Nombre del Documento: Manual de inglés para primer semestre. BEGINNERS 1 BEGINNERS MANUAL UNIT 1- INTRODUCING ONESELF. - Subject pronouns, possessive adjectives. - Difference between “a” & “an”. - To do, simple present. - Verb to be. - To have. UNIT 2 – DESCRIPTIONS. - Plurals. - Nationalities, names and countries in capital letters. - Placing the adjective. - Questions without interrogative pronouns. - Interrogative pronouns and adjectives. UNIT 3- NUMBERS AND LETTERS. - Alphabet (2 pages) - Numbers (2pages) - “Can”: perception and knowledge. - Hour-time-O’clock (2 pages) UNIT 4- DATES AND TIMES. - Definite and indefinite article. - Prepositions of time. - Prepositions of place (2pages) - Object pronouns. UNIT 5- OBJECTS AND ANIMALS. - Review of interrogative pronouns. - Difference between home and house. - Exclamatory clauses with “what a”. UNIT 6- ADJECTIVES. - Tag questions. - Short answers. - Comparative of equals. Nombre del Documento: Manual de inglés para primer semestre. BEGINNERS 1 UNIT 1: INTRODUCING ONESELF. Topic name: Subject pronouns, possessive adjectives. Conversation level: Beginners 1. Objective: To learn the generic names of each of the family members. Grammar structures to practice: the use of the possessive adjectives related to family members, the use of “to be” as an indicator of relationship. General vocabulary: - Immediate family: Mother, father, brother, grandfather, grandmother, granddaughter, grandson, great grandfather, great granddaughter, great grandson. - Secondary members: Uncle, aunt, cousin, nephew, niece. - ‘laws: (mother, father, brother, sister, daughter, son) ‘n law. - Others: Ex-wife, ex-husband, step (mother, father, brother, sister, son, daughter) - Extras: Boy/girlfriend, (engaged) fiancé/fiancée, (day of wedding) bride & groom, (after wedding) husband /wife; spouse. - Possessive pronouns: My, your, his, her, its, our, your, their. - Mine, yours, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs. Recommended activity: write on the board a list of the possessives pronoun, for the students to write down on their notebooks, as well as the subject pronoun and the aux. of “to be. Explain to them which to use to use with some examples: She is my _________ .They are his_________. I am their_________. You aren’t her _______. Draw on the board two children (happy faces are great & easy to do) a boy and a girl. From there make a diagram going from the children to parents, grandparents…. brothers and sisters. Then a second diagram adding uncles, cousins…. If the board is small to do it, do it in two boards. Once they have this tell them to make the diagram using the names of their family members. After doing so, let them use the structures of the possessive pronoun to indicate their family members, it’s better if they do it up to the board. Situation man woman going out/steady boyfriend girlfriend Make a simple diagram of the process of engaged fiancé fiancée marriage, explain end then introduce the day of wedding groom bride ‘n law vocabulary. after wedding husband wife divorce ex-husband ex-wife He is my__________. If there is time do the naming process done They are his__________. in the other diagram. Topic summary: - Possessive adjectives. - A review of “to be”. - Family member vocabulary. - How to say that a person is a family member. Nombre del Documento: Manual de inglés para primer semestre. BEGINNERS 1 UNIT 1: INTRODUCING ONESELF. Topic name: Difference between “a” and “an” Conversation level: Beginners 1. Objective: To practice the use of subject pronoun, as well as “a” & “an” while expressing occupations. Grammar structures to practice: “a” & “an” use for indicating 1 (one) noun. “a” Used with nouns beginning with a consonant includes “y” and aspired “h”. Exp. a year, a man, a house. Before nouns with the sound “eu” “ew” & “u”. Exp. a European, a university a useless thing. “an” Used with nouns beginning with a vowel. (a, e, i, o, u) including silent “H”. An animal, an elephant, an ice-cream, an umbrella, an honorable man Subject pronouns: they are used instead of nouns. Singular Plural I we You you He they She they It they General vocabulary: Names of common occupations (doctor, mechanic, teacher, fireman…) and the verbs related to their occupations. Recommended activity: write on the board a list of occupations and the verbs related to them, give them an example: Luis is a cook. He prepares meals. He cooks a lot. Mr. Rogers is a doctor. He cures people…… After doing this each of the students say what their occupations are. When they have finished ask other students to say what their classmate’s occupations are. Be prepared because some students could have non common occupations or very technical ones or some that simply you may not have an idea to say them in English like “curtidor”. Extra: if time permits ask about the occupation of their family members. Topic summary: The use of: - “a” & “an” - Subject pronouns. - Occupations. Nombre del Documento: Manual de inglés para primer semestre. BEGINNERS 1 UNIT 1: INTRODUCING ONESELF. Topic name: To do, simple present. Conversation level: Beginners 1. Objective: The student will know how to use the verb “to do” as a verb and auxiliary as well as to structure it in the simple present. Grammar structures to practice: A- Construction The verb to do when conjugated in the simple present always takes an “s” in the third person singular. For all other persons it is identical to the infinitive. Example: to work (I work, you work, they work, you work, we work, he/she/it works B- Use The simple present is used: *Especially to talk of events more or less permanent and for regular actions. Example: We often play tennis. *For narrations in the simple present to describe an instantaneous and precise action (for example in reports). Example: A policeman knocks at the door and tells a woman….. Note: In the third person singular: - After –s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -o, and –x, is added –es. Example: he passes, she catches… - Verbs ending in –y take –ies (except when the “y” is preceded by a vowel). Example: to try= he tries, but to play=he plays. Structure: Aff.: Prn/name + verb +complement. Neg.: Prn/name + do/does not (don’t/doesn’t) + verb + complement. Int.: Do/does + prn/name + verb + complement +? General vocabulary: Simple basic verbs (run, walk, go…) places, general activities…. Recommended activity: 1. - Explain the rules and the structures as you give examples for them on the whiteboard. 