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VUsolutions STA301 Subjective Questions Short Notes www.VUsolutions.com Pie Pie Chart consists of a circle which is divided into two or more mars in Chart accordance with the number of distinct classes that we have in our data. : Statistical Statistical Inference is an estimate or prediction or some other Inference : generalization about a Population based on information contained in a sample. Statistics : Statistics is that science which enables to draw conclusions about various phenomena one the basis of real data collected on sample basis. Sample : Sample is that part of the Population from which information is collected. What is Order: Arrangement of objects in ascending or descending way is meant known as order. by order?. : Ordinal It includes the characteristic of a nominal scale and in addition has the property of Scale : ordering or ranking of measurments e.g the performance of students can be rated as excellent,good or poor. Interval A measurment scale possessing a constant interval size but not true zero point is Scale : called an Interval Scale. Ratio Scale It is a special kind of an interval scale in which the scale of measurment has a true : zero point as its origin. Median : Median of a set of values arranged in ascending or descending order of magnitude is defined as middle value if the number of values is odd and mean of two middle values if the number of values is even.Median is a value at or below which 50% of data lie. VUsolutions.com is a Largest website of Pakistan which provides you all the things which related to routine life, i.e. latest fashion updates, latest news alerts, cooking recipes, beauty tips, latest showbiz updates, funny cartoon & political programs, past solved papers and other study related help online, poems & tales for every age of persons, Health Treatments updates, Political Articles and corruption stories, English Latest news updates, wallpapers, weekly fashion magazines updates and many more (info@vusolutions.com) VUsolutions STA301 Subjective Questions Short Notes www.VUsolutions.com Average : A single value which intended to represent a distribution or a set of data as a whole is called an average. It is more or less a central value around which the observations tend to cluster so it is called measure of central tendency. Since measure of central tendency indicate the location of the distribution on X axis so it is also called measure of location. Mean The mean deviation is defined as the arithmetic mean of the deviations measured Deviation : either from the mean or from the median, all deviations being counted as positive. Chebshev's Chebshev's Theorem states that "For any number K greater than one at least 1- Theorm : 1/k2 of the data values fall with in K standard deviations of the mean i.e. within the interval. Moments : Moments are the arithmetic means of the powers to which the deviations are raised. Kurtosis : kurtosis is the degree of peakness of a distribution usually taken relative to a normal distribution. Correlation Correlation is a measure of the strength or the degree of relationship between two : random variables. OR Interdependence of two variables is called correlation. Venn A diagram that is understood to represent sets by circular regions, parts of circular Diagram : regions or their complements with respect to a rectangle representing the space S is called a Venn diagram. The Venn diagrams are used to represent sets and subsets in a pictorial way and to verify the relationship among sets and subsets. Mutually Two events are said to be mutually exclusive events if and only if they can not Exclusive both occur together at the same time. OR Two events are said to be mutually Event : exclusive events if the occurrence of one event discard the occurrence of other event. Independent Two events A and B in the same sample space S, are defined to be independent events : (or statistically independent) if the probability that one event occurs, is not affected by whether the other event has or has not occured. Random A numerical quantity whose value is determined by the outcome of a random VUsolutions.com is a Largest website of Pakistan which provides you all the things which related to routine life, i.e. latest fashion updates, latest news alerts, cooking recipes, beauty tips, latest showbiz updates, funny cartoon & political programs, past solved papers and other study related help online, poems & tales for every age of persons, Health Treatments updates, Political Articles and corruption stories, English Latest news updates, wallpapers, weekly fashion magazines updates and many more (info@vusolutions.com) VUsolutions STA301 Subjective Questions Short Notes www.VUsolutions.com variable : experiment is called a random variable. Distribution The function which gives the probability of the event that X takes a value less than Function : or equal TO a specified value x is called a distribution function and is also called the cumulative distribution function. Cumulative The function which gives the probability of the event that X takes a value less than Distribution or equal TO a specified value x is called a cumulative distribution function and is Function : also called the distribution function. Sampling A sampling frame is a complete list of all the elements in the population. Frame : Sampling The sampling error is the difference between the the sample statistic and the Error : population parameter. Probability Probability samples are those in which following the sampling plan each unit in Samples : the poplation has a known probability of being included in the sample. Non Non probability samples are