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Leadership and Communication “The single biggest problem in communication is the illusion it has taken place.” George Bernard Shaw Communication A process by which information and understanding are transferred between a sender and a receiver A Basic Model of the Communication Process (Daft) Potential noise and distortion Leader encodes Receiver decodes message Channel message Return message encoded and sent Feedback Loop Factors Impacting Understanding of Message Cultural diversity Status differences (power) Gender Previous experiences Level of interest Speaking or writing abilities Verbal Communication Types: – Meetings – Counseling sessions – Performance Reveiws – Voice Messages – Speeches – Presentations – Telephonically Impression Management First Date Interview Process Honeymoon Prototypes Shaping Impressions Establish friendly relations with followers early What prototypes does the group have of the leader Increase power by knowledge Ensure you are viewed as contributing to the group’s success Open Communication Asking questions – Leader-centered – Follower-centered Listening – Engaged listening Willingness to Communicate High WTCs are viewed as more credible and attractive People who speak frequently in small groups are more likely to hold leadership positions Talkative people are more likely to be hired and promoted High WTCs are rated as more socially and sexually attractive by other members of the opposite sex High WTCs are more open to change and enjoy tasks that require thought Communication Champion Establish credibility Build goals on common ground Make your position compelling to others Connect emotionally Communication Apprehension An individual’s level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons. A Continuum of Channel Richness Electronic mail, IM, Web, intranet Face-to- Formal report face verbal Disadvantages Advantages Impersonal Personal One-way Two-way Slow feedback Fast feedback Low High channel channel richness richness Advantages Disadvantages Provides record No record Premeditated Spontaneous Easily Dissemination disseminated hard Memos, Telephone letters Informal Communication Leaders are watched (nonverbal communication) – Appearance – Behavior – Actions – Attitudes Selection of communication channel Management by Walking Around Necessary to Influence Others Build and use power bases effectively Empower followers Develop perceptions of credibility Make effective use of verbal and nonverbal cues Resist inappropriate or unethical influence Communicate positive expectations for others. Foster creativity and manage change Necessary to Influence Others Gain compliance Develop argumentative competence Negotiate productive solutions Adapt to cultural differences Shape public opinion Organize and deliver effective presentations Engage in self-leadership Challenge and correct faulty personal assumptions “A platoon leader doesn’t get his platoon to go by getting up and shouting and saying “I am smarter. I am bigger. I am stronger. I am the leader.” He gets men to go along with him because they want to do it for him and they believe in him. – Dwight D. Eisenhower References Richard Daft, The Leadership Experience, (Mason, OH: Thomson South-Western, 2008) 258-288. Michael Z. Hackman and Craig E. Johnson, Leadership: A Communicative Perspective, (Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press Inc, 2004) 1-35.
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