Toronto Madrasah by Blazingcatfur

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               With many thanks to:

This textbook is based on the Islamic Laws & Ethics

         series by Sayyid Muhammad Rizvi

       And material from
               TABLE OF CONTENTS

Akhlaq Section ………………………………………………………………1-31

Why should we have Akhlaq?                                 2
Cleanliness                                                3
Indecent Dressing                                          4
Nafs                                                       6
Respect to Parents                                     10
Reconciling People                                     13
Service to Humanity                                    14
Qardh-e-Hasanah                                        15
Forbearance                                            17
Fitna and Fasaad                                       18
Kadhmul Gaiz                                           19
Care for the Environment                               21
Takkabur, Riyaa and Ujb                                22
Betraying Secrets                                      25
Destructive Emulation of Western Culture               26
Abusive language, Insults, Sarcasm and Impertinence    28
Extravagance                                           30

Fiqh Section (Laws & Beliefs)…………………………………32-100

Usool-e-Deen                                          33
Tawheed                                    37
Belief in Allah and his Unity              38
Shari’a and its sources                    39
The Shari’a                                41
Why should a Muslim follow the Shari’a     42
Living by the Shari’a                      43
Taqlid and Ijtihad                         44
How can I know the views of my Mujtahid?   45
Ijtihad and Taqlid                         46
Recommendable acts of Wudhu                48
General rules about Ghusl                  49
How to do Ghusl                            50
Recommendable acts of Ghusl                51
Ghusl Janabat                              52
Salaat-e-Jamaat                            54
How to join Salaat-e-Jamaat                57
Friday Prayers                             58
Method of Praying Friday Prayer            60
The Nawafil Prayers                        61
Method of Praying Salaat-e-Shab            63
After finishing the Salaat                 64
Doubts in the Prayer                       65
How to do Sajda-e-Sahv                     67
Zakatu’l Fitra                             68
Jihad                                      70
The purpose of Jihad                       71
Hajj (Part 1)                                      72
Hajj (Part 2)                                      75
Hajj (Part 3)                                      77
Hajj (Part 4)                                      80
The Essence of Du’a                                84
Boys-Keeping a Beard                               90
Girls-Importance of Hijab                          91
Definition of Hijab                                92
Bibi Fatema (a.s)                                  94
Ramadhan                                           98

Tareekh Section (History) ……………………………………100-163

The life of the Prophet (s.a.w)                    101
The environment of Arabia before the advent of
Islam                                              101
Hijrah                                             107
An assessment of the roles of the Muhajireen and
the Ansar                                          108
Another testimony to Islam’s Universality          112
The change of Qiblah                               115
The battle of Badr                                 117
The battle of Uhud – Part 1                        119
The battle of Uhud – Part 2                        121
The battle of Ahazab                               123
The Pledge of Rizwaan                              125
The battle of Khayber – Part 1                     127
The battle of Khayber – Part 2                     129
The story of Fadak                                   131
Lady of Light                                        133
The Prophet’s Death                                  138
After the Prophet’s Death                            138
Abu Bakr versus Fatima (a.s)                         139
The House of Grief                                   140
Lady Fatima Zahra (a.s) on her last day              141
A quiet Funeral                                      142
The event of Ghadeer                                 143
Kerbala: Before and Beyond                           145
Imam Jafar-as-sadiq (a.s) and his contributions to
science                                              151
Imam hasan Al-Askari (a.s)                           154
Imam Muhammad Al-Mahdi (a.s)                         156
                LEVEL 8


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                        WHY SHOULD WE HAVE AKHLAQ?

In Islam there is a lot of emphasis placed on moral conduct. Why is this so? Why
should we behave well, and respect others? What is the reason? This can be explained to us by
the following explanation. When Allah created the human being, He created it in two parts. One
part was like an empty car shell, used to hold something, this is known as the BODY. The other
part was like the engine, this is known as the SOUL.

Our body is such that it needs looking after, we have to feed it and keep it warm,
otherwise we will become ill, and suffer. The soul, known as the NAFS, also needs looking after,
otherwise it will also become ill. The way to look after this soul is to listen, to think, to respect,
to help. When we help someone, we feel happy, but it is not the body that feels happy. It is not
the arms, or the legs, or the head that feels happy, it is something else. That something else is our
NAFS. The Akhlaq of Islam is food for the soul, and if we feed it regularly, it will remain

This brings another question. Other religions also preach respect, so why don't we follow them?

All the religions which were sent down by Allah were brought with their own codes of conduct.
Each religion expanding and adding, until with the advent of Islam, all the rules had been
perfected. The other religions have been altered by man in one way or another, and only Islam
remains as pure as the night it was revealed. This means that by following the Akhlaq of Islam
you are feeding your nafs with the best food.

There is also a saying in English, that the eyes are the windows to the soul. That means that
whatever you look at, DIRECTLY affects your NAFS. If you look at things which are Haraam,
you are lowering the standard of your NAFS, while if you refrain from looking at Haraam, you
are strengthening your the faith of your nafs.

The problem with the world today is that the body is being looked after very well, but the soul is
being totally neglected. This causes the disease of the soul, which people do not realize, such
diseases cause intensive, and long-term damage. The greatest doctors of the nafs, who have
given us rules and examples to follow
are the Fourteen Ma’sumeen.

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To be clean is amongst the habits of the prophets
Although it is very important to remain clean and in a state of purity (Taharat), this note is to
emphasize a different aspect of cleanliness.

We should think about cleanliness, not as something which we do or do not do, but as part of us.
Cleanliness should be in all our actions, thoughts and deeds.

We should not only keep our selves physically clean, but also keep our thoughts and actions

Our soul is like pure water, and that which holds it (our body), is like a vase. Whatever we see
through our eyes enters the water of our soul. If we look at bad things, then we are polluting
(making dirty) the water and so our soul becomes dirty. When this happens, we start wanting
(desiring) to see and do things which will cause us even more harm, until the water of our soul
will become so murky that we will suffocate and drown ourselves in its filth.

We have to keep our soul uncontaminated by only allowing those things which are virtuous to
enter it.

One of the ways we can do this, is by remaining in a state of Taharat. Being in wudhu, or
performing regular ghusl on Friday and other recommended days, we will keep our mind
thinking about Allah, and this will act as a shield, guarding us against Shaitan and the evil
thoughts which he so craftily plants into our heart.

The Prophet (S) said

"There will come a time when people will have unclean inner selves, but beautiful
appearances; they will have greed for the worldly affairs and they will not wish for
that which is with Allah. Their religion will be for show. Then they would pray like a drowning
one, and Allah will not answer their prayer."

Even simple acts such as performing wudhu before sleeping are highly recommended. If this is
done, the whole night is counted as if you were performing prayers.

Other actions of cleanliness are external. We have always been taught to keep our bodies and our
clothes clean, but we should also take a part in keeping our houses, and the surrounding areas
clean. One of the signs of a Muslim is that when he uses something, he leaves it in a cleaner
condition then it was before. This means that we should set an example to the non-Muslims, and
keep the streets free from litter, keep our houses tidy. If we do this, no one will be able to point at
us and blame us. On the contrary we would give Islam the reputation it deserves.

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                                 INDECENT DRESSING

Indecent is defined as offending against recognized standards of decency (respectability).

Indecent dressing means to have a form of dress which is disrespectful, i.e. which reveals the
shape of the body in such a way as to attract attention from others.

It doesn't matter whether the garment is loose, or tight, see-through or dark, or any other
combination. If the garment reveals part of or all of the shape of the body, than, according to
Islamic standards, it is classified as indecent.

If someone wears clothes which are revealing, it becomes necessary for those who are present to
cast down their gaze, so they should not look directly at the person.

(Surah 24 ayat 30-31)

"Say to the believing men that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty: that will
make for greater purity for them: and God is well acquainted with all that they do.

And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty; that
they should not display their beauty and ornaments except what (must ordinarily) appear
thereof; that they should draw their veils over themselves and not display their beauty except to
their husbands..."

Islam helps to secure a females modesty by preserving her beauty with Hijab. This way when a
person talks with or looks at a lady, he sees her ideas and thoughts rather then just her

A male should not wear tight or revealing clothing either, and should wear a beard so that he is
easily distinguished from a female, so that they do not begin to dress like ladies and wear their


People wear clothes for many reasons besides just covering themselves. Some
reasons are as follows :

a) covering themselves
b) for comfort
c) protection against cold, wind, rain etc..
d) to look and feel good
All of these reasons and many more are acceptable, even to look good, as long as it is not
intended to show off to others.

However some people wear clothes on purpose which are to attract the attention of others. This
is wrong, since this is trying to show off to others.

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"If a person wear dresses and prides himself over others by means thereof, a flame of hell
overtakes him, and he will swing in it till the day of Judgement."

This means that he will be punished partly in this life (i.e. part of hell in this life). The
punishment can be no friends, or no happiness, no satisfaction ...

When we wear clothes, other people see them. If we dress in ANYWAY such that other people
can become aroused or affected, then those clothes are indecent.


Islam has the highest standard of morals existing in any society on the face of the earth.

Islam tries to make morals part of the individual, so that s/he will act correctly in any

It comes down to this. By dressing in such a way that you expose your body, you are inviting
people to look at you. By looking at you they can see something that can arouse their desire. This
desire can influence their thoughts and make them think about these pleasures. If every one, or
even a large proportion of society were to be influenced by these thoughts (influenced by desire)
society would break up with people going out with each other, loose and casual relationships,
marriages breaking and generally society becoming permissive.

Apart from that, women would be looked at as just objects of desire once again, rather than
constructive members of society. A further reason, is that by exposing yourself, you are lowering
your dignity. How can a person have so little self respect so as to dress up just for other people to
look at? It is like selling your self in a shop window.

If desire is stopped from being fuelled by exposure, then people will have more respect. There
will be less chance of crimes of passion (rape, adultery ...etc.) being committed, and the streets in
general will be a safer place to be.

No one is refusing us to wear good or fashionable clothes. Qur'an itself says in

Surah 7 ayat 31/2

"O children of Adam! wear your beautiful apparel at every time and place of prayer: eat and
drink: but waste not by excess, for God loves not the wasters.
Say: Who has forbidden the beautiful (gifts) of God, which He has produced
for his servants, and the things, clean and pure, (which He has provided) for

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                                RESPECT TO PARENTS
Respect to parents is a topic taught to many classes in the Madrassah. By now You must have
studied it many times, but in this note, an attempt is going to be to make you understand just how
vital and important their role is in bringing up you the individual, and the society as a whole.
Allah has mentioned kindness to parents at 7 places in the Qur’an.

Allah tells us in Qur'an (Surah 17, Ayat 23)

"Your lord has commanded that you worship none but Him, and that you be kind to your parents.
Whether one of them or both of them become old in your life, do not say a word of contempt (uf)
to them or repel them, but address them in terms of honour. And out of kindness, lower to them
the wing of humility and say: "My Lord! Bestow upon them your mercy even as they cherished
me in childhood.""

The word "uf" is a very mild word, but Imam Ja'far as Sadiq (A) said that if a milder word were
to exist in the language, Allah would have used it instead. One should never call parents by their
names, but refer to them as mother and father.

A man once went to the Prophet (S) and asked him if there was any act worthy of
Allah's mercy. The Prophet (S) asked him whether his parents were still alive, to which he
replied yes. The Prophet (S) replied that the best deed worthy of Allah's grace was to be kind to
parents since this was preferred over all acts.

It is said in Tafseer that one should pray to Allah that He may grant heaven to their parents, and
if ones parents are committing any act with which would displease Allah, then we should pray
that Allah helps them to reform and guides them.

Indeed, the first thing that Allah caused to be written on "Lauhe Mahfuz" was that "I am Allah,
and there is no god except Me. I am pleased with the man with whom his parents are pleased,
and displeased with him whose parents are not pleased.”

The Prophet (S) once said to Imam Ali (A) that "sitting in the company of parents for an hour is
preferable to going for Jihad." He further added, "O Ali! If only a word is uttered with a view to
pleasing the parents, Allah can be pleased."

The word parents does not just refer to your natural parents, but also refers to those who have
taken trouble to teach you, especially to those who have improved you as a person. There are at
least three sets of parents:

• The natural parents who caused your existence;
• The teachers who taught you; &
• The parents of the person you marry.

All these people have rights over you, so fulfil your duties to them as explained above. Now that
we have seen how to respect our parents, we can discuss why we should them.

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Parents have brought us up, but have taken part in our creation. Look at your house, would you
say that the four walls, the roof and the floor are the only items, which make up your house? No
you would not since the furniture, the color scheme, also makes the house and most importantly,
by those who live within it. In the same way, your parents did not create your body, but it was
they who created your character and developed your thinking. They have lived for you. They
gave you love and attention, they taught you the difference between right and wrong, they gave
you food.

If there were ever a time when there was only enough food for one person, they would give it to
the child. Your mother gave birth to you and nursed you in your infancy. Can you imagine the
trouble and anguish parents go through, and if you ask them why, they will say that they wanted
to give you a better start in life then they had. Then how can we not respect them, and how can
we not love them? This is one of the reasons why Islam has said that,

                           "Heaven lies under the feet of your mother"

This means that if we displease our mother, we will never enter heaven, i.e. the way to heaven is
through the pleasure of your parents. This again is repeated when Allah says to one of the

"I swear by My Honour that anyone who does not obey his parents, even if he
comes with the deeds of the Prophets in front of Me, I will never accept him."

Duties to Parents

There are many ways to respect your parents, some of them are:

1. Never raise your voice at them.
2. Do not sit when they are standing.
3. Do not walk in front of them unless told to do so.
4. Do not speak when they are speaking.
5. Never correct them in front of others.
6. Do not displease them or make them angry.
7. Never insult, argue or shout at them.

When you wake up in the morning the first thing you should do is say "Salamun Alaykum" to
your parents. These are all simple things, but how many of us actually do them. How many of us
will actually stand and say "Salamun Alaykum" when our mother or father enters the room?
If your parents ask you to do something, like go shopping, you should not even show them that
you are tired. You should not even cast a weary glance at your parents.

That is why it is said:

"Looking at the face of your parents with respect is like looking at the Ka’ba, the
reward is the same."

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The displeasure of Allah is so great on those who displease their parents that the person who is
disowned by his parents, he will never smell the fragrance of heaven. Also, if the parents are
displeased with a child, and remain so overnight, and the day dawns with their displeasure, it will
be as if two gates of hell have been opened for the son.

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                                 RECONCILING PEOPLE

Reconciling people means to bring two people, or groups back together after some incident has
cause them to split or quarrel.

It is the duty of every Muslim to try and make peace between two parties which are known to

Allah says in Qur'an 49:10:

“The believers are but a single Brotherhood: So make peace and reconciliation between your
two (contending) brothers: And fear God, that you may receive Mercy.”

If a person can make peace between two parties at not cost to himself, but does not, then he is
held answerable for not taking action.

If someone harms you, then you are entitled to harm them back to an equal degree, BUT it is
better on your part to show your Akhlaq, to set an example, and forgive. This is also explained to
us, where Allah says,

42:40: “The recompense for an injury is an injury equal thereto (in degree): BUT if a person
forgives and makes reconciliation, His reward is due from God: for (God) loves not those who
do wrong.”