those in which the sample elements are the arbitrarily probability selected by the sampler because in this judgment the elements thus chosen will samples : most effectively represent the Population. Frequency A frequency polygon is obtained by plotting the class frequencies against the mid- Polygon : points of the classes, and connecting the points so obtained by straight line segments. Variable : A measurable quantity which can vary from one individual or object to another is called a variable. Constant : A quantity which can assume only one value is called a constan Event. : the possible outcomes of an experiment is known as event. Data. : A well defined collection of objects is known as data. VUsolutions.com is a Largest website of Pakistan which provides you all the things which related to routine life, i.e. latest fashion updates, latest news alerts, cooking recipes, beauty tips, latest showbiz updates, funny cartoon & political programs, past solved papers and other study related help online, poems & tales for every age of persons, Health Treatments updates, Political Articles and corruption stories, English Latest news updates, wallpapers, weekly fashion magazines updates and many more (info@vusolutions.com) VUsolutions STA301 Subjective Questions Short Notes www.VUsolutions.com Mode : The mode is a value which occures most frequently in a set of data i.e. it indicates the most common result Box and A Box and Whisker plot provides a graphical representation of data through its Whisker five number summary. plot : The five A five number summary consists of X0, Q1, median, Q3, and Xm. It enables us to number find the shape of the distribution without drawing a graph. summary : EXHAUSTIVE Two or more than two mutually exclusive events are said to be exhaustive EVENTS : events when their union constitute the entire sample space Equally Two events A and B are said to be equally likely when one event is as likely to likely events occur as other : Probability Probability is defined as the ratio of favorable cases over equally likely cases. : Table : Table is a systematic arrangement of data into vertical columns and horizontal rows. Tabulation The process of arranging data into rows and columns is called tabulation. : Classification The process of arranging data in classes or categories according to some common : characteristics present in the data is called classification. Class Mark The class mark or mid point is that value which divides a class into two equall or Mid parts. Point : Mid Poin or The mid point or class mark is that value which divides a class into two equal Class Mark parts. : VUsolutions.com is a Largest website of Pakistan which provides you all the things which related to routine life, i.e. latest fashion updates, latest news alerts, cooking recipes, beauty tips, latest showbiz updates, funny cartoon & political programs, past solved papers and other study related help online, poems & tales for every age of persons, Health Treatments updates, Political Articles and corruption stories, English Latest news updates, wallpapers, weekly fashion magazines updates and many more (info@vusolutions.com) VUsolutions STA301 Subjective Questions Short Notes www.VUsolutions.com Measure of A single value which intended to represent a distribution or a set of data as a location : whole is called an average. It is more or less a central value around which the observations tend to cluster so it is called measure of central tendency. Since measure of central tendency indicate the location of the distribution on X axis so it is also called measure of location. The Semi- The quartile deviation or the Semi-interquartile Range is defined as half of the interquartile difference between the first and third quartiles. Range : The The coefficient of variation expresses the standard deviation as the percentage of coefficient the arithmetic mean. of variation : Disjoint Set Two sets A and B are said to be disjoint Sets if they have no elements in common. : DISTRIBUTION The distribution function of a random variable X, denoted by F(x), is defined FUNCTION: : by F(x) = P(X < x). The function F(x) gives the probability of the event that X takes a value LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO a specified value x. The distribution function is abbreviated to d.f. and is also called the cumulative distribution function (cdf) as it is the cumulative probability function of the random variable X from the smallest value up to a specific value x. Experimental An experimental design is a set of rules or a plan to collect the data relevant to design: : the problem under investigation in such a way as to provide the basis for valid and objective inferences about the stated problem. The plan usually consists of collection of the treatments, specification of experimental layout, allocation of treatments. Experimental An experimental unit is the basic unit to which the experiment is performed. It is Unit: : the basic unit to which the treatment is applied and in which the variable under investigation is measured and analyzed. VUsolutions.com is a Largest website of Pakistan which provides you all the things which related to routine life, i.e. latest fashion updates, latest news alerts, cooking recipes, beauty tips, latest showbiz updates, funny cartoon & political programs, past solved papers and other study related help online, poems & tales for every age of persons, Health Treatments updates, Political Articles and corruption stories, English Latest news updates, wallpapers, weekly fashion magazines updates and many more (info@vusolutions.com) VUsolutions STA301 Subjective Questions Short Notes www.VUsolutions.com