2. - Write a small list of regular verbs on the left side of the board and pass students up to it in order for them to change them to third person. Then put everybody to make simple sentences with these verbs, the student is going to say his example(s) out loud. 3. - Do a small game. Here you have a list of various sentences and the students have to change them into the negative and interrogative forms. Put students two by two so they can complete and see who’s the first one to modify correctly the sentence. 4. - Also you can tell them to say to their classmates’ typical activities they do during the day: I run in the morning. We study a lot. She walks to work every day…. ____________________________________________________________________________ Topic summary: The use of do in the simple present. Nombre del Documento: Manual de inglés para primer semestre. BEGINNERS 1 UNIT 1: INTRODUCING ONESELF. Topic name: verb to be. Conversation level: Beginners 1. Objective: To learn the use of the verb to be and its auxiliaries. Grammar structures to practice: Auxiliaries of “to be” Structures Pronoun Aux (present) Aux (past) Aff.: prn/name+aux+complement Aff. Neg. Aff. Neg. I am ‘m not was wasn’t Neg.: prn/name+neg.aux+complement. You are aren’t were weren’t He is isn’t was wasn’t Interr: aux+prn/name+complement+? She is isn’t was wasn’t It is isn’t was wasn’t Answer: Yes, +prn/name + aux We are aren’t were weren’t No, + prn/name + neg. aux You are aren’t were weren’t They are aren’t were weren’t ___________________________________________________________________ General vocabulary: adjectives, occupations, places measurements, age… Recommended activity: First teach them the different auxiliaries of to be. Then explain the uses of to be with examples: 1-Name: What is your name? My name is______. It’s________. 2-Age: How old are you? I’m______ rears old. I’m _________. 3-Height: What’s your height? I’m _______ feet______inches tall. 4-Occupations: What’s your father’s occupation? He’s a/an _______________. 5-Descriptions: (adjectives) He is tall. They are smart. You are crazy. She’s hot. 6-Origin: Porsche is German. 7- Gender: I’m a man. She’s a woman, it’s a machine. It’s a virus. 8- Places: Where are you? We are at the movies. 9- Weather: Hoe is the weather? It’s very cold and raining. 10- Distance: (measurement) P. Vallarta is 350 Km. from Gdl. (time) P. Vallarta is 4 hrs. from Gdl. 11- The time: What time is it? It’s 3 o’clock. Is it morning? 12- Civil status: I’m single. She’s married….. 13- Moods: We’re happy, sad, glad, depressed, angry, bored, tired….. 14- Sensations: They’re hot, cold, sleepy, hungry, bored, tired… 15- Progressive: (continuous) What are you doing? I’m eating.ç 16- Day, month and year: today is Saturday. It’s September already. Is it 2009 or 2010? Topic summary: The uses of the verb to be. Nombre del Documento: Manual de inglés para primer semestre. BEGINNERS 1 UNIT 1: INTRODUCING ONESELF. Topic name: To have. Conversation level: Beginners 1. Objective: to learn the use of to have (except as an auxiliary for perfect tenses) Grammar structures to practice: A-Construction To have is both an auxiliary and an ordinary verb, and is conjugated is the present indicative as follows: I have, you have, we have, they have, you have, he/she/it has) B-Use -The verb to have expressing possession is often followed by got (past participle of to get) in everyday speech. -The auxiliary have disappears completely sometimes, which results in: I got, he got… Example: You’ve got (or you got) a nice sweater. -In the interrogative and negative forms, to have (got) is conjugated with the auxiliary do, as with an ordinary verb. In these two forms, got is never used. Example: Do you have a car? She doesn’t have any pets. How many children do you have? I didn’t have my credit card with me. Did you have a good time? Yes, we did. Note: the questions introduced by interrogative pronoun “who” are formed without “do”, but short answers and emphatic structures are formed with “do”. Example: Who has some paper? They do have nice daughters. General vocabulary: Possessions, family and friends, symptoms and diseases, drinks and food. Recommended activity: 1-Explain to the students the construction and the structures of to have and give them examples. 