  eighteenth century—a powerful foreign state
  manages the day-to-day political, social, and
  economic affairs in another land. Informal
  empire, in contrast, refers to a more indirect
  arrangement, whereby a foreign state works
  through local intermediaries to manage a distant
  society. (Encyclopedia of American History)
    Why did the US embrace imperialism?

•   Wanted new places to sell American goods
•   Wanted access to raw materials
•   Wanted new areas for US businesses to operate
•   Wanted naval bases
•   Felt pressure to keep up with Europe
•   Saw imperialism as justified because the US
    was superior to those it ruled
    Examples of US Imperialism
•   Japan
•   Hawaii
•   Cuba
•   Philippines
•   China
•   Panama
•   Latin America
• In 1853, Commodore Matthew Perry arrived in Tokyo Bay with
  hopes of opening Japan to western trade. He was directed to
  another port, but refused to leave and demanded permission to
  present a letter from President Millard Fillmore, threatening force if
  he was denied. The Japanese military forces could not resist Perry's
  modern weaponry; the "Black Ships" would then become, in Japan,
  a threatening symbol of Western technology and colonialism.
• The Japanese government let Perry come ashore to avoid a naval
  bombardment. Perry presented the letter to delegates present, and
  left promising to return for a reply.
• Commodore Perry's fleet returned for his second visit to Japan in
  1854 with twice as many ships, finding that the delegates had
  prepared a treaty embodying virtually all the demands in Fillmore's
• In the mid-1800s, American businessmen began
  to move to Hawaii (an independent country) and
  came to dominate its economy.
• By the late 1800s, the local Hawaiians tried to
  limit American influence.
• Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani was determined to
  eliminate American influence in the government.
  She tried to create a new constitution that would
  strengthen the traditional monarchy.
             Hawaii—Part 2
• The American residents were outraged. They
  organized the Committee of Safety. On the
  morning of January 17, 1893, armed members
  of the committee took over the government
  office building. From its steps they read a
  proclamation abolishing the monarchy and
  establishing a provisional government. The
  provisional government "would exist until terms
  of union with the United States of America have
  been negotiated and agreed upon." Sanford B.
  Dole, an elderly judge with a flowing, white
  beard, became its president.
               Hawaii—Part 3
• Hawaiians who were loyal to their queen tried to come to
  her defense and stop the revolution. When they arrived
  in Honolulu, however, American troops confronted them.
  The United States' minister, John L. Stevens, had sent
  for a battalion of marines and an artillery company. They
  were ordered to protect the provisional government. For
  the Hawaiians, resistance was hopeless.
• Queen Liliuokalani sadly surrendered her throne. She
  wrote a document in which she "yielded to the superior
  forces of the United States." She pleaded with the U.S.
  government to "undo the actions of its representatives
  and reinstate me in the authority I claim as the
  Constitutional Sovereign of the Hawaiian Islands."
                Hawaii—Part 4
• The Provisional Government sent five representatives to
  Washington to apply for annexation. They quickly drew up
  a treaty, and President Harrison signed it and submitted it
  to Congress.
• Before the Senate could approve the treaty, however, a
  new president took office. This president, Grover
  Cleveland, had reservations about taking over an
  independent country. He withdrew the treaty.
• In 1896, however, the election of a Republican, William
  McKinley, as president of the United States, rekindled
  Hawaiian hopes for annexation. President McKinley, like
  many Republicans, favored expansionism, and he
  welcomed the new annexation treaty. A joint resolution of
  Congress annexing Hawaii passed both houses, and the
  islands became American possessions in 1898.
• The US freed Cuba from Spanish control, but did
  not grant it true independence.
• The Platt amendment, which was added to the
  Cuban constitution of 1901, affected Cuba's
  rights to negotiate treaties and permitted the
  U.S. to maintain its naval base at Guantánamo
  Bay and to intervene in Cuban affairs “for the
  preservation of Cuban independence.”
• The US frequently intervened in Cuba until Fidel
  Castro came to power in 1959.
• The US acquired the Philippines from
  Spain as a result of the Spanish American
• Instead of granting the Philippines its
  independence, the US took control (after a
  lengthy debate in the US Senate)
• Filipino insurgents, led by Emilio
  Aguinaldo, fought against the American
A History of Facing Insurgencies
         Philippines, Part II
• The US eventually put down the rebellion
  led by Aguinaldo.
• Over 4,000 Americans died. Up to
  600,000 Filipinos died.
• The Philippines gained their full
  independence in 1946
• The US sought an Open Door Policy-- the
  concept that all nations should have equal
  trade rights in China.
• In 1900, Secretary of State John Hay
  announced that the great powers had
  agreed to the open door.
• Why is this imperialism?
         The Boxer Rebellion
• The Boxer Uprising was a Chinese rebellion
  from November 1899 to September 7, 1901
  against foreign influence in areas such as trade,
  politics, and religion. By August 1901, over 230
  foreigners, tens of thousands of Chinese
  Christians, an unknown number of rebels had
  been killed in the ensuing chaos. The uprising
  crumbled on August 14, 1900 when 20,000
  foreign troops entered the Chinese capital,
  Peking (Beijing).
• The Chinese government was powerless to stop
  the foreign intervention and was forced to agree
  to western demands.
        The Boxer Rebellion