Randomized These designs are those in which treatments are applied to experimental units Deigns; : randomly and conclusions are supported by the statistical results. Basic Randomization Replication Local Control Randomized Designs: : Randomization: It is a random process of assigning treatments to the experimental unit. The : random process implies that every possible allocation of treatments has the same probability. Replication: The second principle of an experimental design is replication which is the : repetition of the basic experiment. It is a complete run of all the treatments to be tested in the experiment. Local It is used to bring all extraneous sources of variations under control. For this Control: : purpose we use Local Control, a term referring to the amount of balancing, blocking and grouping of the experimental units. Complete In this design treatments are applied to the experimental units completely at Randomized random, that is randomization is done without any restrictions. Design is Designs : completely flexible, any number of treatments and any number of units per treatments can be applied. ANOVA : Analysis of variance is defined as the procedure by means of which the total variability of the set of data measured by total sum of square is partitioned into components that measure different sources of variations. The procedure thus permits the decomposition of the total SS into to the component SS which are corresponding to the real and suspected sources of variations. Randomized Randomized complete block Design (RCB) is a design in which • Experimental complete material is divided into groups or blocks in such a manner that experimental units block within a particular block are relatively homogeneous. • Each block contains Design complete set of treatments i.e. it constitutes a replication of treatments. • (RCB): : Treatments are assigned at random to the experimental units with in each block which means the randomization is restricted with blocks. 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It should be noted that in Latin square design, the number of rows, the number of columns and number of treatments must be equal Critical The value that separates the critical region from the acceptance region, is called Value : the critical value(s). Level of Level of significance of a test is the probability used as a standard for rejecting significance null hypothesis Ho when Ho is assumed to be true. The level of significance acts : as a basis for determining the critical region of the test. statistics 2 : Statistics is a science of facts and figures. Deciles : Deciles are those nine quantities that divide the distribution into ten equall parts. Percentiles : Percentiles are those ninety nine quantities that divide the distribution into hundred equall parts Arithmetic Arithmetic Mean is a value obtained by dividing the sum of the observations by Mean : their numbers. Geometric The Geometric Mean G, of a set of n positive values is defined as the positive nth Mean : root of their product. Absolute An absolute measure of dispersion is one that measures the dispersion in terms of Measure of the same units, or in the square of units as the units of the data. Dispersion : Dispersion : The variability that exists between data set. Relative A Relative Measure of Dispersion is one that measures the dispersion in terms of a Measure of ratio, coefficient or percentage and is independent of the units of measurement. Dispersion : VUsolutions.com is a Largest website of Pakistan which provides you all the things which related to routine life, i.e. latest fashion updates, latest news alerts, cooking recipes, beauty tips, latest showbiz updates, funny cartoon & political programs, past solved papers and other study related help online, poems & tales for every age of persons, Health Treatments updates, Political Articles and corruption stories, English Latest news updates, wallpapers, weekly fashion magazines updates and many more (info@vusolutions.com) VUsolutions STA301 Subjective Questions Short Notes www.VUsolutions.com Range : The range is defined as the difference between the maximum and minimum values of a data set. Quartile The quartile deviation is defined as half of the difference between the first and Deviation : third quartiles. Set : A set is any well defined collection or list of distinct objects. standard The degree of scatter of the observed values about the regression line measured by error of what is called standard deviation of regression or standard error of estimate. estimate : Class of A set of sets is called a class. Sets : Primary The data published or used by an organization which originally collected them are Data : called primary data thus the primary data are thr first hand information collected, complied, and published by an organization for a certain purpose. Secondary The data published or used by an organization other than the one which Data : origninally collected them are known as secondary data. Harmonic Harmonic mean is defined as the reciprocal of the arithmetic mean of the Mean : reciprocals of the values. Quartiles : Quartiles are those three quantities that divide the distribution into four equal parts. Quantiles : Collectively the quartiles, the deciles,percentiles and other values obtained by equall sub-division of the data are called quantiles. Index An Index Number is a statistical measure which shows changes in a variable or Number : group of related variables with respect to time, geographic location or other characteristics such as income, profession etc. Standard Standard Deviation is defined as the positive square root of the mean of the Deviation : squared