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					   Chapter 6

   Federalist and
Democratic-Republicans
      George Washington

April 6, 1789: was
elected the first
President of the
United States of
America
To which he referred…
“This is the event I
have long dreaded”
    Chapter 6
    Section 1
Washington and Congress
In 1789 Congress created four
departments essentially
creating the first presidential
cabinet
–   State
–   Treasury
–   War
–   Office of Attorney General
Thomas Jefferson   Alexander Hamilton
Secretary of the   Head of the Treasury
     State             Department
   Henry Knox      Edmund Randolph
Secretary of War    Attorney General
John Jay became the
first Chief Justice of
the Supreme Court

In 1791 the first 10
amendments, Bill of
Rights, was added.
Financing the Government
    Two Different Plans
      James Madison
felt the government should tax
imports to protect the private
business

Tariff of 1789 –paid 5% on imports

This angered southern farmers
  Alexander Hamilton

wanted to sell government bonds
for borrowing money

This also didn’t help southerners
        Washington D.C.
As a compromise to
Southerners, the
new capitol would
be placed in the
south called the
District of
Columbia
            National Bank
Hamilton also asked for
a National Bank
– To give loans to the
  government and
  individuals
– To issue paper money
– Encourage trade
– Stimulate economic
  growth
Madison felt the bank was not
within the Congress’ enumerated
powers – specifically listed in the
constitution

Hamilton argued it was an implied
power – from article 1 sec 8
       Argument about the
interpretation of the Constitution
             between

   Loose Construction--“implied
   meaning” interpretation
   Strict Construction— “word for
   word” interpretation
      Whiskey Rebellion
Hamilton wanted to tax whiskey
Western farmers rebelled (tarred and
feathered the tax collectors)
Washington led 13,000 troops to stop it
and send a message that the rebellions
were over.
        2 Political Parties
The split in congress over finances created
the two parties
Federalist:
– led by Hamilton
– wanted a strong national government
– favored business
Democratic-Republicans :
– led by Madison and Jefferson
– Wanted a small government
– favored farmers
  Chapter 6
  Section 2
Partisan Politics
     The French Revolution
Began shortly
after Washington
took office in
1789
Federalist
opposed it for its
violence
Dem-Rep
supported it
because of its
fight for liberty
1793 France declared war on
Britain.
 Washington said the U.S. would
stay neutral
Britain started seizing American
ships
John Jay was sent to find a solution
           Jay’s Treaty
Gave Britain the
right to seize
American cargo
headed for France
Britain gave the U.S.
most-favored nation
status, meaning
American merchants
would be safe if they
traded with Britain.
        Pinckney’s Treaty
Thomas Pinckney
negotiated a
treaty with Spain
in 1795
It gave the U.S.
rights to navigate
the Mississippi
River and to
deposit goods at
the port of New
Orleans.
   Westward Expansion
In 1792 Kentucky became the 14th state
Four years later Tennessee became a
state
At the same time
people were
expanding west from
Pennsylvania and
Virginia as well
This quickly led to
trouble with the
Indians
Washington Leaves Office

Washington left office after 2 terms
– Was irritated by party politics and attacks
  on his character
In his farewell address he warned
against
– Sectionalism- dividing the country in
  regions
– Political parties
– Being too attached with any foreign nation
      Election of 1796
1796 was the country’s first openly
contested election
Federalist – John Adams VS Dem-Rep –
Thomas Jefferson
John Adams won the election 71 to 68
    Quasi-War with France
The French were angry with Jay’s Treaty and
seized American ships going to Great Britain
Adams sent negotiators
French demanded bribes in what became
known as the XYZ affair
Congress suspended trade with France and
told the navy to capture French ships
Negotiations were reopened and the Quasi-
War ended
   Alien and Sedition Acts

Four laws pushed through Congress by
the Federalists
The first 3:
– aliens in the country could not be
  citizens for 14 years,
– most of these aliens tended to vote for
  the Republicans
The last prevented sedition
– incitement to rebellion and speaking
  out against government
Kentucky and Virginia
– Led by Republicans
– passed resolutions criticizing the Alien
  and Sedition Acts
– Written secretly by Jefferson and
  Madison
– Said states created the Constitution
  and so had the power to say if a law
  was unconstitutional
            Interposition

Virginia’s resolution said that states could
interpose between the federal government
and people and stop illegal action against the
people
           Nullification
Kentucky resolution said that if the federal
government passed an unconstitutional law
the states had a right to nullify the law or
declare it invalid
      Election of 1800
Showed a flaw in the system
Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr each
got the same number of electoral votes
According to the Constitution the House
of Representatives votes for president in
the case of a tie
The House of
Representatives tied
Jefferson promised not
to dismantle Hamilton’s
financial system and not
get rid of the
Federalists in
government
Later he won by one vote
  Chapter 6
  Section 3
Jefferson in office
Jefferson tried to integrate
Republican ideas into Hamilton’s
policies
– Paid off the federal debt
– Cut government spending
– Ended the whiskey tax
  Rise of Supreme Court
Judiciary Act of 1801 created 16 new
federal judges
Adams appointed these judges before
he left office
Jefferson didn’t like the Federalist
controlled courts and repealed the act
     The Marshall Court
John Adams had chosen John Marshall
as chief justice of the supreme court
Marshall served for 34 years and made
the Supreme Court a powerful branch of
government
      Marbury v. Madison
Established Judicial Review
– the power to decide if laws passed by
  Congress were constitutional
        Expanding West
In 1800 Napoleon convinced Spain to give
Louisiana back to France in exchange for
helping take control of part of Italy
By 1803 Napoleon was trying to conquer
Europe
Short on funds, Napoleon sold the
Louisiana Territory as well as New
Orleans to the U.S.
The U.S. purchased Louisiana for
$15 million
The Louisiana purchase doubled the
size of the United States
          Lewis and Clark
Sent by Jefferson
an expedition to
survey the
Louisiana Territory
Sacagawea (Native
American) became
their guide

				
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