Chapter 5 Distributed Systems Jeff McCrea Overview About Distribute Systems (What, When, & How) Six Types of Distributed Systems The IT Infrastructure CLJ CTQ Distributed Systems Architecture of Choice for today’s Business Key Definitions: IT Architecture- blueprint that shows how a system, house, vehicle, or product will look, and how its parts interrelate. IT Infrastructure- actual implementation of the architecture, specifically processes, software, databases, etc. Distributed Systems- (What) Four Main Attributes Where is the process done? -Distributed Processing How are the processes and other devices interconnected? -Connectivity Where is the information stored? -Distributed Databases What rules and standards are used? -System-wide rules Distributed Systems (When) Three Business Questions to Ask: -Are the operations interdependent? -Are the businesses really homogeneous? -Does the corporate culture support decentralization? Distributed Systems- (How) Two Frameworks for Implementation: -Organizational- six levels of an organization: enterprise, region/country, site, department/process, work group/team, individuals. -Technical- SUMURU architecture Six Types of Distributed Systems Host-Based Hierarchy- - Large host above midrange computers and terminals. - Favored by mainframe vendors because of master/slave relationship. - Data can be stored in various places. Six Types (cont.) Decentralized Stand-Alone System- - Not distributed, but decentralized. - Separate departmental systems that communicate via terminals. - Many different unconnected systems. - ERP systems are replacing them. Six Types (cont.) Peer-to-Peer LAN-based System- - Use LAN (local area network) for desktop access. - LAN provides links between PCs, printers, and other network gateways. - No Hierarchy. Six Types (cont.) Hybrid Enterprise-wide System- - Mix of first three system forms linked with networks. - Networks- MAN, WAN, and Internet. - Allows for automation of business processes that span several functions. Six Types (cont.) Client-Server System- - Splits workload between client and server. - Network is dividing line between client-side and server- side. - Broken into: distributed presentation, remote presentation, distributed application function, remote data management, and distributed databases. Six Types (cont.) Internet-centric Computing Systems- - Internet is heart of distribution. - Three types: network-centric, server-based computing, and peer-to-peer computing. IT Infrastructure Four Types of IT Investments- 1. Strategic Investment 2. Informational Investment 3. Transactional Investment 4. Infrastructure Investment 2 1 3 4 IT Infrastructure Three Views of Infrastructure: 1. Economies of Scale (Utility) -necessary service, benefits through cost savings from econ. of scale. 2. Support for Business Programs (Dependent) -ties to investments, infrastructure is business expense, value measured through short-term business benefits. 3. Flexibility to Meet Changes in the Marketplace (Enabling) -continuous modifications to infrastructure to align to business strategy. CLJ “Damn the Lawsuits! Investing in P2P Forges on” by Robert La Franco Continuous push of P2P technology. P2P can better the business, not just trade music. P2P allows co-workers, partners, and clients to distribute data among themselves. “Distributed computing is a pervasive and irreplaceable transformation of the Internet.” Use existing technology and Internet to better communication. Use P2P to connect computing devices of all kinds. Groove Network- Linking thousands of corporate seats with virtual networks, not consumer applications. Distribution on the Internet backbone, rather than a central server is going to be the technology that finally allows media companies to establish workable business models on the web. CTQs Can P2P take off into the future for more than music? Will Napster’s Failure hurt the technology? If successful, how long until all businesses utilize P2P technology? What are other uses for P2P technology? Will current networks disappear for Internet networks? Are there any security issues with P2P technology? How does P2P fit into the globalization of the economy?
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