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					 Canada in the
Twentieth Century


     Canada and WWI
               Major Focus
 What were the causes of WWI, and why did
  Canada become involved?
 How did technology change the way the war was
  fought?
 What effect did war have on the status of
  women?
 What effect did the war measures act have on the
  legal right of Canadians?
 Why did conscription become a major issue in
  Quebec?
       The Beginning of WWI
 On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand
  was assassinated in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip
  of the nationalist group called the Black Hand.
   – Ferdinand was in Bosnia visiting as it was part of the
     Austro-Hungarian Empire.
   – Serbia had claims to it as part of a “Greater Serbia”
     because a majority of the population was Serbian.
   – It took two attempts.
      • First was by bombing his car, and the second was a lethal
        shooting.
      The Beginning of WWI
 The assassination was the event believed to
  bring about “the Great War”.
  – The assassination was the trigger, but there
    were many events leading up to this that
    allowed for things to escalate to a global scale.
         Background of the War
 At the turn of the century, much of Europe was
  dominated by three dying empires.
   – The Austro-Hungarian, the Russian, and the Ottoman.
 Within the empires were many different nationalities
  which disliked that fact that they were ruled by another
  nation.
   – Most wished to be independent nations, free to determine their
      own identity, political culture, and maintain their heritage.
 Austria-Hungary took control of Bosnia-Herzegovina, a
  Balkan province.
   – This stirred the nationalist feelings of the Serbs, and created
      anger as they were now a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
      Background of the War
 Much the same as today, countries formed
  alliances to reduce their vulnerabilities to
  attack from others.
  – The Triple Alliances was form by Germany,
    Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
  – With all three in the Triple Alliances boarding
    each other it created a big power block in
    Europe.
  – France felt threatened by this.
      Background of the War
 With France feeling isolated and
  threatened they created their own alliance.
  – The Triple Entente – France, Russia, and
    Britain.
  – The Triple Entente hoped to reduce the threat
    of war by surrounding the other countries.
  – The opposite effect happened because now
    members of the alliance could rely on support
    from its allies in conflict.
       Background of the War
 Alliance were working in short term to deter the
  ideas of war, but they never bothered to stop or
  slow the buildup of armaments and armies, or
  militarist ideas in Europe.
 Countries tried to maintain a balance of power.
   – If one country was trying to build their army up, other
     would do the same.
      • i.e. Germany expanded its armies rapidly around this time
        and others did so to maintain balance.
       Background of the War
 At the change of the century, Germany now had
  the most powerful army, with the most powerful
  arsenal of weapons in Europe.
   – This was a change as Britain had held this honor prior.
   – Germany wanted to better its navy, but Britain still
     held power over the seas.
      • Britain build the HMS Dreadnought which was the largest
        battleship ever for its time, but Germany responded by doing
        the same.
 With Britain and Germany both creating huge
  naval fleets by 1914, they had now started the
  beginning of a huge arms race in Europe.
       Background of the War
 Nationalism grew in Europe, but countries were
  still involved in imperialist actions.
   – Belgium and Italy began colonizing areas of Africa
     along with Germany, but Germany sought out places
     in Asia and the pacific as well.
   – Britain and France expanded their over seas empires
     as well.
   – Imperialism was becoming very competitive.
      • Africa was rich in gold, diamonds, ivory, etc and people
        wanted in.
      • Countries challenged each other for territories in other
        countries.
         Background of the War
 Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.
 Following this Russia mobilized her troops as Serbia’s
  ally.
 Germany followed as Austria-Hungary’s ally.
 It was like a domino effect, and within weeks all of the
  major powers of Europe had armies ready and at war.
 Britain declared war on Germany when they invaded
  Belgium.
   – Britain tried to remain out of the picture till then.
 The triple Entente become know as the Allies, and the
  Triple Alliance as the Central Powers.
   – Italy was the last of all the major European power to join the war.