deviations of the values from their mean. VUsolutions.com is a Largest website of Pakistan which provides you all the things which related to routine life, i.e. latest fashion updates, latest news alerts, cooking recipes, beauty tips, latest showbiz updates, funny cartoon & political programs, past solved papers and other study related help online, poems & tales for every age of persons, Health Treatments updates, Political Articles and corruption stories, English Latest news updates, wallpapers, weekly fashion magazines updates and many more (info@vusolutions.com) VUsolutions STA301 Subjective Questions Short Notes www.VUsolutions.com Variance : Variance is defined as the square of the standard deviation. Regression : Dependence of one variable on the other variable is called regression. OR Estimation or prediction of one variable on the basis of other variable is called regression. Random An experiment which produces different results even though it is repeated a large Experiment number of times under essentially similar conditions is called a random : experiment. Sub Set : A set that consists of some elements of an other set is called a subset of that set. Non- Such errors which are not attributable to sampling but arise in the process of data Sampling collection even if a complete count is carried out. Error : Skewness : Skewness is the lack of symmetry in a distribution around some central value (mean,median or mode).It is thus the degree of a symmetry. Permutation an arrangement of all or some of a set of objects in a definite order is called : permutation. Universal All sets are subsets of one particular set called universal set. Set : Sample The set or collection of all possible outcomes of an experiment is called the Space : sample space. Conditional The probability of the occurence of an event A when it is known that some other Probability event B has already occured is called the conditional probability. : Degrees of Degrees of freedom can be defined as the number of observations in the sample freedom : minus the number of population parameters that are estimated from the sample data (from those observations VUsolutions.com is a Largest website of Pakistan which provides you all the things which related to routine life, i.e. latest fashion updates, latest news alerts, cooking recipes, beauty tips, latest showbiz updates, funny cartoon & political programs, past solved papers and other study related help online, poems & tales for every age of persons, Health Treatments updates, Political Articles and corruption stories, English Latest news updates, wallpapers, weekly fashion magazines updates and many more (info@vusolutions.com) VUsolutions STA301 Subjective Questions Short Notes www.VUsolutions.com P value : The p-value is a property of the data, and it indicates “how improbable” the obtained result really is. Test A statistic (i.e. a function of sample data not containing any parameter), which Statistic : provides a basis for testing a null hypothesis, is called a test statistics. Addition A probability law used to compute the probability of a union of two events, law : denoted A and B. It is P(AÈB)=P(A)+P(B)-P(AÇB). For mutually exclusive events, because P(AÇB)=0, it reduces to P(AÈB)=P(A)+P(B). Alternative The hypothesis concluded to be true if the null hypothesis is rejected. hypothesis : ANOVA A table used to summarize the analysis of variance computations and results. It table : contains columns showing the source of variation, the sum of squares, the degrees of freedom, the mean square, and the F values. Bayes' A method used to compute posterior probabilities. theorem : Binomial A probability distribution showing the probability of x successes in n trials of a probability binomial experiment. distribution : Binomial The function used to compute probabilities in a binomial experiment. probability function : Blocking : The process of using the same or similar experimental units for all treatments. The purpose of blocking is to remove a source of variation from the error term and hence provide a more powerful test for a difference in population or treatment means. Box plot : A graphical summary of data. A box, drawn from the first to the third quartiles, shows the location of the middle 50% of the data. Dashed lines, called whiskers, VUsolutions.com is a Largest website of Pakistan which provides you all the things which related to routine life, i.e. latest fashion updates, latest news alerts, cooking recipes, beauty tips, latest showbiz updates, funny cartoon & political programs, past solved papers and other study related help online, poems & tales for every age of persons, Health Treatments updates, Political Articles and corruption stories, English Latest news updates, wallpapers, weekly fashion magazines updates and many more (info@vusolutions.com) VUsolutions STA301 Subjective Questions Short Notes www.VUsolutions.com extending from the ends of the box show the location of data values greater than the third quartile and data values less than the first quartile. The locations of any outliers are also noted. Central A theorem that enables one to use the normal probability distribution to limit approximate the sampling distribution of the sample mean and sample proportion theorem : whenever the sample size is large. Consistency A property of a point estimator that is present whenever larger sample sizes tend : to provide point estimates closer to the population parameter Histogram : A graphical presentation of a frequency distribution, relative frequency distribution, or percent frequency distribution of quantitative data constructed by placing the class intervals on the horizontal axis and the