Englands Limited Monarchy

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					England’s Limited Monarchy
   (Beginning of English
       Could the rich control the king?
   Around the picture below, you can read some of
   the qualities which medieval people expected
   their king to have! Which three are the most
   important for a medieval king?
                                       A good judge of
   Rich – but not                      character

Fit and strong                            A good soldier

                                               God fearing

  Hardworking                              Brave

      Firm – but fair!
  Unlike the
 monarchs of
 and Russia,
 were never
able to secure
absolute rule.
            1. Roots
A) Magna Carta (1215 King John
 forced to sign contract)

B) Common Law (established over

C) Parliament’s (England’s gov’t
 body) financial power
   English nobles forced the King to
sign the Magna Carta. This document
       limited the king’s power.
► Parliament   was established as a legislative

► It   claimed the right to approve taxes.

► By establishing a Parliament with the right
  to approve taxes, the power of England’s
  monarchs was limited.
England’s Parliament is a legislative
         The Magna Carta
I, King John, accept that I have to
  govern according to the law.
 So I agree:
 1. Not to imprison nobles without trial
 2. That trials must be in courts; not held in
     secret by me
 3. To have fair taxation for the nobles
 4. To let freemen travel wherever they like
 5. Not to interfere in Church matters
 6. Not to seize crops without paying for them
 …. and lot more things too!!
2. Steps toward limitations
A) James I (Calvinist) , cousin of Elizabeth,
 claims absolute rule (Believed in Absolute
   James 1: Patriarchy and Divine
►… Kings are not only GODS Lieutenants
 upon earth, and sit upon GODS throne, but
 even by GOD himself they are called Gods.
 …Kings are also compared to Fathers of
 families: for a King is truely Parens patriæ,
 the political father of his people. (James 1
 speech to Parliament: 1610)
► 1597–1598:The     Trew Law of Free
► Basilikon Doron
                              Henry VII

   Arthur       Henry VIII                       Margaret               Mary

    Mary I      Elizabeth I   Edward VI          James V
"Bloody Mary"                                     King of

                                               Mary Stuart
                                                Queen of

                                                 James I

                                                Charles I

                                       Civil War
                                   Oliver Cromwell

                                       Charles II            James II
                                    "Merry Monarch"
B) Charles I (Catholic) , son of
 James, dissolves Parliament
 only to have to recall it again
           Charles and Divine Right
►   Charles was like his father in that he believed in authoritarian and
    absolutist government
►   Unlike James 1 he was distant: wanted to use divine authority but
    didn’t like people E.g. Royal ‘Gift of Healing’: Charles 11 ‘touched’c.
                 Henrietta Maria
►   Marriage to Henrietta
►   Allowed to practice her
    religion freely
►   Portrayed as evil papist,
    who seduced her husband
    away from Protestantism
►   Sons (Charles and James)
    accompanied her to mass
           Political grievances
► Divine right – theory that monarchs derived
  their power from God and were only
  accountable to Him. Institutions like
  parliament existed only at the king’s
  pleasure and the king alone was the law
► Fear of absolutist monarchy
      3. Reasons for the English Civil
►A.  Parliament got fed up with Charles I
 & refused to give him money unless
 signed Petition of Rights in 1628:
   King could not jail people
    without a good reason
   King could not make taxes
    without Parliament's approval
   King could not keep his soldiers in
    peoples’ homes & could not use army
    to maintain order during peacetime
    4. English Civil War
A) From 1642-1649
B) Oliver Cromwell leads
 Puritan army against Charles I
          Oliver Cromwell!
C) Oliver wins and executes Charles due to
 treason in 1649
D) Oliver reforms society based on strict
 Puritan morals
The Restoration (1660)
Charles II
              5. Restoration
A. Charles II learned from the lessons
 of his father & grandfather:
   Did not try to rule by Divine Right &
    did not threaten Parliament’s
   Passed Habeas Corpus Law—
    everyone guaranteed a trial after
    arrest; cannot be held in jail forever
   Anglicanism was official religion, but
    treated Puritans & Catholics equally
                              Henry VII

   Arthur       Henry VIII                       Margaret         Mary

    Mary I      Elizabeth I   Edward VI          James V
"Bloody Mary"                                     King of

                                                Mary Stuart
                                                 Queen of

                                                 James I

                                                 Charles I

                                          Charles II   James II
►BUT,  there were problems:
  Charles II needed more money than
   Parliament was willing to give; so he
   made a secret agreement with Louis
   XIV of France to convert to
   Catholicism in exchange for money
  Charles II had no children; when he
   died, his openly-Catholic brother
   James II will be king (Parliament's
   worst fear!!)
 James II
     6. Glorious Revolution
A. James II-Catholic-dissolves
 parliament, leads to the Glorious

James II

Charles I
        Glorious Revolution
B. William, son-in-law of James, invited to
 invade England
C. William and Mary are Protestant -James II
 flees-no real fighting
D. William and Mary agree that
 Parliament should help rule-
 constitutional monarchy
      English Bill of Rights

►Signed  1689
►No suspending of Parliaments laws
►No taxing without Parliaments
►Freedom of speech for Parliament
►Citizens can petition King for
       Understanding #1

►Politicaldemocracy rests on
 the principle that government
 derives power from the
 consent of the governed
       Understanding #2

►The English Civil War and
Glorious Revolution
prompted further
development of the rights of

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