Imam Ali (A) also explains that to bring together to parties is also regarded as charity.

"Reconciliation between two parties is the best kind of charity".

There is a limit to reconciliation. Although Islam is a peaceful religion, it is not idle. If there is
someone who breaks the Shari’a of Islam, and breaks the rights of others, then this is the crime
of Haqq-un-naas, and for this, action should be taken.

49:9: “If two parties among the Believers fall into a quarrel make you peace between them: but
if one of them transgresses beyond bounds against the other, then fight you (all) against the one
that transgresses until it complies with the command of God; but if it complies, then make peace
between them with justice, and be fair: for God loves those who are fair (and just).”

What is the point of reconciliation?
The reason why we are told to bring people together is for unity. Islam is a universal religion,
which brings together people regardless of physical differences. Only together can we survive,
and prosper. If we let ourselves become divided, and quarrel against ourselves, then others will
take advantage of this, and widen the divisions even more.

Remember, the Prophet (S) explained to us,
"One who does not take interest in the affairs of Muslims is not a Muslim".

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                                SERVICE TO HUMANITY

By now, you have been taught, and explained that Islam is a religion for a community, to interact
and bring the whole society together under one faith and to guard their rights.

Human beings have many qualities, which distinguish them from other animals. They have
supreme intelligence, they can tell between right and wrong. One feature which humanity shares
with many other animals is their ability to form and live together in large communities.

The spirit of consideration is the central force that binds the people together in a society. Human
life without consideration is transformed into animal life, since every one is for himself, and it
becomes survival of the fittest.

If a person cannot use his abilities to help others, and to guide them, then that person is leading a
useless life. This service to others has been emphasized again and again in Islam. The Holy
Prophet (S) has said:

"One who does not take interest in the affairs of Muslims is not a Muslim. And that person too is
not a Muslim who hears a Muslim calling for help and does not respond to his call".

The reward offered for this service to humanity is so great, that few other deeds carry similar

"One who fulfils the needs of a brother Muslim is like one who has been worshipping Allah
throughout his life".

Sometimes, you are asked for help, and you are not in a position to give it. Even in this
circumstance, if your niyyat was pure then you are rewarded.

Our 5th Imam (A) has said,
"At times it so happens that a Muslim seeks help from another Muslim and the latter, though
inclined to help him, is not in a position to do so; Allah will send him to Paradise for this very

Perhaps the best advice on service to humanity comes from Imam Husain (A) who explained to
"The requests which people make to you are blessings of Allah, so do not feel weary or uneasy"
There are many places where we have a chance to perform services for others. There are ample
opportunities in our day-to-day lives, and also on occasions such as Haj. When we are in Haj, we
need to show that unparalleled service to others, which is all part of the experience. Even if
people take you for granted, or they insult you, remember that your niyyat is for the sake of
Allah (lillah).

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                                    QARDH E HASANAH

This means to give a loan to those who require aid. In Islam, there is a duty and a unity which
should bind all Muslims, this duty should be so strong that material goods should be put aside to
fulfil it.

If there is a person who has had the ability to be successful and has made a good and profitable
business, then he should thank Allah for the opportunities which made him successful.

This thanks should not be just in prayers or in words, but in action. The best thanks to Allah, is
by performing something which helps other human beings, because Allah is above any needs.

Allah has explained this concept of lending money to those who require it as a loan to Allah
Himself. In Suratul Baqarah, Ayat 245, Allah declares:

"Who is he that will lend to God a fair loan so that He will multiply it to him manifold;......."

We should know that any loan which is lent to Allah will be paid back manifold (many times).

Allah also says in Qur'an, Surah 64, Ayat 17:

"If you lend to God a beautiful loan, He will double it to your credit, and He will grant you
forgiveness: for God is most ready to appreciate service."

Since Allah has given you opportunities to be successful, you should go out of your way to
provide opportunities for others. If someone comes to you and asks you for financial or other
aid, it becomes your duty to help him. You should lend him the required amount if you have the
means, and give him further assistance.

However, this duty is mutual. The facility of Qardh-e-Hasanah is been provided by Islam so that
the community as a whole can develop and prosper, while at the same time become more united.
Thus, the one who borrows the money should have the intention to pay it back as quickly as he
possibly can, and should not delay. If he misuses the facility, then he is taking advantage of the
system, and will cause difficulties for others.

What is the concept behind this giving, why is it so important ?

There is a saying that a man will manage to find sleep at night even though a relative may have
died the previous day, but the day he has lost his money, he will never sleep.

This highlights particular vices which exist in a man's heart, greed and selfishness. If a man is
able to lend a substantial amount of money, without any profit in return for himself, then he has
conquered both these vices.

He has conquered the SELFISHNESS by letting the money out of his hands, to give others the
chance of becoming successful.

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He has also conquered the GREED because he knows he will earn no profit on the money,
because to charge interest is Haraam.

We must always help our community and people at large, if we stop to ponder for a moment,
tomorrow we will not be on this earth any more, but our book of deeds will remain open. If we
leave behind us people who will remember us for helping them, we will still gain blessings. If on
the other hand, the only memory that people have of us is our meanness, then on the day of
Judgement, what will be the use of all our wealth and riches?

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To forbear means to have patience and tolerance. The Arabic word for this is HILM. In life, there
are always times when problems arise, difficulties mount up. When such problems occur, a
person can do ONE OF TWO THINGS.

1. He can try his best to tackle the problem and put it behind him, or
2. He can sit and complain, and wait for the problem to disappear itself, (if it ever does).

If the person tries to solve the problem, then that is called positive action, and he will have at
least a chance of success. However if his attitude is negative, the problem will remain, and the
person will just keep feeling sorry for himself.

Allah only helps those who help themselves, so if a person complains to Allah, and says "Why
does it have to be me ?" then he has very little faith. This is because, when a misfortune falls
upon us, Allah is testing us. In Qur'an Allah tells us that do we think it is enough to say that we
are believers, and not be tested ?

It is like in a competition. If a person says that they can break the world record, do you think
people will say " O.K., here is the gold medal. Thank you very much." Of course not!! They
will test him to see if he can really do what he says.

Prophet Muhammad (S) has said:

"Let your wailing not cancel your reward. Were you to witness the reward of your misfortune,
you would have come to know that it is smaller than the greatness of the reward of which Allah
has promised for the people who submit (to His will) and bear (misfortunes) with patience.
Thus to forbear, after trying your best to help yourself, is an act of faith, because Allah has
PROMISED us that we will be tested, and that is a difficulty we must overcome.
If we forbear and have patience in difficulty, we past the test, and we are promised comfort
because Allah says in the Holy Qur'an, Surah 94, ayat 6:

"Verily, with every difficulty there is relief."

Therefore, if we forbear, then the problem will sort itself out with the grace of Allah.

Forbearance is not just when calamity befalls you, but also when you have been wronged. There
are very few feelings which give as much sweet satisfaction as revenge over someone who has
harmed you. It is not easy to forgive such a person, especially when you are in a position to give
back. To forbear is these circumstances requires a strong will power, this is shown by the
following saying of the Holy Prophet (S),

"The strongest of you is he who overpowers himself when enraged and the most forbearing of
you is the one who forgives when having overpowered his enemy.

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                                   FITNA AND FASAAD

This means to spread rumours, and tell lies about people, with the niyyat (intention) of damaging
their reputation.

It is like backbiting, except that the rumours are totally unjustified and untrue. Another word for
fitna and fasaad is slander (spoil someone's name)

Imam Hassan (A) has said:

"If a person comes to you and speaks ill of someone else, you should know that he is actually
speaking ill of you. It is worth while to regard such a person as your enemy, and not to trust him,
for lying, backbiting, trickery, deceit, jealousy, hypocrisy, duplicity and creating dissension go
hand in hand with slander"

Imam Ali (A) has said:

"The worst of you are those who slander and create discord among friends. They will find fault
with the innocent."

Slandering is such a bad deed, that the Holy Prophet (S) said that:

"A slanderer will not enter paradise."

Slandering is haraam because it damages someone's reputation, it is unfair on the one who is
being slandered because people will think he has done things which he has not. Slandering
breaks the community, and cause enmity and hatred. It is one of the worst sins, and goes hand in
hand with gheebat and other social crimes.

The only people who slander are cowards, if they see someone with whom people are good, they
become jealous and want to tarnish his reputation. They do not have the courage insult face to
face, and so go around like snakes slithering and whispering rumours in the dark.

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                                     KADHMUL GAIZ

Kadhmul Gaiz means to swallow anger, to forgive others.

It is similar to forbearance but refers specifically to when you have been wronged, and is one of
the most commendable acts in Islam.

There is a saying in English to "bury the hatchet", this means that instead of trying to get revenge
(i.e. with the hatchet), just bury it and put it out of your mind. There is also another saying to
"forgive and forget" which has a similar meaning.

This does not mean that you let people crook you left right and centre and then forgive them! It
applies to those whom you have power over, or those who repent or have done the deed without

Anger is a bitter pill to swallow, and is only managed with a strong will power. This can be seen
by the following sayings of the Prophet (S),

"The strongest of you is he who overpowers himself when enraged and the most forbearing of
you is the one who forgives when having overpowered his enemy."

"Do you consider the intense strength as being in the lifting of (a heavy) stone whereas in fact it
is in overpowering oneself when filled with anger"
The way to swallow your anger is to "cool off".

"Verily anger is from Shaitan and the Shaitan is created from fire. And the fire is but
extinguished with water. Therefore whenever one is overtaken with anger, he should make

Wudhu has a calming effect on the body, and cools it down. It also makes us remember Allah, so
we gain control over our self again.

Imam Ali (A) has said that:

"Should any of you be faced with anger, he should sit down if standing, should lie down if

All of us have done sins at some time in our lives, something that might have been worthy of
punishment. But if Allah can forgive us with his infinite mercy, then what right have we be
angry at others when they are sorry.

"Almighty Allah had said, Oh the son of Adam! Remember Me when in anger so that I remember
you when you deserve my wrath and do not destroy you."

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Also we are told in Qur'an,3:133:

“Be quick in the race for forgiveness from your Lord, and for a garden whose width is that (of
the whole) of the heavens and of the earth, prepared for the righteous. Those who spend (freely),
whether in prosperity, or in adversity”; WHO RESTRAIN ANGER, AND PARDON (ALL)
MEN; for God loves those who do good.

Imam Musa al Kadhim (A) was given the title AL-KADHIM for this reason. He is the ideal
example of one who swallowed his anger. He was treated despicably and imprisoned by the
oppressor’s right up to his martyrdom in prison, but he restrained his anger and bore it with

Surah 42 Ayat 36 onwards explains

"Whatever you are given (here) is (but) a convenience of this Life: but that which is with God is
better and more lasting: (it is) for those who believe and put their trust in their Lord; those who
avoid the greater crimes and shameful deeds, and, WHEN THEY ARE ANGRY EVEN THEN

Those who hearken to their Lord, and establish regular prayer; who (conduct) their affairs by
mutual Consultation; who spend out of what We bestow on them for Sustenance;

And those who, when an oppressive wrong is inflicted on them, (are not cowed but) help and
defend themselves.

The recompense for an injury is an injury equal thereto (in degree): but if a person forgives and
makes reconciliation, His reward is due from God: for (God) does not love those who do wrong.

But indeed if any do help and defend themselves after a wrong (done) to them, against such there
is no cause of blame."

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                          CARE FOR THE ENVIRONMENT

Allah created us all, and made us the inheritors of the earth. He gave us the world and all the
creatures within so that we may live and prosper by using them, not abusing them. He mentions
in Qur'an 6:165

“It is He who has made you (His) agents, inheritors of the earth:

This shows the we must look after our planet, and find ways of cleaning up the mess and damage
we cause to it. When you are given something, it is important that you use it properly, only then
will it last. If you abuse something, then it will work for a while, but in the end it will get bad
and it will have to be thrown away.

Our world is getting used, and abused. We can not throw that away. We only have one world,
our world, and only by keeping it clean can we make sure it lasts. The same way we inherited the
earth from our ancestors, we have to look after it so that we can hand it down in good condition
to the next generation.

Consider your house, you live in it, you sleep in it. What would happen if you did not bother to
clean up the mess you make, the dishes, the clothes, the dust, the dirt. If this was not dealt with,
then the house would soon become uninhabitable. There is no point just sweeping everything
under the carpet since that is a short term solution, you must clear the rubbish and remove it

This planet has about 4 billion people, if we do not clear our rubbish, then where can we go
when it becomes too polluted to live in?

How can we do things to keep our world clean ?

We can start thinking, start realizing that we should not waste things. The more we waste, the
more we throw away. This all adds up. We should try not to use chemicals which damage the
ocean and the sky, we should throw things in their proper places, and not on the streets, or out of
the windows. Just imagine, if everyone threw their rubbish on the street. It would all add up and
there would be an awful mess. We are not the only creatures on the planet. We have to share this
world with the rest of Allah’s creatures. Everything in this universe is created by Allah, and
serves His purpose. We must respect these, and use them sparingly without waste. We should
even respect the plants since Allah explains to us

55:6 “And the herbs and the trees-both (alike) bow in adoration.”

Let us not make so much mess that the rest of the creatures become poisoned and hurt because of
our selfishness. What examples of Environmental Pollution can you think of ? Is it just
commercial industry that causes pollution, or is it the individual consumer?

What solutions, both long term and short term can you think of to prevent pollution?

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                            TAKKABUR, RIYAA AND UJB

These are some of the major faults in a person's character.

Takkabur means to think of oneself as BETTER than someone else, to have PRIDE.

Riyaa means to SHOW OFF to others

Ujb means to have SELF CONCEIT, to like oneself too much.

These three topics are all related and deal with one aspect, a person's ego. A person's ego is the
way he thinks about himself. As soon as we achieve something good, or as soon as we are
praised, a feeling of joy reaches us, if we are not careful, this feeling can soon turn to pride.

Our Holy Prophet (S) has said:

"Pride enters the heart like a black ant crawling over a black rock at night."

This shows how easily pride can overtake us.

Pride is known as one of the diseases of the soul. It is caused by a lack of belief in God. You see,
if you become proud, you feel that you have accomplished all your deeds by yourself, you forget
that Allah was the one who guided you.

If we ever achieve anything good, we should be pleased, but there is an important point to note,
we should be pleased by the RESULTS of what we have achieved, not by the fact that WE have
achieved it.

However, our nafs starts whispering to our hearts that we have done something great
and it tells us how wonderful we are and carries on praising us ..... etc ..etc. This causes us to
start showing our greatness to others (Riyaa), to show them what brilliant individuals we are.

All of you must have had the occasion of seeing someone in your life, and who after looking at
him for a few seconds, said, "That guy is nothing but a show-off". If we want to continue being
successful in the future, the FIRST thing we should do is remember Allah. In the du'a after Asr
prayers we say to Allah

"My Lord , whatever talents I have got, it is but from You."

If we want to remain humble, we should always remember this sentence and say it to ourselves
EVERY time we do something good, or come first or win something. That way we will stop our
nafs from praising us, and make it praise Allah. We also realize that we have nothing to show off
about, since we have only been able to accomplish what we have with the help of Allah.