Map of the Alliances
 Canada’s Response to the War
 The assassination of Ferdinand made the news in Canada,
  but it was not something that people concerned
  themselves about.
 Even though Canada had its own political union, Britain
  still controlled the foreign policy of all the Empire.
   – This meant that when Britain declared war on Germany, all of the
     British Empire including Canada was at war with Germany.
 Most English speaking Canadians were in support of the
  war and what Britain had done.
   – This was because many were of British origin, and had strong
     patriotic feelings for the Empire.
  Canada’s Response to the War
 Liberal leader Laurier pledged his support to the Empire
  and Britain with most other English Canadians.
 Prime Minister Borden had initially offered 25,000 troops
  to Britain.
   – Over 30,000 volunteered from across the country in the first
       month.
   –   People believed it was going to be a short war and would be
       home by Christmas.
   –   Others believed it would be an exciting adventure with the
       possibility of coming back a glorified hero.
   –   Lastly, some signed up because it was a way to escape the
       hardships of being at home.
   –   Still some felt the urge to fight for the mother land because of
       their patriotic feelings.
 Canada’s Response to the War
 Not all volunteers were wanted by the forces.
   – Women were too frail and emotional.
      • Most who did take part were limited to services like nurses or
        ambulance drivers behind front line.
      • They were encouraged to stay home and support the war on
        the home front.
   – People of color and race were normally rejected.
      • Some overcome the racial hurdles and enlisted, but few were
        even promoted in the ranks.
          – i.e. Natives, Japanese-Canadians, Chinese-Canadians.
      • Most served with extreme pride and courage.
              Training the Troops
 For the most part Canadian troops were very ill-prepared for what
  they were about to step into.
 Sam Hughes was the minister of militia and was in charge of getting
  the troops ready to go to Europe.
    – This meant training, supplies, clothes, munitions, etc.
 A training center was set up in Valcartier, Quebec.
    – 32,000 troops went through here and then off to England were they
      would join the rest of the British troops to go to war aboard 32 transport
      ships.
 The training of the troops was the start of bringing together a diverse
  range of Canadians as one group and creating a national identity.
    – Canada was very divided prior to this because of poor transportation
      between the regions.
    – The forces were suppose to join the British, but fought on their own for
      most of the war helping to reinforce this new identity.
   Canada's Minister of Militia
 Sam Hughes
   – Minister of Militia.
   – Put in charge of training, supplies, and Canada’s armament industry.
   – Created the Shell committee to oversee the manufacturing of shells.
       • 1917 Canada was producing about 1/3 of all shells used by British forces.
   – Poor administrator, but full of patronage.
       • Awarded large government contracts to friends and colleagues, and this
         turned out to be a disaster.
       • Most profiteered.
   – Quality of equipment was disastrous.
       • Poor quality shells the exploded early, boots that feel apart in the rain
         because they were made of cardboard, the Ross riffle that continually
         jammed.
   – Dismissed in 1916 after he was knighted by King George V.
         The War Measures Act
 The war measures act was declared by Borden almost as
  war was declared.
 It granted the government the power to do anything
  necessary top maintain security for peace, defense, order,
  and welfare of Canadians.
 This was the first time power like this was given to the
  government.
   – They had power to control the economy, transportation,
     manufacturing, trade, and agricultural production.
   – People were stripped of civil liberties
       • Censoring of mail, habeas corpus suspended, detainment without
         charges being laid, etc.
      The War Measures Act
 Anyone considered to be a threat, enemy,
  or alien could be imprisoned, deported, or
  both.
 Immigrants from Germany, Austro-
  Hungary had to carry id cards and report to
  registration officers regularly.
  – 8579 were held in interment camps
          The War on Land
 The Great War of attrition, but this was not
  how things looked in the beginning.
 Germany developed the Schlieffen Plan.
  – Two front war with both Russia and France.
  – Plan was to quickly attack France and capture
    Paris, and once this was done turn the
    attention to attacking Russia.