frequencies on the vertical axis. Null The hypothesis tentatively assumed true in the hypothesis testing procedure. or A hypothesis : null hypothesis, generally denoted by the symbol H0, is any hypothesis which is to be tested for possible rejection or nullification under the assumption that it is true. Normal A continuous probability distribution. Its probability density function is bell probability shaped and determined by its mean m and standard deviation s. distribution : Observation The set of measurements obtained for a single element. : Ogive : A graph of a cumulative distribution. One-tailed A hypothesis test in which rejection of the null hypothesis occurs for values of the test : test statistic in one tail of the sampling distribution. or The entire rejection region lies in only one of the two tails, either in the right tail or in the left tai, of the sampling distribution of the test-statistic, is called a one-tailed test or one-sided test. Parameter : numerical characteristic of a population, such as a population mean, a population VUsolutions.com is a Largest website of Pakistan which provides you all the things which related to routine life, i.e. latest fashion updates, latest news alerts, cooking recipes, beauty tips, latest showbiz updates, funny cartoon & political programs, past solved papers and other study related help online, poems & tales for every age of persons, Health Treatments updates, Political Articles and corruption stories, English Latest news updates, wallpapers, weekly fashion magazines updates and many more (info@vusolutions.com) VUsolutions STA301 Subjective Questions Short Notes www.VUsolutions.com standard deviation, a population proportion, and so on. Point A single numerical value used as an estimate of a population parameter. estimate : Point The sample statistic that provides the point estimate of the population parameter. estimator : Poisson A probability distribution showing the probability of x occurrences of an event probability over a specified interval of time or space. distribution : Poisson The function used to compute Poisson probabilities. probability function : Population A numerical value used as a summary measure for a population of data (e.g., the parameter : population mean, the population variance, and the population standard deviation). Posterior Revised probabilities of events based on additional information. probabilities : Power A graph of the probability of rejecting H0 for all possible values of the population curve : parameter not satisfying the null hypothesis. The power curve provides the probability of correctly rejecting the null hypothesis. Power : The probability of correctly rejecting H0 when it is false. Probability A function used to compute probabilities for a continuous random variable. The density area under the graph of a probability density function over an interval represents function : probability. Probability A function, denoted by f(x), that provides the probability that x assumes a function : particular value for a discrete random variable. VUsolutions.com is a Largest website of Pakistan which provides you all the things which related to routine life, i.e. latest fashion updates, latest news alerts, cooking recipes, beauty tips, latest showbiz updates, funny cartoon & political programs, past solved papers and other study related help online, poems & tales for every age of persons, Health Treatments updates, Political Articles and corruption stories, English Latest news updates, wallpapers, weekly fashion magazines updates and many more (info@vusolutions.com) VUsolutions STA301 Subjective Questions Short Notes www.VUsolutions.com Qualitative Data that are labels or names used to identify an attribute of each element. data : Qualitative data may be nonnumeric or numeric. Qualitative A variable with qualitative data. variable : Quantitative Data that indicate how much or how many of something. Quantitative data are data : always numeric. t A family of probability distributions that can be used to develop interval estimates Distribution of a population mean whenever the population standard deviation is unknown and : the population has a normal or near-normal probability distribution. Target The population about which inferences are made. population : Treatment : Different levels of a factor. Tree A graphical representation helpful in identifying the sample points of an diagram : experiment involving multiple steps. Two-tailed A hypothesis test in which rejection of the null hypothesis occurs for values of the test : test statistic in either tail of the sampling distribution. Type I The error of rejecting H0 when it is true. error : Type II The error of accepting H0 when it is false. error - : Unbiasedness A property of a point estimator when the expected value of the point estimator is : equal to the population parameter it estimates. Union of The event containing all sample points that are in A, in B, or in both. The union is events A denoted AÈB. VUsolutions.com is a Largest website of Pakistan which provides you all the things which related to routine life, i.e. latest fashion updates, latest news alerts, cooking recipes, beauty tips, latest showbiz updates, funny cartoon & political programs, past solved papers and other study related help online, poems & tales for every age of persons, Health Treatments updates, Political Articles and corruption stories, English Latest news updates, wallpapers, weekly fashion magazines updates and many more (info@vusolutions.com) VUsolutions STA301 Subjective Questions Short Notes www.VUsolutions.com and B : Types of Systematic Designs Randomized design Experimental Designs: : Systematic These