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Apart from isolating yourself from others because you think yourself superior, pride is also bad
for you on an intellectual level. If you become proud of what you know, or have done, you will
think yourself as being one of the greatest, therefore you will not try to improve. However, if you
think that you have plenty of room for improvement, then you will try harder and harder until
you achieve better results.

In the time of Prophet Musa (A), there was an instance that he thought to himself, Oh Musa,
indeed you have reached the pinnacle of mankind, there is no one alive on the earth today who
knows as much as you do. He did not utter these words, they only flicked through his mind.
Allah immediately told Angel Jibraeel, Go and save Musa from himself. This was when Prophet
Musa (A) was told to go and seek Khizr, someone who was alive and knew more than Musa. He
was told to go and learn from him. By doing this, Musa understood that there was someone else
who knew more than him, and so was saved from becoming proud.

Pride was the reason that Iblis (Shaytan) was removed from Allah's mercy, and is a lesson to all
of us who become proud. When Allah created Adam, he commanded the whole of creation to
bow to him, all of them except Iblis did this. Iblis replied to Allah, I am made from fire, and
Adam is made from clay, there fore I am BETTER than him. Allah immediately removed Iblis
from His mercy and told him to begone.

In Islam we are told that one man is no better than another. In Islam, there is nothing wrong with
being successful, or a leader of others, the only point to remember is that greatness is a test to see
how we can cope, as long as we are aware that it was with Allah's help that we became great, and
realize that we are not superior to our fellows then we will pass the test.

Our 4th Imam (A) says in Sahifa e Kamila:

"O Lord, do not honour me even one degree among the people unless You lower me to an equal
amount in my own soul. Create for me no outward respect unless You have created for me an
equal amount of HUMILIATION in my spirit."

The opposite of arrogance/pride is humility. How can we be humble, does it mean sitting on a
prayer mat, reciting all the time ? No, it does not. Imam Ali (A) has said :

"From the signs of humility is to be content with any place in an assembly, to salute when you
meet, to abandon quarrels and discord even if you were on the right; and not to except (love)
praise for your fear of Allah."

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By being humble, we are showing to the world that Allah has created all men equal, whether
they are black, brown, white or yellow. We are showing that the only person who is greater in
the eyes of Allah is the person who has taqwa (ashamed of displeasing Allah).

The Holy Prophet (S) has said:

"Indeed, humility exalts a man's position with Allah. Thus be humble and Allah will shower you
with mercy."

The final stage of pride is Ujb. When you actually start thinking and believing that you are
superior to the rest. When you have to high an opinion of your own ability, beauty etc.. This is
called self conceit. It is at this stage that you start spending too much time in admiring yourself
in front of the mirror. When a person reaches the stage that he thinks that there is no one like
him, then he is lost. He has built a wall around himself and is totally cut off from the outside
world. He is living in his own dream world.

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                                   BETRAYING SECRETS

Secrets are something which every human being possesses. They are affairs that they would
rather not disclose to others, due to embarrassment, shame, guilt or such reasons. When
someone tells you a secret, they are trusting you with something very important, and we do not
realise this.

The Holy Prophet (S) has said that:

"He who keeps no pledge has no religion".

In the Holy Qur'an Surah 8 ayat 27 Allah says:

"O ye that believe! betray not the trust of God and the apostle, nor exploit knowingly things
entrusted to you"

If someone was to hand over some money to you, and say "Please look after this, don't give it to
anybody." Now, if you agreed, and then were to go and give that money to someone else, you
would be breaking your word, even if you were to get the money back.

It is the same with a secret, it is something entrusted to you, (AMANAT), and you do not have
any right to disclose it to anyone else.

The Holy Prophet (S) has said that:

"Four things when allowed to enter a house become the cause of spoiling and depriving it of

of those four things, one of them is the breach of trust.

He also said:

"A hypocrite is recognized by three signs:
1. He lies when he talks,
2. He breaks promises,
3. He betrays when trusted."

If someone reveals a secret to you, and you feel that by telling someone else, you may be able to
help him, what to do you do ?

In this case, it is not a sin to tell the other person's secret, as long as you do not give his identity,
and that you SINCERELY feel that it is for his good.
One thing we should always remember, Imam Ali (A) has told us, if we can not keep our secrets
to ourselves, and tell others, how can we expect them to guard our secrets, when we ourselves
cannot !!

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Emulation means to copy someone or something, to try and become like that thing.

A culture is a way of living. Culture embraces the ways people live together, the food they eat,
the general way they behave. Islam has a culture of its own, but leaves space to accommodate
practices from other cultures, as long as they are within Shari'a (Islamic Law). This is why Islam
is called a universal religion, because it has it own central core of behavior, but allows the
cultures of any nation in the world to mingle in.

We are in living in a western world, and are surrounded by the western culture. All cultures have
some good in them, and the western culture is no exception. We, the children of the west, have
to find how we can be proper Muslims in the western environment, without sacrificing any of
our principles, but still adapting to the world we live in. We can do this by picking up the good
points in the west. But, we must be careful because there are lots of elements which are against
Islamic culture, and we should avoid those.

What we should NOT DO is follow that which our friends do blindly, and try and become totally
western, this will lead to us losing our Islamic identity all together. We must always remember,
we are MUSLIMS FIRST, and then anything else.

At school, we see a lot of ways that other people behave, and because we do not want to be the
odd one out, we want to mix in and act in the same way. This idea is wrong. When we see the
guys at school wear earrings, and start dressing up so that the girls can see them. When we see
this we should realise that this is not what Islam has taught us, and avoid such behavior. In
Islamic culture, you dress up well if you want to, not for others to see you.

Also we see that the guys at school have girlfriends, and go out to discos and parties. This is not
the way we should behave. In the west, a girlfriend is only taken because of her looks. Every
other week, a guy has a different girlfriend. Islam says that is wrong. When the time comes for a
boy to get married, he will be introduced to girls who also want to get married, with similar
ideas, not just a girlfriend for one or two weeks, but a companion for life. This is one reason why
there are so many divorces in the western culture and so few in an Islamic culture.

There are certain habits which are quite common in the west which we should avoid. An
example is when we go and play sports. We see that people change openly in the changing rooms
displaying their private parts with no hint of shame, they take showers with nothing on.
Although there are only men in the changing rooms, in Islam, it is Haraam to expose your private
parts to anybody, or to look at the private parts of others. This means that when you change, you
should use a towel or something to cover yourself, if you take a shower, you should wear some
type of swimming costume, so that you do not remain naked at any moment. You should also be
careful not to look at others who are changing.
Do not let the west fool you. Most of the people in the west do not really believe in heaven or
hell, they think that they will live on this world, and that will be it. That is why they try and have
fun, and the only fun they have is physical, because they do not understand the soul at all. They
satisfy their desires by going out with girls to parties, drinking alcohol and satisfying their lust.

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A Muslim however realizes that this world is only a moment, a twinkle in the eye compared to
the life in the next world. There is more to life then just physical pleasure. Islam does not say
that you cannot have any pleasures, it just explains you that desires should only be satisfied
within a marriage, and not like animals. It is important that you understand this point. We should
not feel that "Why can they have fun, and we can't" because it stops being fun after a while. If
you eat ice cream every day, then after a while you will be fed up of ice cream. You will not
want any more. Similarly, Islam teaches us that our desires should be controlled. We should limit
ourselves. If we let ourselves out of control like the western world, then we might have fun for a
while, but soon we will ask ourselves "There must be more to life then just parties and
girlfriends and pubs ?"

There is much more to life. Islam opens our eyes, and makes us look from a different point of
view. If you imagine this life to be a maze. The western world tries to solve the maze by just
walking through, taking things as they come. Islam takes you up, so that you can see the maze
from above, so that you know which way to turn, and what to avoid. That is the only way to get
through the maze.

Another habit we should avoid is smoking. Smoking is both dangerous and addictive. Islam has
made smoking Makruh (one should avoid). We see boys and girls in our school smoking at
lunchtime, or on the way home. Sometimes they come up to us and ask us if we want a drag. Do
not be afraid to say NO! It does not matter what they think, whether you are a chicken or not,
don't let yourself be pushed into trying things bad for your health, especially at such a young age.

Please remember, Islam really is a religion which will make man happy and content. Do not try
and follow those things in the west which Islam does not allow, it might look and feel go for a
while, but in the end you will realise the hard way.

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To use abusive language means to swear or insult someone. This is so obviously wrong, but
surprisingly it is a common habit especially amongst the youth. Let us consider the use of such
language, and what purpose, if any, it serves.

Most people swear when something bad happens to them, or when someone does something that
they don't like. These people say that the actual swearing helps them to control their anger, and
stops them from doing other things which might be even worse. This argument is logical, but
Islam rejects it because a person who cannot restrain his anger, without using foul language must
have a very weak will power. The most noble person according to Islamic etiquette (akhlaq) is
that person who can control his anger, and even manage to look happy.

To use swearing as a means of insulting someone is unjustified under any circumstances. Islam
teaches us NEVER TO INSULT. If someone has wronged us, we should either take action, or
tell them that we do not like what they say; but to insult them is to stoop to a very low stage, and
Islam does not accept that a person should become so undignified.

To be sarcastic to others, and tease them also shows that part of a person's character is faulty. It
may only feel like a joke, but think for a moment. Pretend that you were them. Would YOU like
someone calling you names all the time, making life miserable for you. Would YOU like some
laughing when you fell down, or someone telling tales at you. Would YOU like people making
fun of your family, or the color of your skin, or at the way you are.

Below are a few saying of Imam Ali (A) about the danger of the tongue. Look over them, and
think about their meaning.

"Nothing else need to be restrained and kept under control but the tongue".

"Whosoever desires to remain safe should guard against what comes out of his tongue".

"Take care of your tongue".

"Woe be upon you! Will people be with their noses prostrated in hell fire except for reasons of
what they had reaped out of (misuse) of their tongues".

"The one from whose tongue people are afraid of is from the inmates of hell fire".

"Salvation of the believer lies in guarding his tongue.

The above sayings give you an example of the dangers of verbal abuse. One other point that
needs mentioning is impertinence. This means to give cheek, or disrespectful answers back to
people who are talking to you.

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If someone is talking to you, whether he is telling you off or not, you should never be rude in
your replies. If you are innocent then explain yourself, but to answer back to a parent or a teacher
in such a manner is an inexcusable example of bad akhlaq.

The respect which parents and teachers command over you is very great, and you are not
supposed to even show them displeasure, let alone answer back to their face.

Impertinence just proves that you have a poor character. It may make you feel big in class for a
while, but at the end of the day, you will have lost all your respect in front of your elders.

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Extravagance means to use too much of something when it is not necessary.                It means
WASTAGE. The Arabic word for this is pronounced as ASRAAF.

Allah explains to us in the Holy Qur'an, Surah 5, ayat 90:

"O you who believe! Make not unlawful the good things which God has made lawful for you, But
commit not excess for God does not love those given to excess."

In Islam, we place great importance on stopping wastage. Most children will remember that
when they leave food on their plates, then they are told not to commit Asraaf. However, Asraaf
does not apply only to food, although that is an important area. When non-Muslims see a
Muslim finish every morsel of food on his plate, they think that this person is greedy, or that he
is stingy. This just shows a lack of understanding on the other person's part.

Islam teaches us to have respect for all things that Allah has blessed us with, and what is more
worthy of respect than the sustenance (food) that HE has provided? This means that we should
respect food, by not abusing it. We should not play with food, even for fun. We should never
abuse it in any way, and should NEVER throw it away unless it is spoilt. If we throw food away
without reason, then we are throwing away a gift from Allah. This shows how ungrateful we are.

If I was to give you a present, and you were to throw it away in front of me, this would obviously
be due to lack of respect for me and my present. Similarly with food. If we are hungry, no one
is saying that we should not eat. However we should put only as much on our plate as we think
we will be able to finish. If we are still hungry after finishing, we can put some more. But how
many times have you seen people who are hungry, put a heap of food on their plates, eat half of
it, and throw the rest away!!

How many people are there in the world who do not have enough to eat, and don't even know
where their next meal will come from. What right have we to take food for granted so as to be
able to throw it away, as if it were rubbish.

This extravagance is very often seen in day to day life. Even buying food to eat outside, when
you know there is food waiting at home is a form of Asraaf. Islam explains to us that to waste is
not allowed. Allah has given us whatever wealth we possess. No one is telling us not to spend it.
No one is telling us not to buy expensive things, cars, clothes, food. No one is refusing us to buy
good things, food or clothes.

The Holy Qur'an itself says in Surah 7 ayat 31.

"O children of Adam! wear your beautiful apparel at every time and place of prayer: eat and
drink: but waste not by excess, for God does not love the wasters."

It is not wrong to buy valuable things if WE ARE GOING TO USE THEM. However, to spend
money unnecessarily on something of no use, this is not allowed.

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Why are there people who spend extravagantly on purpose, what are their reasons ?

Reasons for Asraaf include,
1) for the sake of showing off to others.
2) buying something just because your neighbor has it, (keeping up with
    the Jones)
3) having no value for wealth, buying for the sake of buying.

All these reasons are abominable and show the person has lack of responsibility with his/her
wealth. When, on the day of Judgement, Allah will ask "How did you spend the wealth with
which I provided you ?", the people who have committed Asraaf will have no excuse, and will
earn the displeasure of Allah.

If we think of Allah whenever we spend the money He has given us, and think whether He
would approve of our purchase, than we will never commit Asraaf.

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                LEVEL 8


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   • Qualities of a true religion
   • Islam the true Religion
   • Shi’asm and Sunnism – Major differences.

Qualities of a TRUE RELIGION.

Let us first define Religion?

Religion means, faith,
   • Ones firm belief (e.g. one religiously exercises everyday in the morning because he
       firmly believes that exercise is a way of good healthy life),
   • Creed (certain groups of people create a faith statement, e.g. our madrassah the mission
       statement is “KNOWLEDGE IS LIGHT”. This confirms our belief and dedication in the
       Knowledge we present to our students)
   • Religious conviction. (E.g. one has total belief in ones faith, and that is “LA ILLAHA

How can one have surety that the religion he/she is following is the right one?

Man is capable of differentiating between good and bad. Allah s.w.t has bestowed the
intelligence to all human beings. For this reason man can differentiate between, for example;
    1. tasty food and not so tasty food
    2. good diets vs. bad diet
    3. good friend vs. bad friend
    4. good neighbourhood vs. bad neighbourhood
    5. heroes vs. villain

All this is done by the unique faculty graced to man and that is the faculty of Intellect, Wisdom.

Very important note to remember all Humans are provided with the following;

                    Sense of Sound

                    Sense of Touch

                    Sense of Smell                     SENSE OF

                    Sense of Taste                   RECOGNITION

                    Sense of Hearing

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Through His Uniqueness

We will examine at this point one vital point of the creator – Allah s.w.t vs. Other Gods. Keeping
Quraan as our focal point we will go to Sura Tawheed.