2-Explain the different uses of to have with examples: Possessions : The basic use of to have is to indicate possessions. I have a dog. Do you have a dog? I don’t have a dog, I have a cat. Relationships: It’s used to indicate family, friends and work mates. (family) I have 2 brothers and 1 sister. Do you have brothers and sisters? (friends) He has a lot of friends. Does she have a boyfriend? (work mates) We have a great boss. Do you have a good secretary? Symptoms and diseases: Use to have for indicating sickness or symptoms. I have a headache. She has a broken leg. They have diarrhea because they ate tacos. She has cancer. You have a horrible cold. I have the flu. Food and drink: It is commonly used in the U.S. to substitute the verbs “eat” and “drink” for “have”. What did you drink? = What did you have? I drank 2 cups of coffee. I had 2 cups of coffee. Use have + breakfast/lunch/dinner/supper to indicate these meal times: We have only cereal fo4r breakfast. What will we have for dinner? Nombre del Documento: Manual de inglés para primer semestre. BEGINNERS 1 Note: The students should give examples of the before mentioned during all the time the teacher will make them questions constantly. Topic summary: The different uses of “to have”. Nombre del Documento: Manual de inglés para primer semestre. BEGINNERS 1 UNIT 2: DESCRIPTIONS. Topic name: Plurals. Conversation level: Beginners 1. Objective: To know how to change from singular to plural. Grammar structures to practice: In general the plural is formed by adding an –s. Nouns that end in “consonant + y” are Example: abook-books, a house-houses, formed by eliminating the “y” and adding –ies Nouns that end with an –s, -sh, -ch, -x and –o Example: family-families. add –es Others are irregular: man-men, woman-women, Example: bus – buses box – boxes foot – feet, child – children, mouse – mice…. dish – dishes beach – beaches tomato – tomatoes Only the nouns use the plural form and not the adjectives: Example: The red car. The red cars. The hungry child. The hungry children. _______________________________________________________________________________________ General vocabulary: common nouns, adjectives Recommended activity: Explain briefly to the students the grammar rules to change the plural, approximately 15 minutes. After this, form two or three groups, depending on the amount of people. Write on the board a list of nouns (not used in the examples) then pass the students to the board to make the changes into plural. You can make a sort of contest or just individual practice depending on how many students are there. Also add adjectives for them to see that the nouns have the plural and not the adjectives. After a couple of rounds review the list and then put them to repeat out loud in order for you to check their pronunciation. Topic summary: After they have finished the activity, tell them that they know how to change into plurals and that they’re able to distinguish the plural forms. Nombre del Documento: Manual de inglés para primer semestre. BEGINNERS 1 UNIT 2: DESCRIPTIONS. Topic name: Nationalities names and countries in capital letters. Conversation level: Beginners 1. Objective: Not forget to write nationalities names and countries with capital letters as well as to know the different countries and nationalities.. Grammar structures to practice: All names of countries are capitalized: Mexico, the United States, France…. All nationalities are capitalized as nouns or adjectives: There are many Americans here. My boss is Italian. The names of people or companies are also capitalized: Luis is hungry. Ford makes very good pick ups. _______________________________________________________________________________________ General vocabulary: common nouns, adjectives Recommended activity: Explain to them on the board difference between countries and nationalities. Then put them to say the vocabulary checking their pronunciation. Then they’ll do a game consisting in saying a country and the student says the nationality or vice versa. Another activity can be to ask students what is a country famous for, its traditional food or a famous place or person in each country. An extra activity could be the writing of sentences combining the before activities. Example: Pierre lives in France. He is French. There is the Eiffel Tower. Sun Yi is from Hong Kong. She is Chinese. They eat a lot of chow mein. Richard is American. He works at General Motors. Topic summary: After the activities, remind them to study the countries and nationalities. Check on the web for information about different countries and their customs. Nombre del Documento: Manual de inglés para primer semestre. BEGINNERS 1 UNIT 2: DESCRIPTIONS. Topic name: Placing the adjective. Conversation level: Beginners 1. Objective: The student will place the adjective in the correct place. Grammar structures to practice: There are two positions for the adjective: After “to be”. When you are only describing the noun. Example: She is pretty. They are crazy. Peter is lazy. Before the noun. When you want to describe or mention something about a noun with a specific characteristic. Example: The red apple has a worm. My new car goes fast. I have long hair. _______________________________________________________________________________________ General vocabulary: Basic nouns and adjectives. Recommended activity: Write on the board several sentences which are all mixed up (not in order) be sure that the students know all the vocabulary. Once this is done pass a student to the board for him to try to rearrange the sentence in the proper order. The rest of the students must do this in their notebooks. Then everybody will say in what order they wrote in. then another student will pass to the board and try with another sentence. Another simple activity could be to write on the board a group of adjectives and put the students to make a sentence with these adjectives in the two positions with intention of saying them out loud. Example: Broken: The window is broken. The broken window was from my room. Topic summary: They will know where to put the adjective in its correct position. Nombre del Documento: Manual de inglés para primer