  – The plan almost worked.
               The War on Land
 The Germans got within 35 km of Paris before the French
  and British forces forced them back into northern France.
 Here is were the war of attrition began to take place.
 Both sides began digging defensive trench lines.
   – Some cases the trenches were only mere meters apart.
   – They stretched from the English Chanel to the Swiss border.
   – Between the two laid no man’s land which was filled with
      corpses, barbed wire, mud, etc.
 The trench warfare turned the western front into a
  stalemate by December of 1914.
 Trenches stretched for over 1000 km.
The War on Land
  New Technology and the War
 Warfare had changed dramatically because of technology
  from earlier timeframe till 1914.
 Prior battles had been fought with cavalry, and infantry
  soldiers who had riffles.
   – They would charge their enemy shooting and then use bayonets
     on their guns.
 Now technology had brought the machine gun, and
  charging across open ground was a suicide mission.
 Only a decade before the war airplanes were invented,
  and now they were flying over battlefields spying behind
  enemy lines.
   – Later in the war they were armed with machine guns and some of
     the first air battles took place.
New Technology and the War
New Technology and the War
 New Technology and the War
 1916 armored tanks were used to protect
  troops advancing across the battlefield.
 The tanks allowed troops to break through
  the barbed wire in no man’s land.
 The first tanks were almost useless though
  as they continually got stuck in the mud,
  but they did improve as time moved on in
  the war becoming a reliable weapon.
New Technology and the War
 New Technology and the War
 The problem with the technology was not
  the technology itself, but the commanders
  in charge if the troops had no idea how to
  use it.
  – The troops had been using it in the battlefield,
    but were still getting slaughtered on the
    western front because the general who were in
    charge continued to use old tactic which were
    rendered useless in more modern warfare.
           Life in the Trenches
 Life in the trenches was horrible, and nothing could have
  prepared the troop for what they were going to endure.
 Most often the trenches were cold and damp, and flooded
  in the winter with heavy rain.
 The trenches become muddy and were stinky cesspools.
   – They were overrun by rats.
 Because of the conditions the soldiers clothing were
  infested with lice.
 Many men developed trench foot causing their feet to
  swell and turn black.
          Life in the Trenches
 Injuries to limbs sometimes required amputation
  because the conditions were so bad, and the
  medical supplies were limited.
   – This made repair sometime impossible.
 Many who were injured were left to die in no
  ma’s land because rescues were too dangerous.
 Be it snipers or exploding shells, men were in
  constant fear of their lives in the trenches.
Life in the Trenches
Life in the Trenches
Life in the Trenches
The Canadian Expeditionary Forces
            in Battle
 Second Battle of Ypres
   – Some of the bloodiest battles were fought around
     Ypres.
   – On April 22, 1915, and two days later, the Canadian
     troops were blinded, burned, or killed by the use of
     chlorine gas that the Germans used.
      • The use of gas had been prohibited by international law in
        1907.
      • Many men died of suffocation or choking as their lungs were
        destroyed from the gas as it floated across the trenches.
      • It was hard to avoid because the gas was lighter than air and
        floated next to the ground.
The Canadian Expeditionary Forces
            in Battle
 Second Battle of Ypres
   – Canadians lost 6037 of their troops in this battle
   – This battle is significant because it was here where the German
       Soldiers first used Chlorine Gas
   –   The soldiers were unprepared for this
   –   When the French-Algerians saw the gas they panicked and ran
   –   The Germans broke through the gap left by the French-Algerian
       soldiers.
   –   The Canadians used urine soaked handkerchiefs for protection
   –   The Canadians held their position for three days until British
       reinforcements came
   –   Canadians were praised as courageous fighters
The Canadian Expeditionary Forces
            in Battle
The Canadian Expeditionary Forces
            in Battle
 The Battle of the Somme
   – Under the command of General Douglas Haig, British and
     French forces launched a massive attack along the low ridges of
     the Somme River.