                                                                    ‫بِسْم ﷲِ الرﱠحْ من الرﱠحيم‬
                                                                     ِ ِ         ِ                  ِ
                                                                                   ٌَ َ ‫َ ﱠ‬
                                        [Shakir 112:1] Say: He, Allah, is One.{1} ‫قُلْ ھُو ﷲ ُ أحد‬

                                                                                          َُ ‫ﱠ‬
                                     [Shakir 112:2] Allah is He on Whom all depend.{2} ‫ﷲ ُ الصمد‬      ‫ﱠ‬
                              [Shakir 112:3] He begets not, nor is He begotten.{3} ‫لَم يَلِد ولَم ي ُولَد‬
                                                                                   ْ ْ َ ْ ْ
                                                                          ٌَ َ ً ُ
                               [Shakir 112:4] And none is like Him.{4} ‫ولَم يَكن لﱠه ُ كفُوا أحد‬
                                                                                               ُ ْ َ
This Sura, as its name indicates, is about the Unity of Allah, and His Oneness. In its four verses,
the Sura describes monotheism completely.

Through His Justice:

                                                {7}          ‫َ ْ َ ِ ْ َ َ ﱠ ٍ َ ْ ًا ر‬
                                                          ُ‫ه‬shallَ‫ي‬see‫فَمن يَعملْ مثقَال ذرة خير‬
[Shakir 99:7] So. He who has done an atom's weight of good            it

                                              {8}       َ ًّ َ ٍ ‫َ َ ْ َ ِ ْ َ َ ﱠ‬
                                                      ُ‫ومن يَعملْ مثقَال ذرة شرا يَره‬
[Shakir 99:8] And he who has done an atom's weight of evil shall see it.

Hadith by Imam Jaffar –e-Sadiq a.s.

  ‫ان اساس الدين التوحيد و العدل اما التوحيد فان ال تجوز على ربك ما جاز عليك، و اما العدل‬

                                           (‫فان ال تنسب الى خالقك ما المك عليه« )بحار االنوار‬

"Indeed the pillars of the religion are Uniqueness (of ALLAH, Monotheism) and (His) Justice."

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Through His Sign

Imam Ali a.s has said; “Don’t go looking for God go look for the signs of Allah”

This is an important and essential element in understanding the Lord. Since Allah s.w.t is the
sole creator of this Earth and whatever is in and around. We see that every creation is so perfect
in its essence.

We will take obvious signs and inner signs to understand.

  No two individual are the same, for example if you see your finger prints they cannot be the

Everything in this world is paired. After a long and tiring day, night has to follow.

Our weather pattern in Canada is so unique. We have four seasons and each one is actually
depended on the other e.g. For winter to end spring has to come so that the dead leaves get life
and there after summer comes in with lots of green and happy atmosphere for winter to come
again fall has to come so that the leaves fall and they die. This is a unique cycle which no man
can really bring into existence.

Our Earth.

Envisage that you are in an Apple Orchard sitting under the tree and suddenly the apple lands on
your lap. Wow you would definitely eat it up.

Our Earth is round and is suspended right in the middle of the universe. Amazingly if the shape
of the earth is round, how is it that the person sitting on the northern hemisphere is in precise
position and that person on the southern pole?

No one’s position is disturbed by the shape of the Earth. The answer is that the creator Allah
s.w.t has master designed the earth in such a way that there is a force at the centre of the earth
force of gravity which keeps every ones position as it aught to be. This was discovered by Sir
Isaac Newton.

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The Holy Prophet said: “As the stars in the sky are the Source of guidance to the travellers, The
Holy Ones of my Ahlul Bait (The Twelve Imams) are The Source of Guidance for the people.
And, as the stars will remain in the sky until The Day of Judgment, The earth will never be
without a Divinely Guide from My Ahlul Bait That is an Imam".

In this apparent world man needs a stable guidance through safe governments. Allah s.w.t sent
his representatives to guide us to the right path. Indeed the are the sign of Allah s.w.t. They
navigate us toward Jannah.

The whole gist of our life is belief in the Unseen. We can’t see Allah physically but recognise
him through his signs. Like Imam Ali a.s once said that he sees Allah s.w.t. That was the eyes of
his conscious and not the physical eyes. He has total conviction and believed in the oneness of
Allah s.w.t. In conclusion of this sanction I would like us to ponder over the first 5 ayahs of sura
al Baqarah

                                                                                                         {1}   ‫الم‬
[Shakir 2:1] Alif Lam Mim.

                                              {2}    ‫ذلِك الكتَابُ الَ ريْب فِيه ھُدى لﱢ ْلمتﱠقِين‬
                                                      َ ُ              ً ِ َ َ                     ِْ َ َ
[Shakir 2:2] This Book, there is no doubt in it, is a guide to those who guard (against evil).

                                                                  َ ُ َ ِ َْْ َ ِ ْ َ ِ
  {3} ‫الﱠذين ي ُؤمنُون بِالغيب ويُقِيمون الصﱠالةَ ومما رزقنَاھُم ي ُنفِقُون‬
        َ           ْ َْ َ ‫َ ِ ﱠ‬
[Shakir 2:3] Those who believe in the unseen and keep up prayer and spend out of what we have given them.

    ‫والﱠذين يُؤمنُون بِما أُنزل إِلَيك وما أُنزل من قَبلِك وبِاآلخرة ھُم‬
     ْ َِ ِ              َ َ ْ ِ َ ِ َ َ َ ْ َ ِ َ َ ِ ْ َ ِ
                                                                                               {4} ‫ي ُوقِنُون‬
[Shakir 2:4] And who believe in that which has been revealed to you and that which was revealed before you and
they are sure of the hereafter.

                       {5}   ‫أُولَـئِك علَى ھُدى من ربﱢھم وأُولَـئِك ھُم المفلِحُون‬
                             َ     ُْ ْ ُ َ ْ َ ِْ ‫ً ﱢ ﱠ‬                َ َ ْ
[Shakir 2:5] These are on a right course from their Lord and these it is that shall be successful.

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    •     Proof of Gods existence
    •     Proof of the Oneness of God
    •     Scientists belief in God
    •     Asma ul Husna
    •     Roots of Idol – worship
    •     Shirk – signs and examples.


The belief in the Unity of God is the foundation stone of Islam. This belief governs the religious
faith, designs the social patterns and gives life to the moral codes.

The first sentence of the Islamic kalimah, i.e. "There is no god except Allah," leads a Muslim
throughout his life not only in religious matters but in social behaviour also.

"There is no god" shows a Muslim that nothing in the Universe is superior to him. It is observed
in Qur'an that:

"He it is who created for you all that is in the earth.”(2:29).

So a Muslim knows that nothing in this world is to be worshipped. Neither stone nor trees;
neither animals nor human-beings; neither the Sun nor the Moon nor the Stars can be
worshipped; because everything is created, and created for his benefit. When a Muslim, thus, has
rejected every falsehood and every idea of;

1. Nature-worship,
2. Idol-worship or
3. Human-worship,

He is ready to believe in the positive truth of the Unity of God.

                                   Believing in a Supreme Being

                 Gives an aim in life                provides a purpose for our actions

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                            BELIEF IN ALLAH AND HIS UNITY

Had a man been left with the wrong impression that there was no God at all, his life would have
been aimless, and an aimless life is dangerous.

So it is added that there is no god "except Allah." This sentence has a negative as well as a
positive aspect. Both are instrumental in creating the belief that every man is equal to every other

Nobody is superior, nobody is inferior. Thus, the belief in the Unity of God promotes the sense

Equity – (FAIRNESS which is another feature of Islam).

Characteristic about the belief in the Unity of God:

We believe that God is Omnipotent and Omniscient. He was there when there was nothing.
Nothing except Him is eternal. He has no beginning and no end. He knows everything. Even our
unspoken intentions and desires are not hidden from Him. We believe that He has no partner, no
advisor, and no helper. He has no son, no daughter, and no wife. He is above every need, because
need presumes deficiency. He has no body, because body needs space. He is nowhere, because
He has no body; and He is everywhere, because His power and knowledge is magnificently
apparent everywhere. He cannot be defined in terms of Time and Space. He cannot be
incarnated, because incarnation needs body and space. He cannot be seen because of the same

When we say that Allah is Omnipotent and Merciful, we do not mean that His Power and Mercy
is something different from His Person. We see that a child is born without any power, and then
he acquires strength day by day. It is so because power is not his person. Allah is not like this.

He is Power Himself;
Mercy Himself;
Knowledge Himself;
Justice Himself;
Virtue Himself;
Truth Himself and so on.

The proper name which we use for God is 'ALLAH' and that also needs some explanations.

'ALLAH' means `One' who deserves to be loved' and `Into whom every one seeks refuge.' This
word, grammatically speaking, is unique. It has no plural and no feminine. So this name itself
reflects light upon the fact that Allah is one and only one; He has neither any partner nor any
equal. The name cannot be translated by the word `GOD' because God can be transformed into
`gods' and `goddess.'

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                                SHARI’A AND ITS SOURCES

        There is a fundamental difference and yet a strong link between the words Deen and
Shari’a. Deen means religion. Whereas Shari’a or Shariat means the laws of Islam or Islamic
laws. What is a law? One may ask. A law is a body of definite rules and regulations which
have the force and authority, recognized socially, and which determines the rights, obligations,
limits and responsibilities of everyone living in a particular territory. Deen and Shari’a are
different yet the Deen contains the Shari’a. It is the Shari’a that governs our way of life. There
are no exceptions for anybody that is nobody is above the law. The Deen is incomplete without
the Shari’a.
        What are the sources of laws in Islam? In Islam we are only bound by rules formulated
by the following:
a)        Directly by Allah (s.w.t)
b)        By the Prophet of Allah (s.w.t)
c)        By a vicegerent of the Prophet
D)        By those who have come to power in accordance with Islamic standards
       One may ask as to how we decided on the above sources. In the Holy Qur’an, Sura An-
Nisa, verse 59, Allah (s.w.t) says,
       “0 you who believe Obey Allah, and obey the messenger and those vested with authority
(from) among you: and then if you quarrel concerning any matter, refer it to Allah and the
messenger if you believe in Allah and in the last day, this is the best and fairest (way) for final
       This verse clearly indicates to all people that, until the Day of Judgment, these will be our
only sources for the laws of Islam, and none else.
       A law that comes to us from Allah, the Prophet or the vicegerent of the Prophet is easily
acceptable to us if we are sure of its origin because:
I) They have complete knowledge of all aspects of the question
ii) They have no self interest in the issue
iii) They give heed to interests of all that is they are not biased

       However, a law that comes from the fourth source, that is a person who has been given
power in accordance with Islamic standards, is enforceable if and only if:
I)        It does not contradict the laws and standards in the Holy Qur’an and the Sunna
ii)       Full consideration, as far as possible, has been given to all aspects of the question
iii)      They have been totally impartial, that is, have not shown a bias towards an individual,
          group or class
       Therefore, to obtain correct knowledge of the laws of Islam, keeping in mind the needs of
the time, we should go directly to the sources and refer to them:

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a)        The Holy Qur’an: The Qur’an was revealed to the Prophet directly from Allah (s.w.t)
          and there is no possibility of it not being transmitted to the people accurately, because in
          Sura An-Najm, verses 3 and 4, Allah (s.w.t) says, “Nor does he (Muhammad) speak out
          of (his own) desire. It is but a revelation revealed.” The Prophet did not say anything
          without the permission of Allah (s.w.t). Therefore this is an accurate source.
b)        The Sunna: After the Prophet had delivered the message, he did not stop there. He
          implemented the Qur’an. He was the living and speaking Qur’an. After the Prophet,
          came the Imams. The Imams did not bring any new religion, or any changes to Islam.
          They came to guide the Muslims. They too not only interpreted the Qur’an, but also
          acted upon it. It is the sayings of the Prophet and the Imams that are called the Sunna or
c)        Mujtahids: Since our living Imam is in Ghaibat-e-Kubra, and is not accessible, we
          approach those who have knowledge or the Quran and the Sunna to derive the laws of
          Islam. This happened even at the time of the Prophet because Islam had spread to a vast
          area and in different areas people would be present to answer questions. This was
          necessary due to mainly geographical and language barriers. The Mujtahids of our time
          use the following sources to formulate the laws:
I)        The Holy Qur’an: It is essential that they have thorough knowledge of the Qur’an so
          that they can make a decision. It is not possible to make a decision from one verse.
          Consider the following example; No where in the Qur’an can we find a verse saying
          intoxicants are haram. However, if we look at Sura Baqarah, verse 219, “All intoxicants
          are a great sin.” Looking at Sura Al A’araaf, verse 33 we conclude, “All sins are
          haram.” Therefore, an overall understanding of the Qur’an is essential. There is a great
          advantage here that is not in the Sunna, and that is that there has never, and will never be
          any modifications in the Qur’an, because Allah (s.w.t) Himself is its Protector.
ii)       The Sunna: Using the Sunna to formulate or derive laws requires specialization.
          Mujtahids face two main problems when using the Sunna to derive laws. When they are
          looking through ahadith of the Prophet and the Imams, they have to be careful that the
          ahadith are genuine. The reason why this is important is that over the years there have
          been lots of fabrications of ahadith that have been attributed to the Prophet or Imam. The
          other problem is that some ahadith have been altered due to carelessness, lack of
          remembrance, and so on. To verify the genuineness of each hadith, the Mujtahids must be
          familiar with the personalities of the transmitters of the hadith. If the report is genuine,
          then they look at its true significance and meaning. They collect all relevant reports and
          study the language used and the historical background before making a decision. No
          decision however can be made in contradiction to the Qur’an.
iii)      Ijma’ (consensus of opinion): If all the Mujtahids agree to an opinion then we should
          act upon it even if we do not find anything in the Quran and the Sunna.
iv)       Mantiq (reason): It is so important that it is said that reason and Islamic Law are
          inseparable. It suffices here to give the following maxim. “Whatever judgment is
          pronounced by reason, the same is pronounced by Islamic Law and whatever judgment is
          pronounced by Islamic Law, the same is pronounced by reason.”

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                                      THE SHARI’AH

        We begin today’s lesson with two important Arabic words: din and shari’ah. “Din”
means religion. “Shari’ah” means the laws of Islam or the Islamic Laws. (Shari’ah is sometimes
written as ‘shari’at).
        “Islam is a din.” Or, we may say, “Islam is a religion” But what is the meaning of
religion when we use it to describe Islam? This question can have three possible answers:
1) Religion means just ‘believing’ in certain things, e.g., God, the Prophet, the      Imams, the
Qur’an and the Qiyamat.
2) Religion means just ‘living’ according to the shari’ah without believing’ in God.
3) Religion means ‘believing in God, the Prophet, the Imams, the Quran and the qiyamat PLUS
‘living’ according to the shari’ah.
        Which one of these answers do you think defines the religion of Islam properly?
Obviously, the first two answers are not correct. Islam does not just mean believing without
living according to its shari’ah. Nor does Islam mean living according to the shari’ah without
believing in God. This leaves us with the third answer, which is, indeed, the right one. When we
say, “Islam is a religion,” we mean: Islam is a combination of believing’ in certain things AND
‘living’ according to the shari’ah. The words ‘usul-e-din’ and ‘furu-e-din’ also convey the same
idea — that Islam has roots (beliefs) and branches (deeds), and both are important. A tree, which
just has roots without branches, is incomplete, and so is the tree with branches but without roots.
In short, we can say that Islam is a complete way of life.