semestre. BEGINNERS 1 UNIT 2: DESCRIPTIONS. Topic name: Questions without interrogative pronouns. Conversation level: Beginners 1. Objective: To know how to make questions using to be and to do. Grammar structures to practice: “to be” + subject? Are you happy? Future on modal auxiliary + subject + verb? Can you clean the table? “to do” + subject + verb? Do you have money? , Did she call yesterday? _______________________________________________________________________________________ General vocabulary: nature, family, general adjectives and verbs. Recommended activity: Show them the grammar structures and give them a couple of examples. After choose a topic or a group of vocabulary and put them to make the questions. Check their structures and pronunciation. When they have understood make an activity in which they make questions to their classmates and the other have to answer. Example: Is he your cousin? No, he isn’t. Can you play the piano? Yes, I can. Do you like chocolate? No, I don’t. Also you can give them a small list of common questions that use these structures. Example: Do you like (movies, food, music…)? Did you (verbs + complement)? Are you (adjectives or characteristics)? Is she your (relationships)? Topic summary: They can make questions without using interrogative pronouns. Nombre del Documento: Manual de inglés para primer semestre. BEGINNERS 1 UNIT 2: DESCRIPTIONS. Topic name: interrogative pronouns and adjectives. Conversation level: Beginners 1. Objective: to know how to use interrogative pronouns and adjectives. Grammar structures to practice: These are words that introduce a question which can’t be answered with “yes” or “no”. “Who” - Asks about a name of a person. “Where” - Asks about a place. “How” - Asks about a procedure or way to do something. “What” - Asks about information. “Why” - Asks about a reason. “Which” - Asks about a choice. “When” - Asks about time. “Whose” - Asks about a possession. _______________________________________________________________________________________ General vocabulary: favorite things, places, food, activities…. Recommended activity: Teach them the interrogative pronouns and adjectives and explain to them what each of them are for. (see the grammar structure) mainly with examples and the proper pronunciation of each one. Example: Who is he? He’s Joe. Where are you going? I’m going to the concert. How do you know this? Your brother told me. What does he like to eat? He likes pizza. Why are you late? I’m late because there is a lot of traffic. Which car do you like, Porsche or Ferrari? I like the Ferrari. th When is your birthday? It’s on July 27 . Whose soda is it? It’s mine. After giving them the examples make them practice in pairs. First making the questions and then practicing them with their partners or asking the person to their left the question, after the student answers he/she will make a question to the person to the left and so on. Be sure to correct their pronunciation and the structures. Topic summary: They will know when to use these interrogative pronouns and adjectives as well as their pronunciation. Nombre del Documento: Manual de inglés para primer semestre. BEGINNERS 1 UNIT 3: NUMBERS AND LETTERS. Topic name: Alphabet. Conversation level: Beginners 1. Objective: To learn the American alphabet. Grammar structures to practice: The American alphabet. Aa as in “ant” Nn as in “number” Bb as in “book” Oo as in “office” Cc as in “computer” Pp as in “pig” Dd as in “dog” Qq as in “question” Ee as in “egg” Rr as in “rat” Ff as in “frog” Ss as in “son” Gg as in “ghost” Tt as in “tie” Hh as in “house” Uu as in “uncle” Ii as in “insect” Vv as in “vegetable” Jj as in “jeans” Ww as in “watch” Kk as in “kitchen” Xx as in “xylophone” Ll as in “light” Yy as in “you” Mm as in “monster” Zz as in “zebra” _______________________________________________________________________________________ General vocabulary: Kitchen, bedroom, knife, kitchen, easy, try, weight, Laundromat, living room, classmate, anything, no one, nobody, somebody, garage, patio, hall, roof, den, study, back-yard, front-yard, dining room, bad room, nook, balcony. Recommended activity: First write the alphabet on the board and put everybody to repeat after you the pronunciation, then practice, but in different order, maybe from z to a. After practicing for a little while let the student look for words in a magazine or children’s book you tell them what letter. It should be a word they know what it is or have an idea. Another activity could be a simple spelling, maybe make teams and see what team gets the most right. Another possibility is for them to look at flash cards without name. They have to check what its name is in case they don’t know. After they should spell the name of what it’s in the card. Topic summary: The students will know all the letters of the alphabet and correctly knows how to pronounce each letter and words that start with the letter in a word. Nombre del Documento: Manual de inglés para primer semestre. BEGINNERS 1 UNIT 3: NUMBERS AND LETTERS. Topic name: Numbers. Conversation level: Beginners 1. Objective: The student will learn how to count in English as well as to practice its pronunciation. As an extra they will see the basic money currency. Grammar structures to practice: The numbers. CARDINAL 1 one 6 six 11 eleven 16 sixteen 30 thirty 80 eighty 2 two 7 seven 12 twelve 17 seventeen 40 forty 90 ninety 3 three 8 eight 13 thirteen 18 eighteen 50 fifty 100 one hundred 4 four 9 nine 14 fourteen 19 nineteen 60 sixty 1000 one thousand 5 five 10 ten 15 fifteen 20 twenty 70 seventy 1,000,000 one million. Show the different pronunciation between cardinal and ordinal numbers, if possible make a dictation of numbers or write ordinal or cardinal numbers for them to turn them into ordinal or cardinal. 