   – Haig insisted on old warfare tactics and this turned out to be very
     costly.
       • The tactics were useless in modern warfare.
   – Wave upon wave of troops were asked to march across open
     fields and this turned into a blood bath.
       • The troops were cut down by German machine guns.
   – 85% of the Royal Newfoundland Regiment, over 700 men
     including officers, were wounded or killed in 30 minutes.
   – Over 1 million causalities in total.
       • Approx. 24,000 Canadian troops.
The Canadian Expeditionary Forces
            in Battle
 The Battle of the Somme
  – The purpose of this battle was to stop the German
    drive at Verdun. This was where the allies went on a
    counter attack at the Somme River
  – The British and French bombarded the Germans
    hoping it would wipe out their front lines and break up
    the barbed wire defenses
  – But the Germans withdrew into the trenches until the
    bombardment ended
  – As a result German casualties were much lower than
    expected
The Canadian Expeditionary Forces
            in Battle
 The Battle of the Somme
  – Massive craters from the bombardment made it hard
      for the British and French to charge the German line
  –   The craters also made ideal machine gun nests
  –   The Germans knew the attack was coming after the
      bombardment
  –   The machine guns were waiting
  –   Canada excelled in hand to hand combat, and took the
      Germans by surprise
The Canadian Expeditionary Forces
            in Battle
The Canadian Expeditionary Forces
            in Battle
 The Battle of Vimy Ridge
   – Germans had control of Vimy since 1914.
   – The French had tried three times to regain control but failed.
   – 1916 Canadian troops were chosen to lead a new assault under
       the command of General Julian Byng.
   –   Byng developed strategies for attack and trained the troops in
       what was to be done.
   –   Canadian troops attacked from the west for over a month while
       sappers (engineers) dug tunnels to move troops forward.
   –   April 9, 1917, Easter Monday, Canadian troops moved into
       position on a cold and snowy day.
   –   Within two hours the Canadians had take the first position.
The Canadian Expeditionary Forces
            in Battle
 The Battle of Vimy Ridge
  – Turing point of the war
  – High point of Canadian military achievement in the
      war
  –   Vimy Ridge was strategically important;
      geographically it was a key position to see
      approaching enemies, and it also had mines and
      factories that were vital to the German war effort.
  –   The Germans had strongly fortified deep trenches here
  –   There had been many failed attempts to retake Vimy
  –   The Canadians pinpointed the location of every
      trench, machine gun, and battery
The Canadian Expeditionary Forces
            in Battle
 The Battle of Vimy Ridge
  – April10 they captured Hill145, and by April12 ‘the
    pimple’, the last German position.
  – The Canadians ad gained more ground, taken more
    prisoners, and captured more artillery than any
    previous British offensive in the war.
  – Over 3500 men killed, and 7000 wounded.
  – The victory was even noted by the Americans by
    saying, “every American will feel a thrill of
    admiration and a touch of honest envy at the
    achievements of the Canadian troops.”
The Canadian Expeditionary Forces
            in Battle
The Canadian Expeditionary Forces
            in Battle
 Passchendaele
  – General Arthur Currie was the leader and he was the
    first Canadian appointed to command Canadian
    troops.
     • He still took orders from General Haig.
  – Passchendaele had little strategic value, but Haig
    wanted to have it.
  – Currie warned him it would be mistake and casualties
    would be high.
     • Currie was right.
  – The allies won the battle but suffered significant
    losses.
The Canadian Expeditionary Forces
            in Battle
 Passchendaele
  – 16 000 Canadian soldiers were lost in this
    battle.
  – The battle only gained the British 6 km.
  – The Germans had the high ground, and the
    Canadian soldiers were at the Germans mercy.
The Canadian Expeditionary Forces
            in Battle
 Women on the Western Front
 Approx. 2500 women joined the medical
  and field ambulance corps.