                               ISLAM IS NOT JUST BELIEFS,
                                   NOR IS IT JUST DEEDS.
                                   IT IS BELIEFS + DEEDS.

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        When you buy a machine (e.g., a computer or an electronic typewriter) you also get an
Instruction Manual. The manufacturer of the machine prepares the instruction manual; and its
purpose is to guide you on how to use the machine.
        Human body is also a machine. He did not make his own body, nor did he make the
world in which he lives. God created human being and the world. Therefore, God knows better
how the human being should use his body on this earth — just as the manufacturer of a machine
knows how to use the machine better than anyone else. And just as the manufacturer includes
the Instruction Manual with the machine, in the same way God has sent instructions for us on
how to live in this world.
         The Instruction Manual that Allah (s.w.t) sent for us is known as the Qur’an. But Allah
knew that human being is not just any ordinary machine; rather he is more complicated than the
most advanced computer of the 2Oth century. So Allah did not just send the instruction manual
(i.e. the Qur’an) — He also sent an instructor known as Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w). Moreover,
He said that after Prophet Muhammad, the Imams will be the Instructors of the Qur’an.
       Therefore, we can say that the Qur’an and the sayings of Prophet Muhammad and the
Imams form the Instruction Manual for human life on this earth. Collectively, these instructions
are known as the shari’ah or the laws of Islam.

                                 INSTRUCTION MANUAL.
                                      THE SHARI’AH.

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                              LIVING BY THE SHARI’AH

        After the lesson on ‘The Shari’ah’, it must be clear for you that to be a true Muslim, you
must live according to the shari’ah — the Islamic laws. To follow the shari’ah, you must know
the laws of Islam. But to know the laws of Islam is not so easy — you will have to study
hundreds of verses of the Qur’an and thousands of sayings of the ma’sumin. And, mind you, all
these are in Arabic! It is not easy for every person to spend many years in studying the Islamic
       So what should you do to live according to shari’ah? A simple way is to do taqlid.
‘Taqlid’ means to follow a mujtahid. ‘Mujtahid’ means a religious scholar who is an expert in
Islamic laws. Mujtahids are persons who spend their whole life in studying and teaching the
laws of Islam. They use the Qur’an and the sayings of the ma’sumin to understand the shari’ah.

       It is very normal and logical for people to blindly follow others about the things that they
do not know. For example, if you are not feeling well, you go to the doctor. The doctor checks
you and then writes a prescription for you. You go to the pharmacist, get the medicine and use
it. Do you ask your doctor why did he prescribe that particular medicine? Do you ask the
pharmacist which medicine he has prepared for you? No! Why? Because you have faith in
them and you know that they are qualified to prescribe and prepare medicine for sick people.
You know that they have studied for many years to become a doctor or a pharmacist.
        Another common example where we blindly accept the decision of others: Suppose your
car breaks down. You take it to a mechanic who inspects your car. After inspection, he says to
you that the transmission has failed and you will have to get it replaced. Do you then go to
inspect it for yourself or do you just trust the decision of the mechanic and give your approval to
replace the transmission? Obviously, you trust the mechanic and give your approval for
replacing the transmission. Why? Because you yourself are not a mechanic, and therefore you
trust the decision of another person just because he has been trained to be a mechanic. In the
same way, if you need to know the laws of Islam, you have two alternatives:
1) Either study Islamic laws by yourself and become a mujtahid
2) Or trust and follow the decisions of the most learned mujtahid
       Obviously, becoming a mujtahid takes a very long time. Therefore, at the moment the
only way for you of knowing the laws of Islam is by doing taqlid of a mujtahid. You should
follow him because he has studied for many years to become a mujtahid; he is an expert in the
matters of the shari’ah.
       In conclusion, we can say that it is not always illogical or wrong to follow others blindly
especially in the matters about which we do not have much knowledge.
                      FOR SHARI’AH, YOU OBEY THE MUJTAHID.

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                                   TAQLID & IJTIHAD
        Islam is a way of life. Islam does not only talk about prayers, fasting and pilgrimage, it
also guides us in our personal life, family relationships, and social behavior.
        The laws and teachings of Islam are known as the shari’ah. The shari’ah laws have come
to us through the Qur’an and the sunnah of the Ma’sumeen. The Qur’an is the holy book or
scripture which Allah (s.w.t) has sent for the guidance of human beings. It consists of 6236
verses. The sunnah means the sayings and actions of Prophet Muhammad and the Twelve
Imams (peace be upon them all). The sayings of the Prophet and the Imams are thousands and
thousands in number.
        This means that to know the shari’ah from the Qur’an and the sunnah, you will have to
study for many years — and that also in Arabic. Not every Shi’ah can spend many years to
study the Islamic laws. Those who study the shari’ah laws and become expert in that subject are
known as mujtahids.
       All baligh and baligha Shi’ahs who are not mujtahid have to do is follow the guidance of
the mujtahid. This ‘following a mujtahid’ is known as taqlid. Following a mujtahid in shari’ah
laws or doing taqlid is just like going to a doctor. Every one needs to know what medicine he
should take if he has an illness, but not every person can become a doctor. And when they
become sick, they go to the doctor and follow his advice. Similarly, all Shi’ahs need to follow
the shari’ah, but not every Shia’ah can become a mujtahid. Therefore, those who are not
mujtahid have to refer to the mujtahid and follow his guidance in shari’ah laws.

Conditions of a Mujtahid
       Not anyone can become a mujtahid. A ‘mujtahid’ is a person who has the following 8
The mujtahid must be:
1) Alive. You cannot start taqlid of a dead Mujtahid
2) Of sound mind
3) Male
4) Baligh
5) Born in wedlock
6) Shi’ah Ithna ‘Ashari
7) A’lam, that is, the most learned among all the Mujtahids
8) ‘Adil, just. You cannot do taqlid of a person who is not just even if he has all the other

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       The mujtahids of our time normally live in Qum, Iran or in Najaf, Iraq. These two cities
have the biggest centres for studying the shari’ah laws; the centres in Qum and Najaf are like
       If you want to know what your mujtahid says about a particular issue, you can do the
1. Ask your madrassah teacher
2. Ask an ‘Alim (a religious scholar) in your city
3. Ask the elders of your community who know about religion
4. Read the books (usually known as Tauzihul Masa’il or Risalah)
5. Write to your mujtahid directly, (Their address is very simple; just write their name, the name
of the city and the country)
6. Travel to Iran or Iraq and talk with your Mujtahid in person

                                           Allah says,
                “If you do not know (something), then ask those who know.”
             If you do know the shàri’ah laws, then become a mujtahid (ijtihad)
                                   Follow a mujtahid (taqlid)

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                                   IJTIHAD & TAQLID

       Islam is a religion (din). Din means believing in God, the Prophets, the Imams and the
qiyamat PLUS living according to the shari’ah. Our beliefs are known as “usul-e-din” and our
deeds are known as “furu-e-din.” How do we live by the shari’ah?
       There are two ways by which a Muslim can live by the shari’ah: one is a simple way and
the other is a difficult way. The simple way is known as “taqlid,” whereas the difficult way is
known as “ijtihad.”

       Taqlid means to follow a religious scholar who is expert in the shari’ah. Such a person
who is known as “Mujtahid.” Now a days, the leading Mujtahid is commonly known as Marja’
(p1. maraji’). Marja’ means “a point of reference.” When used for a Mujtahid, this word means
“the person to whom the people refer for religious guidance.”
        It is quite normal and logical for people to blindly follow the experts in issues that they
do not know themselves. For example, when we are not feeling well, we follow the instructions
of the doctor; or when our car breaks down, we listen to the advice of the mechanic. Of course,
you will only listen to advice of others if you trust them.
       Similarly, when you want to follow the shari’ah, you refer to a Marja’ whom you trust.
In order for us to be sure that we are following the right person, the shari’ah has given a
description of a Marja’. He must be:
1. Baligh
2. Sane
3. Shi’ah Ithna-Ashari
4. Male
5. Alive
6. Mujtahid
7. Just
8. A legitimate child - born of married parents.
Let us discuss two most important aspects of these conditions:
1. Adil. Just knowledge and being an expert in Islamic Laws is not enough for a person to
become the Marja’ and leader of the Shi’ah Muslims; he must also be a person of upright Islamic
character. The term “adil” means the just and pious person: one who has the ability to firmly
stay on the shari’ah and refrain from committing sins.
2. Living during our time. The problems of our days and times cannot be solved by referring
to books of the past Mujtahids; therefore, it is necessary to follow a Mujtahid who is living
during our time. He will be able to understand our problems and guide us accordingly.
       In the Shi’ah world, there are many mujtahids at any given time; however, not all are of
the same level of expertise. Therefore, it is obviously better to follow the best and the most

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learned among all the mujtahids. The term “a’lam” means the most learned amongst all the

         If a Muslim does not want to do taqlid but still follow the shari’ah, then he must do
ijtihad, that is become a Mujtahid himself. Once a person becomes Mujtahid, then he can follow
his own opinions.
         However, to become a Mujtahid is not a easy job. It means spending a major part of your
life in studying the shari’ah laws. A Mujtahid must, first of all, study the Arabic language, and
then he must study the method of using the Qur’an and the hadith for finding the shari’ah laws.
This sounds easy; but remember that there are hundreds of verses of the Qur’an and thousands of
hadith, which he must study before he can be sure that he has reached to the right conclusion.
This is what happens in Ijtihad:
       Whenever a religious question comes up, the Mujtahid fist refers to the Qur’an. If the
Qur’an gives a clear and detail answer to the issue then it is well and good.
       But if the Mujtahid finds that the Qur’an is silent on the issue or that it has given a
general rule about the issue without referring to details, then he must refer to the hadith of the
ma’sumin. In hadith, first of all, he has to distinguish the true hadith from false hadith; and only
then will he be able to know the Islamic view on the particular issue.

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                         RECOMMENDABLE ACTS OF WUZU

       You already know how to do wuzu; and also know what are the wajib parts of wuzu. In
today’s lesson, you will learn about the acts, which are recommendable (mustahab) during the
          1.     To begin with bis-mil-lahir rahmanir rahim.
          2.     Washing the hands two times before washing the face.
          3.     Gargling three times before washing the face.
          4.     Rinsing the nose three times before washing the face.
          5.     While washing the face and the right forearm, it is recommended to wash each
                 part twice before proceeding to the next stage of wuzu. This recommendation
                 does not cover the washing of the left fore-arm.
                  You should realize that washing these organs of wuzu once is wajib, while
          washing them twice is recommendable: but to wash them for the third time is forbidden
          (haram). However, counting the first and the second washing depends on your own
          intention. And so, it is possible that a person may pour water on his right fore-arm five
          times and wipe his left hand on it twice, and still count this washing as the first one.
          6.     It is recommended for men to start washing their forearms from the apparent side
                 of the arms, and for women to start washing their forearms from the inner side.
          7.     The masah of the head can be done with one finger only. But it is recommended
                 to use three fingers together.
          8.     Reciting the special du’as at various stages of the wuzu. In this lesson, you will
                 learn only two of those du’as:
          • At the time of washing the face:
                 Allahumma bayyiz waj-hiy yawma tusawwidul wujuh;
                 Wa la tusawwid waj-hiy yawma tubayyizul wujuh.
                 O Allah! Brighten my face on the day (of Judgement) when you will disgrace the
                 faces; and do not disgrace my face on the day when you will brighten the faces.
          • At the time of wiping the head:
                 Allahumma ghash-shiniy bi rah-matika wa bara-katika wa ‘af-wika.
                 O Allah! Cover me with your mercy, your blessing and your pardon.

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                                   GENERAL RULES ABOUT GHUSL

       You already know the method of performing ghusl and its important rules. In this lesson,
you will learn some general rules about ghusl.
1. The case of more than one ghusl: Ghusl, or the major ablution, is of various types. If more
then one ghusl becomes wajib on a person, then one ghusl with the Niyyat of them will be
sufficient. For example, if a person had to do ghusl mass-e mayyit and ghusl for a nazr, then he
can do one ghusl with the Niyyat of both- mass mayyit as well as nazr.
2. Wuzu after ghusl: all the ghusl- except ghusl for medium istihaza- suffices the performer
from wudu. So a person who had done ghusl janabat can pray without doing wuzu. However,
this is valid provided none of the nawaqiz of wuzu takes place, then that person will have to do
wuzu before praying.
3. Nawaqiz of wuzu during ghusl janabat: If one of the nawaqiz of wuzu takes place during
ghusl janabat, then one must do the ghusl again. In such cases, it is recommended to do wuzu
before praying.
4. Nawaqiz of wuzu during other ghusls: if one of the nawaqiz of wuzu takes place during
other ghusls, the ghusl will not be affected. However, in this case, the person must do wuzu
before praying.
5. Doubts in ghusl:
          (a) Before washing the right side of the body, if one doubts whether or not he has washed
          the head and the neck, then he should start again from the beginning.
          (b) But if this doubt occurs after the person had started washing the right   side of his
          body, then he should just disregard his doubt.
          (c) While washing the left side of the body, if a person doubts whether or not he has
          washed the right side, then he should wash the right side and then wash the left.
6. Ghusl Jabirah: If a person has a bandage on his body, then how should he or she do ghusl?
Such a person will do ghusl jabirah- ghusl on a bandage or a splint. Ghusl jabirah can be done
by observing the rules of wuzu jabirah. The rules are as follows:
          a. One should lift the bandage and wash the wound normally;
          b. Or one should wash only around the wound or over the bandage.


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                                        HOW TO DO GHUSL

       “Ghusl”, in Arabic, means washing or taking a bath. In Islamic laws, ghusl is an
ablution: a religious act of cleanliness just like wuzu.
       In wuzu, you only wash your face and forearms, whereas in ghusl you wash your whole
body. Because of this difference, wuzu is known as a “minor ablution” whereas ghusl is known
as a “major ablution,”
          In today’s lesson, you will learn the manner of doing ghusl.
       There are two ways of doing ghusl: one is known as ghusl tartibi, and the other is known
as ghusl irtimasi.

        “Ghusl tartibi” means an ordinal bath, a bath done in three stages. Ghusl tartibi is just
like taking a shower in a particular order.
      After washing away the najasat from the body and after Niyyat, the body has to be
washed in three stages:
          1. First, head to the neck;
          2. Then the right side of the body from the shoulder down to the foot;
          3. Finally, the left side of the body from the shoulder down to the foot.
        Each part should be washed thoroughly in such a way that the water reaches the skin.
Special care should be taken while washing the head—the hair should be combed (e.g., with your
fingers) so that water reaches the hair-roots.
        While washing the right side of the body, some parts of the left side must be washed too,
and also while washing the left side of the body, some parts of the right side must be washed.
This is done so that you may become sure that you have washed all the parts of your body.