1st first 6th sixth 11th eleventh 16th sixteenth 21st twenty first 60th sixtieth 2nd second 7th seventh 12th twelfth 17th 22nd twenty 70th sixtieth seventeenth second 3rd third 8th eighth 13th thirteenth 18th eighteenth 30th thirtieth 4th fourth 9th ninth 14th fourteenth 19th nineteenth 40th fortieth 5th fifth 10th tenth 15th fifteenth 20th twentieth 50th fiftieth 1,000,000th Review the pronunciation as well as spelling and do exercises on the board with them. Also explain when you use these numbers. Example: dates, place in a race. _________________________________________________________________ General vocabulary: checkbook, monthly statement, bankbook, traveler’s checks, credit card, ATM ( automatic teller machine) deposit slip, withdraw slip, check, money order, teller, security guard, bank officer, debit card, money exchange house, stock market, shares, trade, cashier’s check, coin, bills change. Nombre del Documento: Manual de inglés para primer semestre. BEGINNERS 1 Recommended activity: Write on the board the following: 1 cent= penny 5 cents= nickel 10 cents= dime 25 cents= quarter 50 cents= fifty cent piece or half dollar 1.0 dollar= 1 dollar bill or silver dollar Next start writing on the board examples and have the students tell you the amount that you write for example: $1.17 = one dollar and seventeen cents. $58.62 = fifty eight dollars and sixty two cents. $167.42 = one hundred/ sixty seven dollars/ and forty eight cents. $1,032.48 = one thousand/thirty two dollars/and forty eight cents. $21, 687.67 = twenty one thousand/ six hundred/eighty seven dollars/ and sixty seven cents. $687, 422.88 = six hundred and eighty seven thousand/ four hundred/ twenty two dollars and eighty eight cents. Topic summary: The student should be able to reach one billion dollars, in U.S. currency and know the vocabulary correspondent to the U.S. monetary system. Nombre del Documento: Manual de inglés para primer semestre. BEGINNERS 1 UNIT 3: NUMBERS AND LETTERS. Topic name: Can perception and knowledge. Conversation level: Beginners 1. Objective: To learn the use of “can” while indicating perception and knowledge. Grammar structures to practice: A- Construction. The modal auxiliary “can” is conjugated in the same way for all persons. it doesn’t take an –s in the 3rd person singular.”Can” is followed by the infinitive without “to”. Example: He can see me. B- Use. The auxiliary can has several meanings. It expresses: Involuntary perceptions and operations of the mind. It is sometimes used before the verbs: to hear, to see, to understand, to feel… Example: Don’t speak so loud. She can hear you. I cannot understand why you’re nervous. Intellectual ability and knowledge. “Can” may thus be replaced by “to know how to”. Example: I can swim = I know how to swim. _______________________________________________________________________________________ General vocabulary: places to go and relax (the beach, the mountains, the woods…) Recommended activity: Explain the structure above. (Perception) Once explained, tell the students to think of 5 things they can perceive when going to a specific place. Do this a couple of times, example: At the beach I can feel the breeze. You can feel the sunlight. You can see the ocean… After they have said what they perceive ask other students what their classmates perceived. (knowledge) Once explained tell the student to say to the class what you know how to do (knowledge). Then put the students to ask their classmates and see who can do the things they can. Topic summary: The use of “can” for indicating perception and knowledge. Nombre del Documento: Manual de inglés para primer semestre. BEGINNERS 1 UNIT 3: NUMBERS AND LETTERS. Topic name: Hour-time-O’clock. Conversation level: Beginners 1. Objective: Correctly tell the time in different ways and forms Grammar structures to practice: “Hour” expresses duration. Example: Don’t take hours. Shall we meet at the harbor in an hour? I have to be at the theater to see him. “Time” indicates and indeterminate duration. Example: We won’t have time to see him. Take your time. “Time” can also indicate the time of day e.g. as indicated by a clock. “Time” is often used to ask the time of day. Example: What time is it? Is it time to go? “O’clock” expresses the exact time of day and is often omitted. Example: It’s six (o’clock). I’d like to watch the seven o’clock news. _______________________________________________________________________________________ General vocabulary: sleepy head, rise and shine, at first sight, huge, crowd, constantly, resemble, routine, countryside, landscapes, nearby, either way, soil, risk, stretch, however, daily routine, habits, sunbathing. Recommended activity: Telling the time. First teach the correct ways to ask for the time. -What time is it? Could you please tell me the time? Do you have the time? Can you tell me the time? Then teach your students how to answer, for example: 2:00 It’s two o’clock Quarter hours. 11:00 It’s eleven o’clock. 2:15 It’s a quarter past two. Now half hours. It’s two fifteen. 