designs are those in which treatments are applied to the experimental units Designs: : by some systematic manner that is choice of the experimenter Acceptance All possible values which a test-statistic may assume can be divided into two and mutually exclusive groups: One group consisting of values which appear to be rejection consistent with the null hypothesis (i.e. values which appear to support the null region: : hypothesis), and the other having values which lead to the rejection of the null hypothesis. The first group is called the acceptance region and the second set of values is known as the rejection region for a test Type I When we perform a hypothesis test, we derive evidence from the sample in the error: : form of a test statistics. There is a possibility that sample may lead us to make a wrong decision. We may reject the hypothesis when it is in fact true. This type of error is called an error of first kind or type I-error. The probability of committing a type I error is denoted by α. Thus α is the probability of rejecting null hypothesis Ho when Ho true. Type II When we perform a hypothesis test, we derive evidence from the sample in the error: : form of a test statistics. There is a possibility that sample may lead us to make a wrong decision. We may accept the hypothesis when it is in fact false. This type of error is called an error of second kind or a Type II error. The probability of committing a type II error is denoted by β. Thus β is the probability of accepting null hypothesis Ho when Ho false. Class The point in each class that is halfway between the lower and upper class limits. midpoint : Complement The event consisting of all sample points that are not in A. of event A : Dependent The variable that is being predicted or explained. It is denoted by y. variable : VUsolutions.com is a Largest website of Pakistan which provides you all the things which related to routine life, i.e. latest fashion updates, latest news alerts, cooking recipes, beauty tips, latest showbiz updates, funny cartoon & political programs, past solved papers and other study related help online, poems & tales for every age of persons, Health Treatments updates, Political Articles and corruption stories, English Latest news updates, wallpapers, weekly fashion magazines updates and many more (info@vusolutions.com) VUsolutions STA301 Subjective Questions Short Notes www.VUsolutions.com Descriptive Tabular, graphical, and numerical methods used to summarize data. statistics : Dot plot : A simple graphical summary of data with each observation represented by a dot placed above a horizontal axis that shows the range of values for the observations. Discrete A random variable that may assume either a finite number of values or an infinite random sequence of values. variable : Empirical A rule that states the percentages of items that are within one, two, and three rule : standard deviations from the mean for mound-shaped, or bell-shaped, distributions. Experiment A process that generates well-defined outcomes. : Binomial A probability experiment having the following four properties: consists of n experiment identical trials, two outcomes (success and failure) are possible on each trial, : probability of success does not change from trial to trail, and the trials are independent. Factorial An experimental design that allows statistical conclusions about two or more experiment factors. : Five- An exploratory data analysis technique that uses the following five numbers to number summarize the data set: smallest value, first quartile, median, third quartile, and summary : largest value. Frame : A list of the sampling units for a study. The sample is drawn by selecting units from the frame Frequency A tabular summary of data showing the number (or frequency) of items in each of distribution several non-overlapping classes. : VUsolutions.com is a Largest website of Pakistan which provides you all the things which related to routine life, i.e. latest fashion updates, latest news alerts, cooking recipes, beauty tips, latest showbiz updates, funny cartoon & political programs, past solved papers and other study related help online, poems & tales for every age of persons, Health Treatments updates, Political Articles and corruption stories, English Latest news updates, wallpapers, weekly fashion magazines updates and many more (info@vusolutions.com) VUsolutions STA301 Subjective Questions Short Notes www.VUsolutions.com Grouped Data available in class intervals as summarized by a frequency distribution. data : Individual values of the original data are not available. Independent The variable that is doing the predicting or explaining. It is denoted by x. variable : Intersection The event containing all sample points that are in both A and B. The intersection of A and B : is denoted AÇB. Joint The probability of two events both occurring; that is, the probability of the probability intersection of two events. : Judgment A nonprobabilistic method of sampling whereby element selection is based on the sampling : judgment of the person doing the study. Interquartile A measure of variability, defined to be the difference between the third and first range (IQR) quartiles. : Least The method used to develop the estimated regression equation. It minimizes the squares sum of squared residuals (the deviations between the observed values of the method : dependent variable, yi, and the estimated values of the dependent variable, yi) Regression The equation that describes how the mean or expected value of the dependent equation : variable is related to the independent variable. Rejection The range of values that will lead to the rejection of a