        “Ghusl irtimasi” means a bath involving immersion of the whole body in the water. It is
obvious that such a ghusl can only be done in a body of water, for example, a pool, river, lake or
sea. It is not like taking a shower.
       After washing away the najasat from your body and after Niyyat, the whole body should
be completely immersed in the water all at once, not gradually. For example, you cannot
gradually slide down into the swimming pool; to do ghusl irtimasi, you have to dive into it.
        One has to make sure that water reaches all parts of the body, including hair and the skin
under it. However, ghusl tartibi is preferred to ghusl irtimasi.

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                          RECOMMENDABLE ACTS OF GHUSL

        In the last lesson, you learnt about the two methods of doing ghusl. Today, we shall have
a look at the things, which are recommendable (mustahab) during the ghusl.
The recommendable acts of ghusl are as follows:
1. Washing both hands up to the elbows three times before the ghusl.
2. Gargling three times before the ghusl.
3. During ghusl, it is sunnat to wipe the hands on the whole body to ensure that every part has
been thoroughly washed.
4. While washing the head, it is sunnat to comb the hair with the fingers to ensure that the water
reaches the hair-roots.


The recommendable acts are in italics typeface:
1. Remove the najasat from the body.
2. Niyyat.
3. Wash the hands lip to the elbows three times.
4. Gargle three limes.
5. Wash the head down to the neck; wipe your hand on the face and neck and comb the hair with
your fingers.
6. Wash the right side of your body from the shoulder down to the feet; including some part of
the left side also. While washing, the body with your hand.
7. Wash the left side of your body from the shoulder down to the feet; including some part of
the right side also. While washing, wipe the body with your hand.

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                                      GHUSL JANABAT

       Janabat means a major impurity, which prevents one from performing salat and some
other acts of worship. The person on whom this ghusl becomes wajib is known as junub. The
Qur’an says:
          O you who believe! Do not go near prayers (salat) when you are....Junub until you have
          washed yourselves. (4:43)
          O you who believe! When you stand up for prayers (salat)....if you are junub, then purify
          (yourselves). (5:6)

The causes of Ghusl Janabat

There are two causes of janabat:
1. Discharge of semen. It does not make any difference whether this discharge is while awake
or in a wet dream, slight or profuse, intentionally or otherwise, in lawful way or unlawful (e.g.,
masturbation). In all these cases ghusl is wajib.
2. Sexual intercourse. It does not make any difference whether the intercourse was lawful or
unlawful (e.g., adultery), with or without discharge of semen. In the definition of the shari’ah,
sexual intercourse is established by just the penetration of the glans into the vagina or anus of the
     In case of sexual intercourse, ghusl janabat becomes wajib on both the man and the

The things which are HARAM for a junub

The following things are haram for the junub before performing the ghusl:
1. Touching the writings of the Qur’an, the names and attributes of Allah, the names of the
prophet, the Imams and Fatima (the daughter of the Prophet).
2. Reciting these verses of the Qur’an in which Sajdah (prostration) is wajib, i.e., verse 15 of
chapter 32; verse 15 of chapter 41; verse 62 of chapter 53; and verse 19 of chapter 96. It is better
not to recite even a single verse from these chapters.
3. Entering or staying in the mosque. One can pass through the mosques (by entering from one
door and leaving from the other) except the Masjid’l- Haram (the sacred Mosque at Mecca),
Masjidu’n-Nabi (the Mosque of the Prophet at Medina), and the shrines of the imams — in these
places a junub cannot even pass through them.
4. Leaving something in or taking it out from a mosque.

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The things which are Makruh for a junub

The following things are makruh (disliked) for the junub:
1. Eating and drinking is makruh for a junub except after wudu’ or gargling or rinsing the nose
2. Reciting more than seven verses from the Qur’an. This applies to the verses other than the
four verses with wajib Sajdah mentioned above.
3. Touching the cover of the Qur’an.
4. Sleeping except after doing wudu’.

The acts whose validity depend on Ghusl Janabat

1. Salat (prayers) except Salatu‘l-mayyit (the prayer for a dead Muslim) which can be performed
even in the state of janabat.
2. Wajib tawaf (the circumambulation of the Ka’bah in hajj).
3. Fasting. If someone knowingly remains junub up to dawn in Ramadan, his fasting will
become invalid (batil).

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Important terms
Imam – The leader of the prayers
Mamoom – The follower, Mamoomeen is the plural.

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Minimum Number required for a Congregational prayer is two

Islam emphasizes the congregational prayers and the stress is on Salataul Fajr, Maghrib and Isha.
Emphasis is also high on the people living in the vicinity of a Mosque as the Mosques will be
given the permission to intercede on the Day of Judgement for those who prayed in it, kept it
clean, looked after it and used it effectively.

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Discipline of the Congregational prayers
   1. Straight lines behind the Imam
   2. Stand Shoulder to shoulder
   3. Complete lines before starting another one
   4. No wordly talk or social talk during Azan and in Iqamah when Qad Qaamatis Salah is
       pronounced, one should immediately stand up for Salah
   5. You are not allowed to say the Takbir or perform any action BEFORE the Imam. You
       can go ahead of the Imam while reciting the Dhikr. If you do raise your head from the
       Ruku or Sajdah before the Imam then you have to go back to the action.
   6. It is important for you to be connected to the Imam of the Jamaat at all times. The flow of
       the connection begins from the Imam, directly to the Mamoom behind me and then to the
       sides and the back. If ladies join, then they can stand at a certain distance or behind a
       curtain or partition. If they are on another floor, then the lady should be able to see the
       Imam or the people praying to maintain the connection.

How to pray Namaz Jamaat
  1. Make your intention that you will be reciting the Namaz as Jamaat
  2. Do your Takbir after the Imam
  3. Do not recite the Surahs ( it is highly recommended to recite any Dhikr at this time )
  4. Recite all Dhikr of th Ruku, Sajdah, Tashahud, Tasbihate Arbaa and Salam
  5. End prayer with the Imam

If you join late
    1. If you enter the Mosque and the Imam is already in the Qiyam (reciting Surahs of in the
        first 2 rakats), then you can join by doing your niyyat and Takbiratul Ehram.
    2. If you get there just in time for Ruku then do your Takbir and go straight to the Ruku
    3. If you join after the first Rakat then, you will be one Rakat behind the Imam so when the
        Imam sits for Tashahud, you should sit on all fours, indicating that you will be getting up
        soon and you can recite the Tashahud as well and when the Imam gets up, you need to
        recite your Surah , atleast Surah al Hamd before you go to Ruku. The same position will
        be followed when the Imam is in his last Rakat and you are not.
    4. If you enter the Mosque and you see the Salam being recited then do your Takbiratul
        Ehram and sit for the Tashahud with the Imam and then get up and start his first Rakat.
        You will still get the Sawab of reciting in Jamaat

On the next page is a picture to help you out…

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Friday Prayers
Definition : These are the prayers recited at the time of Zohr on Friday. It consists of 2 rakahs
and two sermons. In the absence of our Imam, it is Wajib Takhiri to pray it (optional Wajib).
You can choose to pray Zohr or Namaz Jumah as Zohr is not necessary if Namaz Juma is prayed.

Juma prayers become wajib when
   1. Time for Juma has set in, this is the earlier part of Zohr. If it is much delayed then Namaz
      Jumah time will be over and Zohr will have to be prayed
   2. The number of people joining should atleast be five though seven is recommended as a
   3. Imam should fulfil the conditions of leading the prayers.

Conditions for the validity of Friday prayers
  1. Prayers should be offered in congregation
  2. 2 sermons should be delivered. The first one would talk about Allah and praise Him and
      exhort the people to observe piety, talk about current affairs and then recite a Surah from
      the Holy Quran. The Imam then sits down and stands up again for the second sermon
      which would praise Allah, invoke peace and blessings on the Masumeen and as a
      recommended precaution seek forgiveness from the believers. The sermons are to be
      recited Before the Prayers. The Imam of the prayers will be doing the sermon. It is
      recommended that the second Khutbah be in Arabic.
  3. The distance between the 2 places where Namaz Juma are offered should not be less than
      3 miles.

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The Nawafil Prayers
These are Mustahab prayers, which have been recommended for Muslims
and have much merit.

Our Aimmah (A) have said that one of the signs of the believers is that he
performs Nafila Prayers, so that if for any reason the Wajib Salaat are not
performed correctly on account of forgetfulness, the Nafila Prayers make
good the lapse by substituting the errors in the Wajib Salaat.
Hence, in order to win the pleasure of Allah these prayers should be
performed in the same way as the Wajib Salaat, for Salaat is the highest
virtue of a believer.

There are 34 Raka'ats in total. How they are divided is explained below:
1. 2 Raka'ats are to be recited before Fajr Salaat.
2. 8 Raka'ats are to be recited before Dhohr Salaat.
3. 8 Raka'ats are to be recited before Asr Salaat.
4. 4 Raka'ats are to be recited after Maghrib Salaat.
5. 2 Raka'ats are to be recited after Eisha Salaat; these 2 Raka'ats have to
be offered sitting making it equivalent to 1 Raka'at standing.
6. 11 Raka'ats are to be offered at Midnight this Mustahab Salaat is called
All those Nafila prayers that have more than 2 Raka'ats have to be offered in
sets of 2 Raka'ats. The method of praying is the same as Salaat-e-Fajr.

The most important and highly recommended prayer amongst the Mustahab
prayers is Salaat-e-Shab.
Another name for Salaat e Shab is Salaat-e-Tahajjud.
The recitation of Salaat-e-Shab brings a lot of blessings and one gets many
benefits most of which are enjoyed after death.

1. Allah is pleased with him/her.
2. The angels keep friends with him/her.
3. It is the light of knowledge.
4. It is the root of faith.
5. It keeps one physically fit.
6. Devils keep away from him.
7. The enemies cannot harm him.
8. One's Duas and good deeds are accepted.
9. It intercedes with the angle of death.
10. One's livelihood is increased.
11. It provides comfort in the grave.
12. It will help in answering the questions in the grave.
13. It will act as a barrier against the fire of Hell.

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14. On The Day of Judgement, it will be the cause for forgiveness from
15. It will make the crossing of Siraat easier.
16. It is the Key to Heaven.
It should be prayed anytime after midnight and before Subhe Sadiq. The best
time is in the last hours of the night and just before dawn, so that one can
pray Salaat e Fajr once it is Subhe Sadiq.

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                             DOUBTS IN THE PRAYERS

There are 22 kinds of doubts, which one can have while praying. Out of these, 7 doubts are
those, which invalidate the prayers, and 6 are those, which should be ignored. And the
remaining 9 doubts are valid doubts.

Doubts which make Prayers void
The following doubts make prayers void:
1. Doubts about the number of Rak’ats occurring in obligatory prayers, which consists of 2
rakats, like Fajr prayers, or prayers offered by a traveler.
2. Doubts about number of Rakats occurring in prayers consisting of 3 Rak’at or more.
3. A doubt occurring in prayers of 4 Rak’ats as to whether one has performed one Rak’at or
4. Doubt in prayers of 4 Rak’ats before going to the second Sajdah, as to whether he has
performed 2 Rak’ats or more
5. Doubts between 2 and 5 Rak’ats or between 2 and more than 5 Rak’ats.
6. Doubts between 3 and 6 Rak’ats or between 3 and more than 6 Rak’ats.
7. Doubt between 4 and 6 Rak’ats or between 4 and more than 6 Rak’ats, with the details which
will come later.

Six types of doubts, which should be ignored
1. Doubt about an act whose time of performance has already passed, like during Ruku a person
doubts as to whether he did or did not recite Surah al- Hamd.
2. Doubt about any act of the prayer after completing the prayer i.e. after saying the salaam of
3. Doubt after the time of prayers has already passed. (e.g. doubt at Maghrib if one had done
prayers in the day.)
4. Doubt by the Imam (one who leads the congregation prayers) about the number of Rak’ats
when the ma’mum (follower) is aware of the number. And similarly the doubts of the ma’mum
when the Imam knows the number of Rak’ats.
5. Doubt of a person who doubts too much
6. Doubt, which occurs in Mustahab prayers and Namaz of Ihteyat.

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Doubts which are valid
There are nine situations in which a person can have doubts about the number of Rak’ats in the
Namaz consisting of four Rak’ats. In those situations, one should pause to think, and if he arrives
at any decision or probability, he should act accordingly. If doubt persists, he should follow
these rules.
1. After the second Sajdah of the second Rak’at if a person doubts whether he has performed 2
Rak’ats or 3, he should assume that he has performed 3 Rak’ats, and finish the prayers after
performing one more Rak’at. And after finishing the prayers he should offer, as an obligatory
precaution, 1 Rak’at of Namaz-e-Ihtiyat, standing.
2. If after the second Sajdah of the second Rak’at, a person doubts whether he has performed 2 or
4 Rak’ats, he should decide that he has performed 4 Rak’ats, and finish his prayers. He should
then stand up to offer 2 Rak’ats of Namaz-e-Ihtiyat.
3. If a person doubts, after the second Sajdah of the second Rak’at, whether he has performed
2,3, or 4 Rak’ats, he should decide that he has performed 4 Rak’ats. After completing prayers, he
should perform 2 Rak’ats of Namaz-e-Ihtiyat standing, and 2 Rak’ats in the sitting position.
4. If a person doubts after the second Sajdah of the second Rak’at as to whether he has
performed 4 or 5 Rak’ats, he should decide that he has performed 4 Rak’ats and finish his
prayers. After that he should perform two sajdatus sahv. And this rule applies to every situation
of doubt between four and more Rak’ats.
5. If a person doubts at any stage during his prayers, whether he has performed 3 or 4 Rak’ats, he
should decide that he has performed 4 Rak’ats and finish his prayers. Thereafter he should offer
Namaz-e-Ihtiyat of 1 Rak’at standing or of 2 Rak’ats in the sitting position.
6. If a person doubts while standing, as to whether he has performed 4 Rak’ats or 5, he should sit
down and recite tashahud and the Salam of prayer. Then he should stand up to offer Namaz-e-
Ihtiyat of 1 Rak’at, or 2 Rak’ats while sitting.
7. If doubts, while standing, whether he has performed three or five Rak’ats he should sit down
and read tashahhud and Salam to finish the prayers. After that, he should offer 2 Rak’ats of
Namaz-e-Ihtiyat standing.
8. If a person doubts while standing, as to whether he has offered 3, 4 or 5 Rak’ats, he should sit
down and recite tashahud and the salam of prayers. Thereafter he should offer Namaz-e-Ihtiyat
of 2 Rakats standing, and another 2 Rak’ats in the sitting position.
9. If a person doubts, while standing, whether he has performed 5 or 6 Rak’ats, he should sit
down and recite tashahhud and Salam of prayers. Thereafter, he should perform two sajdatus
sahv. In all the foregoing situations one should, as a recommended precaution, also offer two
sajdatus sahv for an extra qiyam.