  – Some women served as nurses
  – They were called the ‘bluebirds’ because of
    the color of their uniforms.
  – Most worked in hospitals in the battlefield, or
    in Britain.
  – Many were killed or injured as a result of
    artillery fire, bombs, or poison gas.
              Question?
 The use of gas as a weapon was outlawed
  by the 1907 Hague Convention. Should
  chemical weapons be allowed in warfare?
           The War in the Air
 Airplanes served different purposes in the war.
 In the start they were mainly use for aerial
  reconnaissance.
 Soon after pilots were armed with pistols and
  riffles and shot at enemy’s down below.
 As time past the aircrafts turned into small fighter
  planes with machine guns mounted to them.
 Aerial dogfights become a spectacular scene in
  the air and pilots had to use spins, rolls, and
  different maneuvers to shake off the attackers.
The War in the Air
             The War in the Air
 A pilot become an ace once he could prove he had shot
  down five or more enemy planes.
 Most become heroes and were withdrawn from service to
  go home and promote the war and funding for it.
 At the time no pilots used parachutes.
 1917 the average life expectancy was about 3 weeks
  during the peak of aerial dogfights.
   – More than 50,000 pilots and air crew died between 1914 and
     1918.
 Canada never had its own air force so those who wished
  to fly joined the British.
            The War in the Air
 Canada produced a number of aces
  – Billy Bishop
       • Top ace with 72 kills.
  –   Ray Collishaw
  –   Billy Barker
  –   William May
  –   Roy Brown
       • Credited with shooting down the German ace,
         Manfred von Richthofen, the Red Baron.
                The War at Sea
 Germany’s navy was no match for the British, but the
  German u-boats were of great danger.
 German u-boat become successful at disrupting the
  shipping of British supplies.
   – Once they had torpedoes they destroyed war or merchant ship
     they come across.
 1915 Germany sank a Births passenger liner called
  Lusitania killing approx. 1200 passengers.
   – Some of the passengers were Canadian and American.
   – This act gave the US one more reason to enter the war.
   – The Germans said they would sink any boat in the war zone
     around Britain.
             The War at Sea
 To combat the Germans the Allies developed a
  convoy system and a underwater listening device
  to help locate and destroy u-boats.
 At the wars end the Germans had to surrender all
  of the remaining u-boats they had, and were
  forbid to make more.
 Canada’s navy was dismal with only two ships in
  it, and one was on the west coast.
            The War at Sea
 Halifax become a base station for refueling
  and repairs. It was also the major
  departure point back to Europe.
 It was Canada’s merchant marines that
  become involved in the war ferrying
  munitions and food for Britain.
  – They were no members of the armed forces,
    but suffered losses as well during the battles at
    sea.
               The War at Home
 At the beginning of the war Canada was in an economic
  recession, but with the development of the war the
  economy began to boom by 1916.
 PM Borden replaced the shells committee with the
  Imperial Munitions Board.
   – Was more efficient
   – Factories now began to produce ships and airplanes along with
     shells.
   – Created a boom in the industry and hundreds of thousands of
     Canadians now worked in these factories.
   – Production and export of goods reached record highs.
   – Lumber, nickel, copper, lead, wheat, beef , etc. were all in high
     demand.
           The War at Home
 Most of the products produced in Canada
  were exported to Europe.
  – This caused some products to become scarce,
    and prices now began to rise.
  – Some businesses made huge profits in war
    periods.
     • Workers were still frustrated because of low
       government controlled wages and poor working
       conditions, and this become an issue after the war.
             Paying for the War
 Because of the new technology and large numbers of
  troops involved in the war, Canada was unable to pay for
  it contributions to the war.
 The government urged Canadians to by Victory Bonds to
  help pay, and they could cash them after collecting
  interest on what they had invested.
   – It was to appeal to the new patriotism of Canada.
 Income tax was introduced as a temporary measure to pay
  for the war effort.