2:30 It’s half past two. 2:05 It’s five past two. It’s two thirty. It’s two O/ou/five. Topic summary: The student will be able to tell the time as well as the pronunciation. Nombre del Documento: Manual de inglés para primer semestre. BEGINNERS 1 UNIT 4: DATES AND TIMES. Topic name: The definitive and the indefinite article. Conversation level: Beginners 1. Objective: To learn the difference between the two articles and when to use each one. Grammar structures to practice: The definite article. “The” is the definite article in the singular and the plural. Example: The cat is in the house. The cats are in the house. - The definite article is used with singular nouns which are considered unique: The pope. The North Pole. - When there is a noun which is affected by an action: He was hed the car. They took the bus. - When “the” represent the generic of animals or things. The north American buffalo lives in… - When using the names of oceans, mountain ranges or rivers, also countries expressed in plural. The Pacific Ocean. The rocky mountains. The Mississippi. The United States. The indefinite article. - When indicating a single thing or person (one). There is a dog outside. - “a” before words beginning with a consonant (includes “y” and aspired “h”): a boy, a year, a car.. - “a” before the words beginning with the “eu, ew &u” sounds: a European, a University… - “an” before words beginning with vowels or silent “h”: an animal, an orange, an honor… A/an is the indefinite article in the singular. In the plural there is no article. Example: There is a cat in our garden. There are cats in our garden. General vocabulary:Typical basic nouns (cat, dog, car, house jar, hell… Recommended activity: 1. - You need to make a large amount of flash cards, they don’t need to be complicated; they can be cut outs from magazines. These have to show images of things or people. On some there has to be one in others several. 2. - You’re going to show a flash card very quickly to the students and they have to say either an expression or a sentence. Example: (Flash card) picture of a horse. (Student) A horse. The horse is brown. (Flash card) picture of an apple. (student) An apple. The apple is delicious. 3. – Be sure to correct their pronunciation and structures. Put the students to make a small story the simple structures. They have to say a minimum 5 sentences story. Example: The dog is black. A cat follows the dog. The cat and dog fight. The can won. The dog is sad. Topic summary: The difference between “the” and “a/an”. Nombre del Documento: Manual de inglés para primer semestre. BEGINNERS 1 UNIT 4: DATES AND TIMES. Topic name: Prepositions of time. Conversation level: Beginners 1. Objective: To learn the three principal prepositions of time “in, on & at” Grammar structures to practice: At introduces a specific time of day. Example: I always get up at seven. The store opens at noon. In introduces a month, season or year. Example: My birthday’s in August. In the summer, it’s nice. I was born in 1975. In may also express duration. Example: He finished his work in two days. It’s going to close in ten minutes. I haven’t seen him in years. On introduces specific dates and days of the week. Example: My birthday’s on November 24th. You’ll have to arrive on a Saturday. I go to the movies on Wednesdays. Note: “On” can be omitted in such cases. Example: I’m leaving (on) Tuesday. _________________________________________________________________ General vocabulary: General activities(eat, go, run, sleep, watch t.v.) Recommended activity: 1.- Explain to the students the use of each preposition mentioned. 2.- Use simple examples to permit the student to identify where the preposition of time goes. 3.- Ask the students what their daily activities are and at what time they do them. When they answer ask another student to say at what time their classmate does those activities. 4.- Make little pieces of paper with common activities, give one to a student and they have to try to let the other students guess what activity it is. The tips they give have to begin with sentences containing prepositions of place. Example: (paper) Have breakfast. (student) You do it in the morning, at 8:00 or 9:00 am... Topic summary: Prepositions of time. Nombre del Documento: Manual de inglés para primer semestre. BEGINNERS 1 UNIT 4: DATES AND TIMES. Topic name: Prepositions of place. Conversation level: Beginners 1. Objective: To learn the use of the prepositions of place. Grammar structures to practice: An adverbial phrase of place is always preceded by a preposition of place. The principal prepositions of place are: at in near on under between behind opposite across in front of Example: My mom is at home. My sister is in her room. I’m standing near the door. _________________________________________________________________ General vocabulary: island, treasure, chest, gold, rubies, emeralds, palm three, ruins, statue, mountains, volcano… Recommended activity: The treasure hunt. 1.- First explain the prepositions with examples. At general places without an exact location. Where are you? I’m at the Mel view mall. Near proximity. Where are the new cinemas? Near to the old butcher shop. Behind at the back part. She lives behind the Wall-mart. Across crossing a space. They work across the school. In inside something/one. The keys are in the top drawer. On superficial space. I remember putting my things on the table. Between placed in the area next to 2 objects. The soccer bal passed between the player’s legs. Opposite at a contrary position. Where do I sit Rick? Opposite Mark, because they aren’t good friends. In front of across but facing the front of the other. The bakery is in front of the bank 2.- Then put on the board a drawing of an island with a lot of things the students can use to say where the treasure is (previously made). 3.- the students have to use the prepositions to give directions on where the treasure is. A variation is that they have to guess where it is and follow directions to see if they are correct. 4.