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                                  How to do Sajda-e-Sahv

Soon after finishing Salaat, Niyyat should be done as follows:
“I do Sajda-e-Sahv in lieu of Tashahhud (or Salaam or Sajdah or Qiyam etc as the case may be)
Wajib Qurbatan Ilallah”
Then Sajdah should be done. In Sajdah you have to say once “Bismillahe wa billahe Assalamu
alaika aiyuhan Nabiyyu wa rahmatullahe wa barakatuh”
Then raise your head, sit properly, go to Sajdah second time; recite the above mentioned Zikr
once; sit down properly read Tashahhud and Salaam.
If you have forgotten tashahhud or one Sajdah in the Salaat, it is Wajib to do it Qaza at once after
Salat, then the Sajda-e-Sahv is to be done just after the Qaza Tashahhud or Sajdah.
If after the prayer, but before the Qaza of Sajdah or Tashahhud any of such actions is done which
invalidate the prayer (like turning away from Qibla), it is necessary to do the Qaza and Sajda-e
Sahv (as required) and then to repeat the prayer.

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During the month of Ramadhan, we become familiar with the experience of poor and needy
people. The poor men, women and children stay hungry not because they have to do so, but
because they do not have food. By fasting Allah wants us to realize two things:
          • To appreciate the blessings which He has given to you
          • To be charitable towards the poor and needy people
As if to reinforce this idea in our minds, Allah has introduced the tradition of “Zakatu‘l-Fitra”.
Zakatu’l-Fitra is a wajib charity which must be paid at the end of Ramadhan on the day of
‘Iddu’l Fitr.
By paying Zakatu’l-Fitra, we actually share our happiness with the poor and needy people on the
day of ‘Idd. At least on the day of ‘Idd, the poor people will have something to eat and feel the
happiness of that joyful day. It is also a forced training to share Allah’s blessings with the less
fortunate people.

Zakatu’l-Fitra is wajib on every Baligh and affluent person. “Affluent” means anyone who can
provide the necessary expenses of his self and his dependents for a year.
Therefore, anyone who cannot provide for himself and his dependents for a complete year, then
it is not wajib for him/her to pay Zakatu’I-Fitra. Rather, he/she is eligible to receive Zakatu’l-
Fitra from others.

Zakatu’l-Fitra becomes wajib at the time of Maghrib on the eve of’Iddu’l-Fitr.
Those who will pray salatu’l-’idd must pay before saying that salat.
Those who will not pray salatu’l-’idd must pay before noon of’Iddu’l-fitr.

You have to pay Zakatu’l-Fitra from the food stuff used most by you during the year. For
example, rice or flour, etc.
It is wajib to pay 3 kilos of the food stuff OR its market value on behalf of the following persons:
1. Self

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2. All those who depend on you:
          a) Whether their expenses is wajib upon you or not;
          b) Whether they are near or far;
          c) Whether they are Muslim or Kafir;
          d) Whether they are adult or minor;
3. An Out of town visitor who arrives before Maghrib on the eve of’Idd.

                               Zakatu’l-Fitra is the Moral of Fasting
                       Zakatu’l-Fitra is Thanking Allah for what we have;
                           Sharing His blessings with the poor & needy

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Jihad is the one most important teachings of Islam. The word ‘Jihad” means to work hard or to
strive for something. Jihad should be exclusively in the way of the lord and never for any other
reason. As you already know, jihad is of two types:

1.      THE SOCIAL JIHAD which, sometimes also involves fighting a war against an unjust
ruler. But this can only be done with the permission of a Ma’sum Imam. This jihad is known as
Al-Jihad Al-Asghar — the Minor Jihad.

2.     THE PERSONAL JIHAD which involves a spiritual struggle inside our own hearts and
minds. This jihad is known as Al-Jihad Al-Akbar — the Major Jihad. You do not need any one’s
permission for this jihad. It is an on-going jihad —from the day you mature to the day you die.

What type of jihad is jihad akbar? Who are the fighters?
The spiritual jihad is fought into the hearts and minds of every Muslim. It is a struggle between
two opposite forces:

                            SOUL & MIND            versus DESIRES

In this struggle between your soul/mind and your desires, it is your soul which must win. If your
desires win and control your life, then you have lost this spiritual struggle; You have to start
fighting your desires again.
Islam does not say that you must not fulfill your desires; most human desires are lawful. The
only thing which Islam want from you is to be careful HOW YOU FULFILL YOUR DESIRES.
There always are two way for fulfilling your desires: lawful and unlawful.
For example, food is one of the desires of human beings Islam does not say that do not fulfill this
desire — it wants you to be careful how you fulfill your desire for food: Is it mubah, is it pak,
and is it halal?
Everyone loves money and wants to be rich. Islam does not prohibit that but it says you must be
careful how you get rich: is your job halal, is your money halal?
Ayat 216 in Sura #2 Allah says “fighting (in the cause of Allah), is ordained unto you and it is
hateful to you, and perchance you hate a thing whereas it is good for you, and perchance you
love a thing whereas it is bad for you; and verily Allah knoweth while you know not.”

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                               THE PURPOSE OF JIHAD

Islam is a dynamic, comprehensive school that aims at the rectification of the social and
economic systems of the world in a special manner.
Unlike the beliefs of the ancient Romans, the Jews, and the Nazis, Islam is not restricted to a
certain community of a certain race, but is for all human beings and aims at human prosperity
and salvation. This divine faith requires all Muslims, guided by the holy precepts and
instructions of Islam, to endeavor to rescue the oppressed masses to establish peace and justice,
and to acquaint the unaware people of the whole world with Islam and Islamic rules and
Did Islam prevail by the force of the sword? As a matter of fact, through jihad, the Muslims have
mainly meant to establish connections with the people who are under the oppressive rule of
tyrants, so the oppressed masses would become acquainted with Islamic rules and precepts and
so they would comprehend the glory and genuineness of independence and salvation. The
Muslims are well aware of the fact that the oppressed masses will most willingly accept Islam as
the best divine faith if Islam is correctly explained to them.
The sincere and loyal faith of the Muslims at the beginning of Islam and their resistance to all
torture and hardship are themselves the best testimonies to the fact that Islam was not promoted
by force. History bears witness to this reality that the Muslims at the beginning of Islam were so
devoted to their faith that they persevered in it through their struggles no matter what torture and
torment the infidels inflicted upon them. Many of them even left their homeland and migrated to
other places. All of them tolerated all the pains and torture and did not leave their faith even for
a single moment We see therefore very clearly how the accusation that Islam prevailed by force
and by the law of the sword is false and far from the truth.
Having found no weak point in Islam, the opponent of this divine religion obviously resorted to
such accusations to stain Islam, unaware of the fact that Islam prevails because it is the most
supreme divine faith, perfectly compatible with human nature. It gives shelter to the oppressed,
deprived masses and presents solutions to all problems facing human beings, whether they be in
the material, spiritual, emotional, educational, or political realms.
Unlike the self-centered rulers and kings all over the world who embark on wars for expansionist
purposes, for the plunder of other people’s wealth and natural resources, the Prophet of Islam
refuses to resort to the sword and fighting unless it was necessary and unavoidable. Instead, he
advanced carrying torch of the Holy Book and the divine law’s and would get involved in war
only to remove stumbling blocks- to hinder oppression and tyranny, and to hoist the flag of
justice and truth. He only fought to bring about conditions of justice and equity under which
human beings could materialize the ideology of world peace and mutual understanding. Can such
a war be considered illegitimate and unjust? It goes without saying that such struggles are
necessary and that no Prophet could avoid combating those who intend to bring ruin on human
societies and cause corruptions and social decay. No doubt any wise, humanitarian person
accepts such a combat and admires it because there is no other way to achieve the sacred ends of
the Prophets.

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                                              PART I

The most important pillars of the Islamic doctrine, from the practical and conceptual point of
view, which motivate Muslims and make them conscious, free, honorable and socially
responsible, are:

Tawheed          - the existence of oneness of God.
Jihad            - Encouraging people to do good deeds and to avoid wrong deeds.
Hajj             - Mans evolution towards Allah. It is a show of creation; history; unity;   Islamic
          ideology; Umma.

Qur’an XXII: 27 (Ibrahim’s command)
“And call upon the people for Hajj. They will come to you on their bare feet or riding any weak
camel and they come to you from every far desert.”
Before departing to perform Hajj, all of your debts should be paid especially ‘Khums and Zakat’
your hates and angers towards relatives or friends must disappear. A will must be drawn. All of
these gestures are an exercise in the preparation for death. On the day of resurrection when “you
can do nothing” in Allah’s court where “your eyes, ears and heart are the best witnesses of what
you have done.

Qur’an XVII:36
“You and every organ of your body are responsible for your deeds. While you are in his ‘house
of correction’ get ready for the ‘house of justice’.”
Exercise death before you die- Go To Hajj.
The importance of Hajj, once in a lifetime is incumbent upon you if you meet the following
1.        Baligh (Male 15 years’ of age; Female 9 years’ age)
2.        Aakil (sound mind)
3.        Healthy (Healthy enough to travel & perform Hajj)
4.        Expenses (Able to defray expenses for the return journey, and in case of dependants- able
          to have one years’ means to maintain dependants).

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Wajib Hajj consists of two parts:
1.        Umre Tamattu (for entering Mecca);
2.        Hajje Tamattu (during 5th to 12th Dhilhaj).

Umre Tamattu can be performed either in Shawwal, or Dhilkaad or Dhilhaj which are called
months of Hajj.
Hajje Tamattu must be performed from 5th to 12th Dhilhaj. Both must be performed in one and
the same seasonal year.

Ihram for men consists of two pieces of cloth:
          1. To cover oneself from Naval (waist) to the knees.
          2. To cover oneself from the shoulders to the elbows.
During the state of Ihram, it is necessary to wear continuously. The upper portion, however can
be put aside if felt like doing it. Appropriate Hijab is required for women performing Hajj.

Umre Tamattu is performed by 5 wajib items:
1.        Niyyat, Ihram, and Talbiya at Mikate Sharib;
2.        Tawaf of Khane Kaaba after entering Mecca;
3.        2 Rakat Namaz of Tawaf at Makame Ibrahim or nearby;
4.        Saee (i.e. to go and return seven times between Safa and Marwa);
5.        Taqseer.

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Hajje Tamattu is performed by 13 Wajib items:
1.        9th Zilhaj: Niyyat, Ihram and Talbiya all in Mecca, preferably at Makame Ibrahim;
2.        9th Zilhaj: to be present in Arafat from Zuhr to Maghrib;
3.        9th and 10th Zilhaj: to be present in Mash’ar (Muzdalifa from Fajr (dawn) of 9th Zilhaj
          until sunrise of 10th Zilhaj);
4.        10th Zilhaj: To hit Jamrae Akaba seven times with one pebble at each time at Mina;
5.        10th Zilhaj: Sacrifice; Kurbani at Mina
6.        10th Zilhaj: Taqseer or Halak at Mina;
7.        10th,11th & 12th Zilhaj: Tawafe Haj
8.        2 Rak’at Namaz of Tawaf at Makame Ibrahim;
9.        Saee’: seven times between Safaa and Marwa;
10.       Tawafun Nisaa;
11.       2 Rak’at Namaz of Tawafun Nisaa at Makame Ibrahim (night to be spent in Mina);
12.       11th Zilhaj: Hit the three Jamarats seven times each
13.       Depart from Mina after Zuhr.

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                                           PART II

Hajj begins from Miquat. At this point you must change your clothes. Why? Because your attire
covers you as well as your character. Clothes symbolize pattern, preference, status and
distinction. They create superficial “boarders” which cause “separation” between people. In most
cases, separation between people gives birth to discrimination. The concept of “I”, not “We”
emerges. Adam’s descendants, Cain and Abel, (sons of Adam and Eve) have split the mankind’s
unity into many parts, and factions such as; master and servant, oppressor and oppressed,
colonist and colonized, exploiter and exploited, strong and weak, rich and poor, civilized and
uncivilized, Eastern and Western Arab and Ajam (non- Arabs).
Hence, at the start of Hajj, you take off your clothes and leave them at Miqat. You now wear the
Kafan (the shroud for the dead), which consists of plain white material. You will be dressed like
everyone else. See the uniformity appear. Be practical and join the mass; as a drop enters the
ocean. At Miqat, regardless of your race or tribe you must drop off all the covers you wore in
your daily life.
There are certain things you are expected to avoid while in the state of Ihram. All worldly
matters belonging to the life before Miqat are tabooed. When in Mecca you will see a city that
resembles a huge bowl and circled on all sides by mountains. Every valley, street, and alley faces
the floor of this great house, Ka’ba is in the Centre, you will see a humongous crowd flooding
downhill to the Masjid ul Haraam, like a white river. Amidst all this you feel like a drop. It is
only through humility and obedience that you can approach glory and dignity, finally reaching
eminence. In other words, you do not search for Allah in the sky, nor through metaphysics, but
rather the search is conducted on the earth. He can be seen in the depth of matter and even in the
Ka’ba is only a cornerstone, a sign to show the road. When you begin Hajj, it is an eternal
movement towards Allah, and not towards the Ka’ba.
Qur’an III: 96
“Lo! The first sanctuary appointed for mankind was that at Bekka (Mekka), a blessed place, a
guidance to the people.”
Remember you are not allowed to enter this sacred house, if you are still self-attached, that is
thinking of yourself. Hajj represents your return to Allah, the Absolute, who has no limitations
and none is like him.

Niyyat of Wearing Ihram
“I am becoming Muhrim (i.e. wearing ihram with it’s 25 conditions to be observed) for Umre
Tammatu for Hajul Islam, Wajib, Adaa, for myself, Qurbatan Ilullah.”
Immediately recite loudly Talbiyya:
“Labbaik, Allahumma Labbaik, Labbaik La Sharika Laka Labbaik...”

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Meaning of Talbiyya:
“Yes here I am o lord, here I am, yes. There is no partner for thee, verily, the Praise and the
bounties are Thine and the dominion is Thine. There is no partner for Thee, Here I am.”
As soon as you have pronounced the Talbiyya, the following 25 things become Haraam
(prohibited) on you.
1.        To hunt either wild, beast or animal of any kind;
2.        To have sexual intercourse, kiss, or caress;
3.        To read Nikkah
4.        Istimna i.e. to discharge semen
5.        To smell perfumes or to apply them to ones body or dresses
6.        To close ones nose from a bad odor or smell
7.        Wearing of sewn dresses, for men-belt for keeping money is allowed;
8.        To apply (collrium (Surma)) to the eyes;
9.        To look into a mirror;
10.       To tell lies, boast, scorn and abuse somebody;
11.       To cover completely the upper part of the heel from the tips of the toes to the ankle;
12.       To swear in the name of Allah;
13.       To kill insects;
14.       To wear a ring (for men), or ornaments (for women) for beauty;
15.       To apply henna (Indian myrtle)
16.       To have your teeth extracted
17.       To take blood from the body;
18.       Covering of faces by any kind of Nikab (cover, cloth, etc.) for women;
19.       Covering of head by men;
20.       Applying oil on body;
21.       Cutting or removing hair from any part of the body;
22.       Cutting of nails;
23.       To uproot or cut leaves or trees in and around Mecca;
24.       Carrying of weapons, such as swords, daggers, guns, etc,;
25.       To be a witness to another persons Nikah.