null hypothesis. region : Replication The number of times each experimental condition is repeated in an experiment. : Residual : The difference between the observed value of the dependent variable and the value predicted using the estimated regression equation. VUsolutions.com is a Largest website of Pakistan which provides you all the things which related to routine life, i.e. latest fashion updates, latest news alerts, cooking recipes, beauty tips, latest showbiz updates, funny cartoon & political programs, past solved papers and other study related help online, poems & tales for every age of persons, Health Treatments updates, Political Articles and corruption stories, English Latest news updates, wallpapers, weekly fashion magazines updates and many more (info@vusolutions.com) VUsolutions STA301 Subjective Questions Short Notes www.VUsolutions.com Sample An element of the sample space. A sample point represents an experimental point : outcome. Sample A numerical value used as a summary measure for a sample (e.g., the sample statistic : mean, the sample variance, and the sample standard deviation). The value of the sample statistic is used to estimate the value of the population parameter. Sampled The population from which the sample is taken. population : Sampling The units selected for sampling. A sampling unit may include several elements. unit : Sampling Once an element has been included in the sample, it is returned to the population. with A previously selected element can be selected again and therefore may appear in replacement the sample more than once. : Sampling Once an element has been included in the sample, it is removed from the without population and cannot be selected a second time. replacement : Scatter A graph of bivariate data in which the independent variable is on the horizontal diagram : axis and the dependent variable is on the vertical axis. Simple Regression analysis involving one independent variable and one dependent linear variable in which the relationship between the variables is approximated by a regression : straight line. Simple Finite population: a sample selected such that each possible sample of size n has random the same probability of being selected. Infinite population: a sample selected such sampling : that each element comes from the same population and the elements are selected independently. Standard The standard deviation of a point estimator. VUsolutions.com is a Largest website of Pakistan which provides you all the things which related to routine life, i.e. latest fashion updates, latest news alerts, cooking recipes, beauty tips, latest showbiz updates, funny cartoon & political programs, past solved papers and other study related help online, poems & tales for every age of persons, Health Treatments updates, Political Articles and corruption stories, English Latest news updates, wallpapers, weekly fashion magazines updates and many more (info@vusolutions.com) VUsolutions STA301 Subjective Questions Short Notes www.VUsolutions.com error : Stem-and- An exploratory data analysis technique that simultaneously rank orders leaf display quantitative data and provides insight about the shape of the distribution. : Stratified A probability sampling method in which the population is first divided into strata random and a simple random sample is then taken from each stratum. sampling : Hypergeometric The function used to compute the probability of x successes in n trials when probability the trials are dependent. function : Multiplication A probability law used to compute the probability of an intersection of two law : events, denoted A and B. It is P(AÇB)=P(A)P(B|A) or P(AÇB)= P(B)P(A|B). For independent events it reduces to P(AÇB)=P(A)P(B). Goodness of A statistical test conducted to determine whether to reject a hypothesized fit test : probability distribution for a population. Sampling A probability distribution consisting of all possible values of a sample statistic. distribution : Mean The mean of the sampling distribution (of the mean) is the mean of the population from which the scores were sampled. Therefore, if a population has a mean, μ, then the sampling distribution of the mean is also μ. The symbol X is used to refer to the mean of the sampling distribution of the mean. Therefore, the formula for the mean of the sampling distribution of the mean can be written as: X VUsolutions.com is a Largest website of Pakistan which provides you all the things which related to routine life, i.e. latest fashion updates, latest news alerts, cooking recipes, beauty tips, latest showbiz updates, funny cartoon & political programs, past solved papers and other study related help online, poems & tales for every age of persons, Health Treatments updates, Political Articles and corruption stories, English Latest news updates, wallpapers, weekly fashion magazines updates and many more (info@vusolutions.com) VUsolutions STA301 Subjective Questions Short Notes www.VUsolutions.com Variance The variance of the sampling distribution of the mean is computed as follows: 2 X 2 N That is, the variance of the sampling distribution of the mean is the population variance divided by N. Thus, the larger the sample size, the smaller the variance of the sampling distribution of the mean. VUsolutions.com is a Largest website of Pakistan which provides you all the things which related to routine life, i.e. latest fashion updates, latest news alerts, cooking recipes, beauty tips, latest showbiz updates, funny cartoon & political programs, past solved papers and other study related help online, poems & tales for every age of persons, Health Treatments updates, Political Articles and corruption