Chinese forces takes European enemy generals prisoner in this
Chinese print of the Boxer Rebellion.
• The US wanted to build a canal through Panama, which
  was part of the nation of Colombia. By the middle of
  1903, though, the Colombian government in Bogotá had
  balked at the prospect of a U.S. controlled canal under
  the terms that Roosevelt's administration was offering.
  The U.S. was unwilling to alter its terms and quickly
  changed tactics, encouraging a handful of Panamanian
  landholding families to demand a Panama independent
  from Colombia. The USS Nashville was dispatched to
  deter any resistance from Bogotà and so with United
  States' encouragement, Panama proclaimed its
  independence. Less than three weeks later, the Hay-
  Bunau Varilla Treaty which allowed for the construction
  of a canal and US sovereignty over a strip of land 10
  miles wide and 50 miles long on either side of the
  Panama Canal Zone. In that zone, the U.S. would build a
  canal, then administer, fortify, and defend it "in
  perpetuity." In 1999, the control of the Panama Canal
  was turned over the Panama.
            Latin America
• While the US did not seek to take over any
  Latin American nations. However, we
  sought to control governments so they
  were friendly to US businesses.
• Between 1898 and 1930, the US sent
  troops to Latin-American nations 32 times.
• How did we justify such intervention?
             Roosevelt Corollary
             (to the Monroe Doctrine)
• Roosevelt Corollary:
• President Theodore Roosevelt's assertive approach to
  Latin America and the Caribbean has often been
  characterized as the "Big Stick," and his policy came to
  be know as the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe
  Doctrine. Although the Monroe Doctrine of 1823 was
  essentially passive (it asked that Europeans not increase
  their influence or re-colonize any part of the Western
  Hemisphere), by the 20th century a more confident
  United States was willing to take on the role of regional
      Roosevelt Corollary Part II
• In the early 1900s Roosevelt grew concerned that a crisis
  between the Dominican Republic and its creditors could spark
  an invasion of that nation by European powers. The
  Roosevelt Corollary of 1904 stated that the United States
  would intervene as a last resort to ensure that other nations in
  the Western Hemisphere fulfilled their obligations to
  international creditors, and did not violate the rights of the
  United States or invite "foreign aggression to the detriment of
  the entire body of American nations." As the corollary worked
  out in practice, the United States increasingly used military
  force to restore internal stability to nations in the region.
  Roosevelt declared that the United States might "exercise
  international police power in 'flagrant cases of such
  wrongdoing or impotence.'" Over the long term the corollary
  had little to do with relations between the Western
  Hemisphere and Europe, but it did serve as justification for
  U.S. intervention in Cuba, Nicaragua, Haiti, and the
  Dominican Republic. [From the US State Department]
     The Spanish-American War
           An Overview
Causes                      Effects
• Spanish control of Cuba   • US acquires Philippines,
  and American sympathies      Guam, and Puerto Rico
  for the Cuban rebels.     • US gains influence in
• Yellow journalism            Cuba
• USS Maine explodes        • In the four months of
• Thirst for empire            fighting, Americans had
                               lost a total of 460 soldiers
                               in battle in the “Splendid
                               Little War”
                            • Teddy Roosevelt became
                               a war hero

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