- Make interesting and transforming it into a type of board game they have several cards with information and results if you go to a certain area… Topic summary: The use of prepositions of place. Nombre del Documento: Manual de inglés para primer semestre. BEGINNERS 1 UNIT 4: DATES AND TIMES. Topic name: Object pronouns. Conversation level: Beginners 1. Objective: To learn when to use objects pronouns. Grammar structures to practice: A- Form Singular Plural Singular Plural st 1 person me us masculine him them 2nd person you you feminine her them 3rd person it them B- Use They are used as direct or indirect complements to the object. They are always placed after the verb. When a verb is followed by a particle, the object pronoun is always placed between the verb and the particle. Example: She’s looking at me. We’ll pick you up at three. I’ll give them the papers. When they are used alone the objective is the signaling or pointing of a person or thing. Who won the race? Him! They can be used next to “with” to indicate with whom is an action done. He has a car. I’m going with him. And to indicate who or what is affected by a specific action. We crashed them last week. ______________________________________________________________________________ General vocabulary: common actions done with friends (go to the parties, home, to school, to the movies). Recommended activity: 1.- Tell the students the different use of these pronouns. When explaining give the proper examples for each use. 2.- Each student will say a sentence of something that happened. Someone stole the purse. Who was it? The student has to him has to indicate someone in the room. Her! That student has to reply “No, I didn’t do it. It was them”… the student that first makes a mistake looses. 3.- You can modify the situations depending on the type of the students and the quantity. 4.- Let the students express what activities they do they do in company of another person. They have to use “with + object pronoun” I go dancing with my friends. 5.- Finally they have to use the “verb + object pronoun” structure to say activities and common everyday actions. Topic summary: The use of object pronoun and its uses. Nombre del Documento: Manual de inglés para primer semestre. BEGINNERS 1 UNIT 5: OBJECTS AND ANIMALS. Topic name: Review of interrogative pronouns. Conversation level: Beginners 1. Objective: To remind the students about the structures and use of interrogative pronouns. Grammar structures to practice: They use questions using interrogative pronouns and adjectives. ______________________________________________________________________________ General vocabulary: Names of common objects and animals, places… Recommended activity: Start asking students simple questions about age, occupation names… start closed questions (yes/no) such as: 1.- Are you an artist? Are you an engineer? Is he 20 years old? Is he Carlos? Continue with opened questions using interrogative adjectives. 2.- What do you do on the weekends? I go to the movies. Where is Paris? In France. Spend approximately 5 minutes per interrogative pronouns and put the students to practice with each other, it saves time and effort. Option: When there is time, organize a small contest (either by teams or individually) using simple questions like: What is the capital of China? Who is the president of the Unites States?... and see who answers first correctly. You can pass them to the board, this will make the activity more alluring to the younger students. Topic summary: They have seen closed questions (answers yes/no) Opened questions (Wh questions words) Nombre del Documento: Manual de inglés para primer semestre. BEGINNERS 1 UNIT 5: OBJECTS AND ANIMALS. Topic name: Difference between home and house. Conversation level: Beginners 1. Objective: To teach students the correct use of home and house. Grammar structures to practice: Review of to be (for location) ______________________________________________________________________________ General vocabulary: family members, parts of the house, types of furniture… Recommended activity: First explain the difference between the two words: House: Refers to the building and its contents or parts. Examples: “Paint the house” she lives across the street from the pink house. We have a house in the suburbs. Home: Refers to the inside of the building but mostly the psychological association of safety, warmth and the family relationships. Examples: Home sweet home. L.A., home of the Lakers. Let’s go home. -Put the students to look for phrases using home and house. -Tell them to describe their house. -Tell them to describe their home. -Help them use the correct words and situations. Topic summary: Home (definition and example) House ( definition and example) Location with in & at Phrase building Nombre del Documento: Manual de inglés para primer semestre. BEGINNERS 1 UNIT 5: OBJECTS AND ANIMALS. Topic name: Exclamatory clauses with “what a”. Conversation level: Beginners 1. Objective: to help students to understand & use exclamatory clauses using “what a”. Grammar structures to practice: “What a is used to express an admiration or discontent toward nouns or groups of nouns that have a characteristics which causes such reactions. In a n exclamatory clauses “what a/an” precedes a singular countable noun which may or may not be preceded by an adjective. Example: What a beautiful day! What an old house! What a question! Before plural countable nouns and before uncountable nouns “what” is used without “a/an” Example: What colorful flowers! What nice weather! ______________________________________________________________________________ General vocabulary: review of singular and plural nouns, adjectives