Crisis, War and Witchcraft in Europe 7.2 Juan,Yesenia,& Carlos 1560 – 1650 Severe economic and social crisis • Problems • Spain – Economy • Inflation (rising prices) dependent on silver for land and food. and mines were • Growing population to producing less silver. support. • Loss of Muslim and • 1600 – economic Jewish Artisans and slowdown in parts of merchants hurt their Europe. economy. 1560 – 1650 Severe economic and social crisis (cont.) • Population Increased from about 60 million in 1500 to 85 million by 1600. • Population declined by 1650 (more in the central and southern). • Warfare plague and famine contributed to population decline. Witchcraft Trails • Belief in witchcraft (or magic) was part of traditional village culture for centuries. • During this time, intense hysteria affected lives of many Europeans. • More than 100,000 people charged with witchcraft. • As more were brought to trail, fear of witches grew with the fear of being accused of witchcraft. Witchcraft Trials (Cont.) Background Information • Common people, usually the poor and those without property, were most often accused of such charge. • More than 75% accused were women that were single or widowed and over 50 years old. • Under intense torture, accused witches confessed to a number of practices. • Such as. ------------------------ Witchcraft Practices • Sworn allegiance to the devil. • Attended Sabbaths. • Nightly gatherings. • Some admitted of casting evil spells. Ending Of Witchcraft • By the end of 1650 • Ending of the old view witchcraft hysteria of a world haunted by begun to lessen and evil spirits. governments grew stronger, fewer officials were willing to disrupt their societies with witch trials any more. The Stuarts and Divine Right • With the death of • The belief that James Queen Elizabeth 1 received all his power the Tudor dynasty from God and was came to an end. responsible only to • The Stuart line of God is called divine rulers began with right of kings. accession to the Parliament did not throne of Elizabeth’s think much of this cousin James I of though. England. The Stuarts and Divine Right (Cont.) • The puritans didn’t like • In 1628,parliament the king’s strong defense passed a petition that of the church of England. prohibited the passing’s • Many of England’s gentry of any taxes without had chosen to become parliaments consent. puritans. The puritan • Charles tried to impose gentry became an more ritual on the church. important part of the When he tried to impose House of Commons. this puritans moved to the • Charles I also believed in Americas. the divine right of kings • The religious struggles of just like his father James the reformation impacted I. America greatly. The Stuarts and Divine Right (1642) • *Civil war broke out in 1642 between the supporters of the kings and the parliamentary forces. • Parliament was victorious because of the new model army of Oliver Cromwell. • The new model army consisted of well disciplined and trained men in the new military tactics of the 17th century. • Parliament later chose to execute Charles I on January 30,1649. This left England in horrid state of mind. • Parliament then abolished the monarchy and the house of Lords. They also declared England a republic or commonwealth The Restoration • Cromwell ruled until he • But Charles suspended died in 1658. George the laws. Parliament Monk created a situation began to become favorable to restoring the suspicious and forced monarchy in the place of him to back down on his Charles the second. action. • Parliament passed laws • When Charles died to restore the Church of leaving no heirs to the England as the state throne, James the second religion and restricting became king in 1685. some rights of Catholics and puritans. The Restoration (Cont.) • Because James was a devout catholic religion as once again an issue between parliament and king. • He promoted Catholics to high positions in society.
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