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World War I 1914 - 1918

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					                   World War I:Why?
                     1914 – 1918

                          Underlying Causes


Alliance Systems    Imperialism        Militarism   Nationalism
• Militarism is     Militarism
  when a country
  creates a culture
  that stresses
  military strength
  and achievement.
• Germany was a
  country with very
  strong militaristic
  values.
                      Imperialism
• Imperialism is when
  one country takes over
  another country for
  economic, political, or
  cultural reasons.
• Germany and Great
  Britain were
  competing to build
  empires.
• Africa was one area
  where they competed
  for colonies.
                      Nationalism
• Nationalism is a love for
  one’s country.
• Nationalism also
  describes the desire of a
  group of people to form
  their own country.
• Serbia wanted to break
  away from the Austrian-
  Hungarian Empire to
  form their own country.
   (Entangling) Alliance Systems

• An alliance system is a group of
 countries who agree to come to the aid
 of each other if one or more of the
 countries becomes engaged in war.
          European Rivalries

• 1. Rivalries: industrialism and
  expansion led to competition
• 2. Great Britain, France, Germany,
  Austria-Hungary, Russia, Italy all want
  new markets and to expand their
  empires
• 3. Competition turns to hostility
            Nationalism
• 1. Slavic nationalists in Austria-
  Hungary want new nation (in
  Balkans)
• 2. Austria-Hungary does not want
  new nation (would harm the empire)
• 3. Austria-Hungary annexes Bosnia-
  Herzegovina in 1908
             Militarism
• 1. European powers glorified war
  and the military; spend $ on military
  and through
• Conscription
           Conscription
• Conscription (calling civilians to
 military service)
            Alliances

• Defense agreements between nations
          Triple Alliance
• Germany
• Austria Hungary
• Italy
          Triple Entente

• Russia
• France
• Great Britain
    The “Spark” To The “Powder
        Keg” In The Balkans
• Franz Ferdinand
  (June 28, 1914)
     Archduke of
  Austria-Hungary
• Sarajevo, Ferdinand
  and his wife visit
  Sarajevo (parade
  style)
    The “Spark” To The “Powder
     Keg” In The Balkans (cont)
• Gavrilo Princip-
  member of the
  Black Hand
• assassinates
  Ferdinand and his
  wife
• why? Black Hand
  wanted Serbian
  nationalism
      War… Why?

• Germany gives Austria-Hungary a
 “blank check” for war
            Ultimatum

• Austria-Hungary gives Serbia an
 ultimatum- allow Austria-Hungary
 to investigate the assassination or
 face war; Serbian leaders reject the
 demand; Austria-Hungary declares
 war on Serbia (July 28, 1914)
           Mobilization

• Both sides gather troops and
 equipment to prepare for war
               Russia

• Supports Serbia
• Mobilizes against Austria-Hungary
 and Germany
            Germany


• Declares war on Russia and France
• (France supports Russia)
             Belgium


• Belgium is neutral
• Germany invades Belgium to get
 to France
            Great Britain

• Supports Belgium’s neutrality
• Great Britain declares war on
 Germany after Germany uses Belgium
 as a highway
             The Schlieffen Plan
• General Alfred von Schlieffen believed
    Germany could defeat France in six weeks,
    and then would attack Russia
•    Germany invades France (through
    Belgium).
•   Germany encounters stiff resistance and
    Russia mobilizes quickly.
•   Germans defeat French and British at Alsace
    Lorraine (in France).
•   French fortify their position in Paris and push
    Germans back 50 miles from the city.
      The Battle Of The Marne
• Germans retreat
 from Marne
 makes
 Schlieffen Plan
 a failure
               Tannenberg
• Russia invades East
  Prussia (diverting
  German troops from
  Western front)
• Russians encounter
  defeat in
  Tannenberg (present
  day Poland)
        The Race To The Sea
• Both sides in the Western Front wish
  to get to the North Sea first (to
  outflank one another)
• The war reaches a stalemate by
  November.
           Trench Warfare
• Why trenches?
 To protect
 against a war of
 attrition
             War Of Attrition
• Constant
 attacks to wear
 down one’s
 enemy
                Verdun
• German surprise
  on French (NE
  France) attack
  that lasts six
  months
• One of the
  bloodiest battles
  of the war
                  Somme
• (N. France)
 Battle that
 results in the
 loss of over
 1,000,000
           The Eastern Front
• In Russia; less entrenched than Western
  front; no complete victory for either side
• Russia (least industrialized of war
  countries) does not have resources/skills
  to fight war compared to Germany and
  Austria-Hungary
• Central Powers shift focus to Eastern
  Front
           Gallipoli Campaign
• An offensive (by
  the British) on the
  Dardanelle to take
  Turkey (Ottoman
  Empire) out of the
  war
• Poor planning on
  Allied’s part
  proves costly
              Sea Warfare
• British controls
 the seas-block
 all German
 controlled ports
         Submarine Warfare
• Germany
  introduces
  submarine warfare
  (U-Boats)
• in 1915 the U-
  Boats start
  attacking civilian
  ships
   United States Enters The War
• Most
 Americans
 believe WWI is
 a European war
• Germans attack the         Lusitania
  British ship Lusitania
  killing American
  civilians; President
  Woodrow Wilson calls
  for cutting diplomatic
  ties with Germany unless
  they stop bombing ships
  with Americans
• Germany stops…
• for a short period, then
  resumes.
           Zimmerman Note
• (March 1917) German
 ambassador
 (Zimmerman) says if
 Mexico supports
 Germany, the
 Germans will help
 Mexico get back New
 Mexico, Texas, and
 ARIZONA
           Russian Revolution
• Czar Nicholas II
                  Rasputin