Recommended activity: First explain the grammar structures. Then make some examples with the people and things in the room (5min) After let the students make their own examples using as a base of the examples given by you. Another activity is to watch a magazine and practice the structures in order for the students to express their opinions. Add new vocabulary into their expressions: What a sunset! What a magnificent sunset! Now explain the same structures but now in the plural. Also use examples as in the before activity. Note: Remember to them that the adjectives do not have plurals. Topic summary: Exclamatory clauses with “what a” Adjectives Plurals . Nombre del Documento: Manual de inglés para primer semestre. BEGINNERS 1 UNIT 6: ADJECTIVES. Topic name: Tag questions. Conversation level: Beginners 1. Objective: To learn the use of tag questions. Grammar structures to practice: In English is frequent to add small questions at the end of sentences to confirm such affirmation or negation. These go opposite to the sentence. If the sentence is affirmative the tag question goes in negative: You want coffee don’t you? If the sentence is negative the tag question goes positive: You haven’t done your homework have you? After the first sentence a coma is used to separate the tag question from de the main clause: You can’t help me, can you? He isn’t very small, is he? It’s very cold, isn’t it? They’re not my friends, are they? The meaning of the tag question depends on the pronunciation and the intonation in which they’re said: She will come tomorrow won’t she? If the tone is lowered it means it means it’s a tag question. She will come tomorrow won’t she? If the tone highs, it means it’s a real question Sometimes you can use the tag questions to make polite petitions; the main clause is negative and the tag affirmative: You don’t have today’s newspaper, do you? ______________________________________________________________________________ Recommended activity: 1. Write on the board several sentences, the students should complete the sentence with the correct tags: - They live in Seville,__________________? - You play tennis very well,______________? - You have read this book before,____________? - She doesn’t like this city,_______________? - They will come with us,__________________? - He’s waiting for me,__________________? - We’re going to buy a new car,_________________? - You weren’t home,_____________________? - Mark hasn’t come to school,___________________? - She would come later,___________________? After doing so, they should practice with their classmates using the structures. Tem them up in pairs and then change partners after practicing for a couple of minutes. Topic summary: Use tag questions to confirm a sentence. Use them forsaking politely. Nombre del Documento: Manual de inglés para primer semestre. BEGINNERS 1 UNIT 6: ADJECTIVES. Topic name: Short answers. Conversation level: Beginners 1. Objective: For the student to use short answers when ask a question. Grammar structures to practice: Review of simple tense. It is frequent to use short answers to respond to questions because you avoid repeating the entire sentence. They are constructed by saying “Yes + coma + pronoun + auxiliary” & “No + coma + pronoun + negative auxiliary”. Do you want a cup of coffee? Yes, I do. Have you seen this movie? No, I haven’t. ______________________________________________________________________________ General vocabulary: Recommended activity: The teacher will write some questions on the board for the students to see and they should answer them. For the activity each student should have a large amount of questions either write down or thought them. First get play money or papers with money signs and give equal quantities to everybody. The activity goes like this: Each student will make a question to the other; the second student must answer using short answers and not something else. If they answer incorrectly they lose a dollar or the quantity you stipulate. The student with the most play money at the end wins. Topic summary: Short answers to give responses. Nombre del Documento: Manual de inglés para primer semestre. BEGINNERS 1 UNIT 6: ADJECTIVES. Topic name: Comparative of equals. Conversation level: Beginners 1. Objective: To learn how to compare two people or thins which are equal. Grammar structures to practice: 1. - The expression “as_______as” is used to compare two (or two groups of) persons or things according to some common trait. 2. - This expression is formed as follows: “as” + an adjective or adverb + “as”. Example: My brother is as tall as my dad. I’m as old as you are. You speak French as well as I do. General vocabulary: common adjectives (good, delicious, big, small, fast…) Recommended activity: -Explain the structure above. -Give examples on the board then tell the students to modify them with other adjectives and nouns. -After write a list of things with a characteristic. The students should make a sentence adding a second noun or name using the structure. Example: + (teacher) The pyramids of Egypt are old. + (students) The pyramids in Mexico are as old as the pyramids of Egypt. + (teacher) Luis is smart. + (students) Carlos is a smart as Luis. -this activity should be made individually and each student will say their sentences out loud. -A variation of this is you give the first sentence and the student to your right will use the structure. The he/she will say another sentence in order for the student to his/her right to continue and so on. Topic summary: The use of “as…as” to compare two people or things alike.
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