stories, English Latest news updates, wallpapers, weekly fashion magazines updates and many more (info@vusolutions.com) VUsolutions STA301 Subjective Questions Short Notes www.VUsolutions.com Table of Standard Normal Probabilities, P(Z < z) z 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.0 0.5000 0.5040 0.5080 0.5120 0.5160 0.5199 0.5239 0.5279 0.5319 0.5359 0.1 0.5398 0.5438 0.5478 0.5517 0.5557 0.5596 0.5636 0.5675 0.5714 0.5753 0.2 0.5793 0.5832 0.5871 0.5910 0.5948 0.5987 0.6026 0.6064 0.6103 0.6141 0.3 0.6179 0.6217 0.6255 0.6293 0.6331 0.6368 0.6406 0.6443 0.6480 0.6517 0.4 0.6554 0.6591 0.6628 0.6664 0.6700 0.6736 0.6772 0.6808 0.6844 0.6879 0.5 0.6915 0.6950 0.6985 0.7019 0.7054 0.7088 0.7123 0.7157 0.7190 0.7224 0.6 0.7257 0.7291 0.7324 0.7357 0.7389 0.7422 0.7454 0.7486 0.7517 0.7549 0.7 0.7580 0.7611 0.7642 0.7673 0.7704 0.7734 0.7764 0.7794 0.7823 0.7852 0.8 0.7881 0.7910 0.7939 0.7967 0.7995 0.8023 0.8051 0.8078 0.8106 0.8133 0.9 0.8159 0.8186 0.8212 0.8238 0.8264 0.8289 0.8315 0.8340 0.8365 0.8389 1.0 0.8413 0.8438 0.8461 0.8485 0.8508 0.8531 0.8554 0.8577 0.8599 0.8621 1.1 0.8643 0.8665 0.8686 0.8708 0.8729 0.8749 0.8770 0.8790 0.8810 0.8830 1.2 0.8849 0.8869 0.8888 0.8907 0.8925 0.8944 0.8962 0.8980 0.8997 0.9015 1.3 0.9032 0.9049 0.9066 0.9082 0.9099 0.9115 0.9131 0.9147 0.9162 0.9177 1.4 0.9192 0.9207 0.9222 0.9236 0.9251 0.9265 0.9279 0.9292 0.9306 0.9319 1.5 0.9332 0.9345 0.9357 0.9370 0.9382 0.9394 0.9406 0.9418 0.9429 0.9441 VUsolutions.com is a Largest website of Pakistan which provides you all the things which related to routine life, i.e. latest fashion updates, latest news alerts, cooking recipes, beauty tips, latest showbiz updates, funny cartoon & political programs, past solved papers and other study related help online, poems & tales for every age of persons, Health Treatments updates, Political Articles and corruption stories, English Latest news updates, wallpapers, weekly fashion magazines updates and many more (info@vusolutions.com) VUsolutions STA301 Subjective Questions Short Notes www.VUsolutions.com 1.6 0.9452 0.9463 0.9474 0.9484 0.9495 0.9505 0.9515 0.9525 0.9535 0.9545 1.7 0.9554 0.9564 0.9573 0.9582 0.9591 0.9599 0.9608 0.9616 0.9625 0.9633 1.8 0.9641 0.9649 0.9656 0.9664 0.9671 0.9678 0.9686 0.9693 0.9699 0.9706 1.9 0.9713 0.9719 0.9726 0.9732 0.9738 0.9744 0.9750 0.9756 0.9761 0.9767 2.0 0.9772 0.9778 0.9783 0.9788 0.9793 0.9798 0.9803 0.9808 0.9812 0.9817 2.1 0.9821 0.9826 0.9830 0.9834 0.9838 0.9842 0.9846 0.9850 0.9854 0.9857 2.2 0.9861 0.9864 0.9868 0.9871 0.9875 0.9878 0.9881 0.9884 0.9887 0.9890 2.3 0.9893 0.9896 0.9898 0.9901 0.9904 0.9906 0.9909 0.9911 0.9913 0.9916 2.4 0.9918 0.9920 0.9922 0.9925 0.9927 0.9929 0.9931 0.9932 0.9934 0.9936 2.5 0.9938 0.9940 0.9941 0.9943 0.9945 0.9946 0.9948 0.9949 0.9951 0.9952 2.6 0.9953 0.9955 0.9956 0.9957 0.9959 0.9960 0.9961 0.9962 0.9963 0.9964 2.7 0.9965 0.9966 0.9967 0.9968 0.9969 0.9970 0.9971 0.9972 0.9973 0.9974 2.8 0.9974 0.9975 0.9976 0.9977 0.9977 0.9978 0.9979 0.9979 0.9980 0.9981 2.9 0.9981 0.9982 0.9982 0.9983 0.9984 0.9984 0.9985 0.9985 0.9986 0.9986 3.0 0.9987 0.9987 0.9987 0.9988 0.9988 0.9989 0.9989 0.9989 0.9990 0.9990 3.1 0.9990 0.9991 0.9991 0.9991 0.9992 0.9992 0.9992 0.9992 0.9993 0.9993 3.2 0.9993 0.9993 0.9994 0.9994 0.9994 0.9994 0.9994 0.9995 0.9995 0.9995 3.3 0.9995 0.9995 0.9995 0.9996 0.9996 0.9996 0.9996 0.9996 0.9996 0.9997 VUsolutions.com is a Largest website of Pakistan which provides you all the things which related to routine life, i.e. latest fashion updates, latest news alerts, cooking recipes, beauty tips, latest showbiz updates, funny cartoon & political programs, past solved papers and other study related help online, poems & tales for every age of persons, Health Treatments updates, Political Articles and corruption stories, English Latest news updates, wallpapers, weekly fashion magazines updates and many more (info@vusolutions.com) VUsolutions STA301 Subjective Questions Short Notes www.VUsolutions.com 3.4 0.9997 0.9997 0.9997 0.9997 0.9997 0.9997 0.9997 0.9997 0.9997 0.9998 3.5 0.9998 0.9998 0.9998 0.9998 0.9998 0.9998 0.9998 0.9998 0.9998 0.9998 3.6 0.9998 0.9998 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 3.7 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 3.8 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 3.9 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 z 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 It is a standard normal cumulative table. Let suppose you want to fine the value of 95% confidence interval for mean, than calculating Z-value is making problem, it can be found as (1- )% confidence interval means (1 95)% 5% 0.05 Z / 2 Z0.05/ 2 Z0.025 1 0.025 0.975 See 0.975 in the above table, values against it in row wise 1.9 and column wise 0.06 (highlighted with red color), we add these to get Z-value, Z = 1.9 +0.06 = 1.96 Similarly, if you want to fine the value of 98% C.I the Z-value calculated as (1-100)% confidence interval means (1 98)% 2% 0.0.02 Z / 2 Z0.02 / 2 Z0.01 1 0.010 0.990 See 0.990 in the above table that is 2.33 (highlighted with green color). VUsolutions.com is a Largest website of Pakistan which provides you all the things which related to routine life, i.e. latest fashion updates, latest news alerts, cooking recipes, beauty tips, latest showbiz updates, funny cartoon & political programs, past solved papers and other study related help online, poems & tales for every age of persons, Health Treatments updates, Political Articles and corruption stories, English Latest news updates, wallpapers, weekly fashion magazines updates and many more (info@vusolutions.com)

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