   – Well off individuals and families paid 3% of there income in
     taxes.
   – Businesses had to pay 4%, but this was believed to be too low by
     many because of the huge profit being made.
           Paying for the War
 1918 Canada had put
  itself deeply into debt
  and was forced to
  borrow money from
  other countries,
  particularly the
  United States.
 The Changing Role of Women
 Women’s roles changed dramatically as a result of the
  war.
   – This was a result of so many men being involved in the war.
 Some organized committees to send food and letters
  overseas, and others volunteered with organizations like
  the Red Cross.
 More significantly was the role women took on in the
  ‘new’ labour force.
 Prior to 1914 women were employed in low-skill, low
  paying jobs in food and clothing industries, and as
  domestic servants.
 The Changing Role of Women
 With increased production come increased demand for
  labour and women were there to fill the jobs.
   – Everything from running a fishing boat on the Atlantic to running
      a prairie farm.
 It was the wartime effort of women that keep the wartime
  economy from collapsing.
 Most assumed after the war that the women would leave
  there jobs and go back to there ‘regular’ lives before the
  war.
 Women’s contributions to the war strengthened the
  women’s suffrage act in Canada.
 The Changing Role of Women
 Women’s right to vote.
   – 1915 the liberals in Manitoba campaigned in the
     election with the promise to give women the right to
     vote, and they received it in January 1916.
   – Later that year women were given the right to vote in
     Alberta and Saskatchewan.
   – 1917 Ontario and British Columbia gave women the
     right to vote.
   – 1918 all women across Canada were granted the right
     to vote in recognition of the patriotic effort they put
     forth during the war.
  Propaganda As a Tool of War
 The governments of all warring nations bombarded their
  countries with government propaganda to get people to
  support the war.
 Propaganda was used in a variety of media: films,
  magazine articles, radio programs, political speeches, and
  posters.
 The purpose was to appeal to the sense of patriotism
  people had.
   – It encouraged people to buy savings bonds, join the army, use
      less fuel, eat less meat, give the government full support in all
      endeavors.
       • 80% of Canadian troops were volunteers and this can partially be
         attributed to the posters.
  Propaganda As a Tool of War
 Most propaganda was selective and distorted the
  truth.
   – i.e. Reports of conditions on the western front were
     untrue, numbers of causalities and enemies killed were
     minimized and exaggerated, and British commanders
     were praised even with lives being wasted in battle.
   – The Germans were described as “the Huns” after they
     invaded Belgium and refugees escaped to England.
      • This brought a stereotyped to all and some German
        businesses were attacked in places like Canada as a result.
  Propaganda As a Tool of War
 Berlin, Ontario, had many German descendants
  and was faced with extreme criticism for holding
  the same name as Germany’s capital.
   – In response they raised $100,000 for the war fund.
   – 1916 unruly soldiers stationed in the city destroyed a
     German social club, raided German businesses, and
     attacked people who were said to be pro-German.
   – The city renamed itself Kitchener, Ontario.
            Halifax Disaster
 December 6, 1917 the Mont Blanc was
  accidentally hit by another ship.
  – The Mont Blanc was carrying more than 2500 tones of
    dynamite.
 The explosion devastated Halifax’s harbor and
  much of the city.
 Between 2000-3000 people were killed and more
  than 10,000 were injured.
 It was the largest man-made explosion in the
  world until the dropping of the Atomic bomb on
  Hiroshima.
        The Conscription Crisis
 PM Borden promised there would be no conscription in
  Canada.
 As the war pushed on, and the industry for the war effort
  grew, fewer men were no enlisting to go to war to provide
  replacement troops.
 Borden introduced the Military Service Act after
  returning from England and seeing how many troops
  were needed to win the battle at Vimy Ridge.
   – He had been convinced by the British PM David Lloyd George
     that the war needed to be won at all costs.
       The Conscription Crisis
 The Military Service Act made enlistment in the
  services compulsory.