• Mystic healer and
 adviser to the
 Czar
             Problems
• No food at home (due to the war)
          March 15, 1917

• Protestors in a spontaneous
 uprising demand change (Czar
 abdicates the thrown)-Spring
 Revolution
     A Provisional Government
• At first led by middle class; then by
  socialist groups (Petrgrograd Soviet)
  led by Alexander Kerensky
• Soviets want: war peace, transfer of
  land to peasants, and worker control of
  factories
• Mensheviks-Many; but conservative
• Bolsheviks-Few; but radical
             Vladimir Lenin
• In Switzerland
  when Spring
  Revolution begins
• Returns (aided by
  Germans) becomes
  leader of
  Bolsheviks: “peace,
  land, bread”
     The Bolshevik Revolution
• November 1917 Bolsheviks overthrow
 the provisional government (Even
 though they don’t win elections); lay
 the foundation of communist state
              Civil War
• Russia obtains peace with Germany by
 giving up much western territory and
 1/3 of its population (Treaty of Brest-
 Litovsk)
              Reds
• Radical Communists (Bolsheviks)
              Whites
• Mensheviks & other political
  opponents to the Communists
• supported by Allies (to get Russia
  back into war)
             Leon Trotsky
• Leader of the
  Red Army-
  uses force and
  education to
  support
  communism
• powerful
             The Terror
• Communists impose “war communism”
  and use terror to aid their cause
• Defeat the Mensheviks. Russia
  becomes the USSR- the Soviet Union
The End to WWI
            Convoy
• Why?
• Solution to German U-Boat campaign
• Merchant ships were escorted by
 warships
              Total War
• What? Governments direct their
 people and resources to the war effort,
 impose censorship on the press and
 media, spread of propaganda for
 morale, and women take the places of
 men in the factories.
               Global War
• Imperial colonies (Africa, Asia) are
  recruited for the war effort (in return
  for citizenship or independence)
• This policy helps to crush German
  imperial powers and Turkish power
            T.E. Lawrence
• Arabs, led by
 Lawrence, help
 to defeat the
 Ottoman Turks
 in the Middle
 East
           End Of Fighting
• American forces arrive
• Tip the scales in favor of the Allies
• By July 1918 the Germans are pushed
  out of France
• Under the command of Ferdinand
  Foch
             September:
• “The war
 cannot be won”
 –German
 generals to
 Kaiser Wilhelm
 (William) II
         The Ottoman Turks
• Collapse in the
 Balkans
               Italy
• Defeats the Austria-Hungarians
• Italy had been neutral at the
  beginning of the war
• Help to end the Hapsburg dynasty
             11-9-18
• Kaiser Wilhelm abdicates
  (Germany becomes a republic
• 11-11-18 (11:00am) war ends
              Armistice
• Signed (becomes Armistice Day in
  honor of 30 million killed or wounded
  during the war
• November 11 is the day of honoring
  veterans
                Armenia
• Possibly one million Armenian
  civilians killed by Turks for support of
  the Allies
• Turks use war as an excuse to
  slaughter
         Woodrow Wilson
• Looks to
 restore peace
 after the war;
 offers a plan
 with 14 points
 to avoid future
 conflict
               14 Points
• …freedom of the seas (for trade),
 limitation of arms, end to secret
 alliances, just settlement of colonial
 claims, self rule (of nations), and
 GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF
 NATIONS to settle future problems
            Reparations
• France wants Germany to pay for the
 war, Wilson wants “no annexation, no
 contributions, and no punitive
 damages.”
       Paris Peace Conference
• 27 nations are represented to establish
  5 separate peace treaties (no Central
  power or Russia is represented)
• Georges Clemenceau-France (want
  Germany to pay)
• David Lloyd George-England (want
  control of the seas)
• Vittorio Orlando-Italy (Italy wants
  more land)
         Treaty Of Versailles
• Punishes Germany (heavily)
• reduces German Army
• bans German conscription and war
  manufacturing
• reduces the size of Germany
• strips its colonies; Germans must
  accept blame and pay the cost for the
  war
              Mandates

• German colonies are received as other
 countries territories
          Other Settlements
• Austria-Hungary is broken up (Italy
 gets some)
            New countries:
• Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania,
 Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia
 (considered quarantine lines)
         In the Middle East
• Ottoman Empire is divided between
 England (Palestine, Trans Jordan, Iraq)
 and France (Lebanon, Syria)
            The End…


• Harsh plan leads to resentment by
 Germans (lays the groundwork for
 Nazism)
         Wilson’s 14 Points

• Reduced to four
• Include a League of Nations
• (which the United States does NOT
 join)

				
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