   – The act first allowed for exceptions for people who
     were disabled, the members of the clergy, those with
     essential jobs or skills, and conscientious objectors
     who believed the war was wrong because of religion.
 Canada had a high volunteer rate but the numbers
  were not even through the provinces with Quebec
  having the lowest rate of volunteers.
        The Conscription Crisis
 Problems that continually come to the front with the
  French were few recruits could speak English and fewer
  in the officer corps could speak French, little attempt was
  made to keep the French troops together, relations
  between English and French Canadians were stained
  because of the language right allowed for education
  outside of Quebec, and a majority of French Canadians
  felt no patriotic feelings towards England and France as it
  had been generations since their ancestors had come to
  Canada.
 The French saw the Military Service Act as a way of
  forcing them to fight a war that was not theirs to fight.
        The Conscription Crisis
 Henri Bourassa argued that Canada had lost enough men
  and spent enough money in the war that had nothing to do
  with them.
 He believed that sending more troops and spending more
  money would bankrupt the country and stain the
  agricultural and industrial production weakening the
  economy and threatening Canada's political independence
 Lastly he believed it would divide the nation.
 Other opposed the ideas of conscription.
   – The farmers on the prairies because the needed their sons and
     helpers to help run the farms.
   – Factory workers because they believed they were already
     contributing to the war effort.
  Canada’s Most Divisive Election
 PM Borden called an election over the issue of
  conscription.
 Prior to announcing the election he passed two new bills
   – Military Voters Act and Wartime Elections Act.
   – These helped to ensure he would be re-elected.
 Military Voters Act
   – Allowed the men and women serving overseas to vote in the
     Canadian election.
 Wartime Elections Act
   – Gave the vote to all Canadian women directly related to
     servicemen, while cancelling the vote for all conscientious
     objects and immigrants who had come from enemy countries in
     the last 15 years.
  Canada’s Most Divisive Election
 Borden invited the members of the Liberal opposition
  who believed in conscription to join him in forming a
  Union Government.
   – They were offered positions in cabinet and other incentives to
      join.
 Liberal leader Laurier received little support outside of
  Quebec for his opposition to conscription.
   – Pg. 41 of your text has the election results from 1917.
 The Union Government won the election, but the
  conscription crisis did not end.
 Problems continued to arise in Quebec with protests to
  the idea of conscription.
 Canada’s Most Divisive Election

 1918 Easter weekend anti-conscription
  riots broke out in Quebec City with four
  demonstrators being shot and ten soldiers
  being injured in the riot.
 404, 000 men were called upon, 380, 500
  applied for exemption, and only 130, 000
  were enlisted. Only 25, 000 of the soldiers
  reached France before the end of the war.
  The Central Powers Collapse
 Two important events in 1917 helped to
  change the direction of the war.
  – Czar Nicholas of Russia was forced to
    abdicate in March of 1917 with a provisional
    government being formed.
  – The United States declared war on Germany
    on April 2, 1917 because of the sinking of the
    passenger liner Lusitania.
  The Central Powers Collapse
 October 1917 the Bolsheviks overthrow the
  provisional government in Russia and sign a
  peace treaty with Germany in early 1918
   – “Peace and Bread”
   – This freed up German troops to return to the Western
     Front before the American troops arrived.
 In the final push for Germany they were able to
  bring the front lines within 75 km of Paris.
   – The allied positions at Ypres, the Somme,
     Passchendaele, etc had all been lost to the Germans.
   – Only Vimy Ridge was retained.
   The Central Powers Collapse
 In the final push the Germans had exhausted themselves
  to the point were without fresh troops and supplies they
  knew the war was soon going to be over.
 During the “Hundred Days” Canada’s offensives were
  among the most successful of all allied forces.
 It was General Currie who had command and broke
  German lines winning battles at Arras, Cambrai, and
  Valenciennes.
 Soon the German Kaiser abdicated and fled to Holland.
   The Central Powers Collapse
 November 11, 1918, at
  11:00 a.m. a armistice
  was signed in a railway
  car in France ending the
  war.
 Private George Price, a
  Canadian soldier, was the
  last to die from a sniper
  bullet just a few minutes
  before the armistice.
In Flanders Fields…
           It was during WWI that In
            Flanders Fields was written by
            Lieutenant Colonel John
            McCrae, a Canadian surgeon
            and field doctor.
           It was written to commemorate
            the dead and injured Canadian
            soldiers he treated.
           Flanders Fields is the western
            section of Belgium that
            includes the city of Ypres.
    Canada on the World Stage
 The allies and the new German government met after the
  war in Paris to discuss the creation of a peace agreement.
 PM Borden was successful in getting Canada a place at
  the Paris Peace Conference, and was able to be included
  as one of the leaders who signed the Treaty of Versailles.
 The Treaty of Versailles was what eventually set out the
  terms of a peace agreement in 1919.
 American president Woodrow Wilson proposed his 14
  point plan in 1918 for peace that emphasized forgiveness,
  but the French and Belgium leader wanted nothing to do
  with this because they wanted compensation.
    Canada on the World Stage
 The French and Belgium leaders insisted in the
  1919 conference that:
   – Germany had to agree to a war ‘guilt clause”.
   – Germany had to pay war reparations totaling about
     $30 billion.
   – The map of Europe was to be redrawn reducing
     Germany's territory and dividing it into two parts so
     newly independent Poland would have a corridor to
     the sea.
   – The German army would be restricted to 100, 000
     men with no air force or u-boats.
    Canada on the World Stage
 These terms may seem harsh but they are what
  the countries wanted as repercussions to the war.
 Germany, along with other European nations, had
  their economy crushed.
   – The Germans were unable to make the payments
     required of them.
 Lastly the Germans greatly resented the fact of
  the guilt clause.
          Participating in Peace
 Because of PM Borden’s actions, Canada now become a
  member of the newly formed League of Nations.
   – The League of Nations was also an idea of Woodrow Wilson.
   – It was established by the Treaty of Versailles.
 The league was made up of nations from around the
  world and was designed on the principle of collective
  security.
   – If one member was threatened the rest would come to the rescue.
 The bigger powers of Europe, Britain and France, had
  doubt about the organization because they wanted to
  pursue their imperialist actions around the globe.
       Participating in Peace
 Even though some did not agree with the
  concept they accepted the basic idea in
  principle because they would gain
  publicity and public support from agreeing
  to such a thing.
  – Smaller nations were eager to join the League.
       The League’s Limitations
 The league proved to be more idealistic than practical when it come
  to solving the worlds problems of peace.
 It required cooperation from all of the nations involved and because
  of the past this was difficult to have happen.
 The league was able to punish aggressive nations by putting
  sanctions on or against them to restrict trade.
 The problem was that the League did not have an army of its own to
  impose its decisions.
 Ironically the Americans refused to join the league.
    – Wilson become ill after having a stroke and was unable to campaign for
      a vote to join and it was turned down by the rest of the US government.
    – This greatly undermined the effectiveness of the League to resolve
       disputes.
           The Aftermath of War
 1918-1919 the people of Europe went hungry across large
  areas because their crops, and transportation systems had
  been destroyed.
 The same time had the influenza (Spanish flu) epidemic
  that swept through Europe killing millions of people.
   –   Many soldiers coming home returned with the virus.
   –   Young people were extremely susceptible.
   –   22 million world-wide died as a result, more than the war.
   –   1918-1920 50, 000 Canadians died from the flu.
   –   Schools and public places were closed for months and people
       now had to wear breathing masks to be in public in some cases.
        Positive or Negative
 Read pg. 44 of your text.
 In your opinion did the war have a positive
  or negative effect on Canada? Explain.

				
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