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                                              PART III

UMRE TAMATTU - Wajibaats
The obligatory duties are 5, as under:
1.        AI-Ihram
2.        At-Tawaf
3.        Namaz-e-Tawaf
4.        As-Saee
5.        At-Taqseer

1.        First clean your body, remove hair, cut nails; Then make Ghusl (Mustahab) with the
          following 5 Niyyats:
          I) To wear Ihram for Umre Tamattu;
          ii) To enter the Haram of Mecca;
          iii) To enter the city of Mecca;
          iv) To enter Masjidul Haraam
          v) To Make Tawaf of Khanae- Ka’ba
2.        Put your Ihram clothes as if you are wearing your normal clothes and depart from Jeddan
          to Johfa in an open car or bus.
3.        At Johfa, do your Niyyat of wearing ihram as follows: I am becoming Mohrim for Umre
          Tamattu, for Hajjul Islam, Wajib, Adaa, for myself, Qurbatan Ilullahi Ta’ala.
Immediately recite loudly Talbiyya as under:
“Labbaik, Allahumma Labbaik, Labbaik La Sharika Laka Labbaik. Innal Hamda Wanni ‘mata
Laka Wal Mulka, La Sharika Laka Labbaik.”
“Yes here I am o lord, here I am, yes. There is no partner for thee,Yes, here I am, verily, the
Praise and the bounties are Thine and the dominion is Thine. There is no partner for Thee, Here
I am.”

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1.        After entering Mecca it is your first duty to perform the Tawaf of Khanae-Ka’ba.
2.        The following six conditions must be fulfilled for Tawaf to be valid;
          i)      Taharat-Wajib Ghusl, Wuzu must be done before commencing Tawaf
          ii)     Body and Clothes must be clean, free from Najasaat;
          iii)    Circumcision- You must have been circumcised;
          iv)     Body-adequately covered by cloth to hide genital organs as required in Namaz;
          v)      Ihram clothes must be Mubah, i.e. your own property, free from debts; Khums,
                  Zakat, etc.;
          vi)     Niyyat- I am making Tawaf of this Khanae-Ka’ba Seven times for Umre Tamattu,
                  for Hajjul Islam, wajib Qurbatan Ilullah.

3.        Requirements and Obligations for Tawaf:
          i)      Commence the circumambulation at Hajare Aswad, particularly a couple of steps
                  before it, and finish the seventh round at Hajare Aswad, preferably one or two
                  steps after it. Your left shoulder must face towards Hajare Aswad.
          ii)     During Tawaf, your left shoulder should always be directed towards the Ka’ba.
          iii)    Include a semi- circular adjoining one wall of Khanae Ka’ba, known as Hajare
                  Ismail (the graves of prophet Ismail, his mother Hajira, and many other Prophets).
          iv)     The Tawaf should be made over the area between the Ka’ba and Maqame Ibrahim
                  i.e. within a radius of 40 feet from the Ka’ba.
          v)      Doubt- if you are in doubt about the number of rounds, then the Tawaf is Batil,
                  and you have to make a new one.
          vi)     Tawaf is to be performed outside of the boundaries of the Ka’ba and the walls of
                  Hajare Ismail
          vii)    Seven rounds only, no more, no less.
          viii)   Muwalat- the seven rounds to be carried in continuity, without stop or break.

Perform immediately after Tawaf, behind Maqame Ibrahim, or place nearest there to. Namaz
consists of two Rakat like morning prayers.
“I pray two Rakat Namaze Tawaf for Umrae Tamattu for Hajjul Islam Qurbatan Ilallah.”

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After Namaze Tawaf of Khanae Ka’ba proceed to Safaa.
“I walk in between Safaa and Marwa seven times for Umrae Tamattu for Hajjul Islam in
compliance with the order of Almighty God.”
Start at Safaa and walk towards Marwa. When you reach Marwa, it is one trip. Go back and
forth, your seventh trip will end at Marwa. Maintain continuity and walk with your body facing
the front (no turning! walking backwards).

Cutting a bit of your hair or nail.
“I perform Taqseer to become Munhil (to make Halal for myself whatever was forbidden on me
from Ihram of Umrae Tamattu, wajib, in compliance with the orders of Almighty God.”

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                                            PART IV
The obligatory duties in Hajje Tamattu are:
1.        Ihram
2.        Wukufe Arafat
3.        Wukufe Muzdalifa
4.        Tawafulf Hajj
5.        Tawafun Nisa
6.        Tawaful Wida

1.        9th Zilhajj
2.        Niyyat for wearing Ihram:
          “I am becoming Muhrim (i.e. wearing Ihram with it’s 25 conditions to be observed) for
          Hajje Tamattu, Hajjul Islam, Wajib, Qurbatan Ilullahi Ta ‘ala.”
3.        Recite Talbiyya immediately after Ihram.

B. WUKUFE ARAFAAT (To be present at Arafaat)
9th Zilhajj proceed to Arafaat, to arrive not later than Zuhr or Midday. It is compulsory to be
present in Arafaat from Zuhr until Maghrib.
“I am staying in Arafaat from Zuhr to Maghrib Shar ‘ee, for Hajje Tamattu, Hajjul Islam, Wajib,
Qurbatan Ilullah.”

C. WUKUFE MASH’AR (Muzdalifa)
1.        9th and 10th Zilhajj: Depart from Arafaat after Maghrib Shar’ee for Mash’at. Say your
          Maghrib and Isha prayers on arrival.
2.        It is better to pass the night of 9th Zilhajj here, and it is Wajib to be here from Subhe
          Sadiq to Sunrise.
3.        Niyyat for the night:
          “I am passing this night in Mash‘at till Subhe Sadiq, for Hajje Tamattu, Hajjul Islam,
          Qurbatan Ilullah Ta’ala.”

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4.        Niyyat at dawn:
          “I am staying in Mash‘ar from Subhe Sadiq till Sunrise, Wajib, for Hajje Tamattu, Hajjul
          Islam, Qubatan Illullah Ta’ala.”
5.        At Mash’ar, at night, collect 70 small stones (pebbles), preserve them to hit the 3 symbols
          of Satan in Mina.
6.        Say your morning prayers at Mash’ar
7.        After sunrise, proceed to Mina.

1.        10th Zilhajj: After arrivals at Mina proceed to hit Satan (Jamaratil Akabah) Seven times
          with stones gathered at Mash’ar in the previous night. The time allowed is between
          sunrise to sunset.
2.        There are three pillars of stone representing the Satan and all evil that he stands for. They
          are referred to as:
                 Jamaratil Akabah- The stone nearest to Mecca
                 Jamaratil Wusta- the middle stone
                 Jamaratil Uula- The one nearest to Mash’ar
          Niyyat: (to hit the Jamaraats)
          “I am throwing seven stones on Jamaratil Akabah, for Hajje Tamattu, for Hajjul Islam,
          Wajib, Qurbatan Ilullah.”
3.        The stones would be thrown by self, one after the other in IF it misses, the throw must not
          be counted. If in doubt, hit it again. With every throw recite ‘Allahu Akbar’, at the time
          of hitting, face the stone with the Qibla behind.

NOTE: Ladies and sick persons unable to go personally can appoint agents (Naib) to throw their
4.        11th Zilhajj: It is wajib to hit the 3 Jamarats 7 times each between sunrise and sunset, in
          the following order:
          Jamaratul Uula
          Jamaratul Wusta
          Jamaratul Akabah
5.        Spend the night of 11th Zilhajj in Mina.
          “I spend this night in Mina for Hajje Tamattu, Hajjul Islam, Wajib, Qurbatan Ilullahi Ta

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6.        12th Zilhajj: It is wajib to hit the 3 Jamarats 7 times each. The same sequence and Niyyat
          as above should be followed after Zuhr and Asr Prayers, you may return to Mecca if you
          wish. However, if you have not left Mina (and it’s boundaries) by the sunset of 12th
          Zilhajj, then it becomes wajib for you to spend the night of 12th Zilhajj in Mina, and to hit
          the 3 Jamarans once more on 13th Zilhajj, and only then can you leave for Mecca.
7.        Qurbani (Sacrifice)-2nd Wajibat in Mina
          10thZilhajj: Every person must offer a sacrifice separately at daytime. The animal to be
          sacrificed should be a camel over 5 years old, or a cow over 2 years old, or a sheep over 1
          year old.
“I offer this sacrifice for Hajje Tamattu, for HajjuI Islam, Wajib, Qurbatan Ilullah.”
NOTE: If the Hujjaj cannot carry out this sacrifice. However, the agent has to carry out the
proper Niyyat on behalf of the Hujjaj. While sacrificing, the Hujjaj should say, “Bismillahi
Allahu Akbar”.
8.        Taqseer or Halaq- 3rd Wajibaat in Mina.
          10th Zilhajj; Halaq means complete shaving of the head. Halaq was wajib according to
          our previous Mujtahid, Ayatullah Sayyid Muhsin Hakim, while Ayatullah Abul Qasim
          Khui said it is not compulsory as Taqseer is a valid substitute. However, it is
          recommended for people going to Wajib Hajj the complete shaving of the head.
          “I am performing Halaq (or Taqseer) in Hajje Tamattu, Hajjul Islam, Wajib, Qurbalan
          Ilullah Ta ala.”
For ladies, Halak is prohibited, they should perform Taqseer.
E. 1) MECCA: Tawaful Hajj
10th or 11th Zilhajj (or even later)-on arrival in Mecca (from Mina), first perform Tawaf of
Khanae Ka’ba.
“I go around this house seven times for Hajje Taniattu, Hajjul Islam, Wajib Qurbatan IIullah
2) Namaz For Tawaful Hajj
After Tawaful Hajj, pray 2 Rakat Namaze Tawaf at Maqame Ibrahim, or any place nearest to it.
“I pray 2 Rakat Namaz for Tawaf of Hajje Tamattu, Hajjul Islam, wajib, Qurbatan ilullahi Ta
(Namaz same as morning prayers.)
3) Sa’ee (Between Safa and Marwa)

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“I walk between Safa and Marwa seven times for Hajje Tamattu, Hajjul Islam wajib, Qurbatan
Ilullahi Ta ‘ala.”

This Tawaf must be performed; otherwise, the opposite sex will remain perpetually prohibited to
 “I am performing Tawafun Nisa, for Hajje Tamattu, Hajjul Islam, wajib, Qurbatan Ilullahi Ta

3) Namaz for Tawafun Nisa
After Tawafun Nisa, pray 2 Rakat Namaze Tawaf.
“I am praying 2 Rakat Namaz for Tawafun Nisa, Hajje Tamattu, Hajjul Islam, wajib, Qurbatan
Ilullahi Ta ‘ala.”

G. TAWAFUL WIDA- Tawaf of leave or departure
Before departing from Mecca, it is Mustahab to perform Tawaful Wida, with 2 Rakats of Namaz
at Maqame Ibrahim, or nearby, and then pray to Allah that you should come again for Hajj.

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                                     THE ESSENCE OF DU’A

Reference: ‘Oddatul Da’ee (The Asset of Supplication) by Sheikh Ahmed Ibne Fahd Helli

During a classroom session at the Madressah discussing the significance of dua, why we must
rely on dua, and how much Allah (swt) loves to hear us supplicate, one of my students very
innocently asked me, “Teacher, when I ask Allah for something, why doesn’t it come true?”
Though this may seem to be a very simple and perhaps naïve question, there is no doubt as to the
validity of the question. Many a times, we have asked ourselves why it is that our prayers and
supplications remain unanswered.

It is the essence of human nature to be overcome and overwhelmed with constant desires,
deeming it difficult to seek complete satiation or satisfaction. So much so that we often become
blinded by our desires and fail to use our intellect in assessing or evaluating the level of need.
Hence, the famous saying, “Be careful what you ask for, it may come true.” Or, in the words of
the philosopher, thinker, and playwright Oscar Wilde, “There are two tragedies in life: not
getting what we ask for, and getting it.”

Still, the doors of Allah’s (swt) mercy, treasure and endless bounties are always open to His
creatures, for He has promised in the Holy Qur’an: “For your Lord says: Call upon Me, I will
answer you…” (Moamin verse 60). Also, in Baqarah verse 186, Allah (swt) says: “And when
my servants ask you concerning Me, then surely I am very near; I answer the prayer of the
supplicant when he calls on Me…”

DU’A in Arabic means “to call’, or “to invoke” and in Islamic terminology, it means a humble
prayer by a modest person to a Superior. First, we shall look at the value and advantages of
Du’a, as taught to us by our beloved Holy Prophet (saw) and Ma’soomeen (as). Then we shall
discuss the possible reasons why our prayers are not answered, though there are ways to change
this as we have choices and authority over own actions (as we will see later).

Du’a is a powerful tool for a believer when utilized appropriately. Our Holy Prophet (saw)
always stressed the virtue and significance of du’a. He has said:

“Shall I introduce you to a weapon which will protect you both from evils of enemies and
increase your sustenance? Call unto your Lord day and night for DU’A is the weapon of a
believer,” and,

“Du’a is the gist of worshipping.”

He has also said, “The best prayer is Du’a. When God inspires someone with Du’a, He opens
the doors of Mercy to him. A man of Du’a will never become wretched.”

Imam Sadiq (as) has also said, “Du’a is more forceful than a sword.”

A man named Meisar Ibne Abdulaziz was advised by Imam Sadiq (as):

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“Oh Meisar! Do not say to yourself come what may, rather call upon God, for there is a rank
with God man cannot attain without asking for it. If God’s servant closes his mouth and does
not ask anything from Him, nothing will be given to him. Therefore ask God for what you need
so that He will give it to you. Oh Meisar, whoever knocks on His door and persists, will be
allowed in.”

The Holy Prophet (saw) has said: “God bless man who requests something from Him and
persists in it.”

Imam Baqar (as) has said: “Nothing is more praiseworthy to God than a servant’s requests and
no one is more detested than one who refrains from obeying God and asking something from

Du’a is the only successful way to remove afflictions, hardships, misery and despair.

Imam Zainul Abideen (as) has said, “Du’a removes both the present affliction and that which
will appear later.”

Imam Musa (as) has said: “The affliction of a believer who succeeds in DU’A will be soon
removed whereas the affliction of a believer who stops DU’A will last long. Therefore, whenever
an affliction befalls you, supplicate to God.”

One of the revelations sent to Prophet David (as) is as follows:

“Whoever turns to Me and stops having hope in anyone but Me, I will be sufficient for him. I
will give to anyone who requests and answer anyone who calls upon Me.”


Allah (swt) know best!

Before supplication, a believer should always begin his du’a in this manner, “Oh Allah! Fulfill
my desire if it is in my best interest, for only You know best!” If not fulfilling the desire is
preferable to Allah (swt), then He will not fulfill it. Just as we know what is best for our children
as parents, Allah (swt) knows what is good for us and what is not, for He has knowledge of the
unseen and only grants us what He knows will not harm us. A du’a which is not good or
beneficial for the supplicant may not be answered.

The Holy Qur’an says: “It may be that you dislike a thing while it is good for you, and it may be
that you love a thing while it is evil for you, and Allah knows, while you do not know.” (Baqarah
verse 26)

Therefore, we should always leave it up to Allah (swt) and trust Him to do for us what He knows
is best.

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Wrong Articulation of Du’a

Othman Ibne Saeed approached Imam Jafar Sadiq (as) and asked him why his du’as were not
answered. The Imam proceeded to explain to him that even the manner of supplication has
certain requirements, so that the du’a is articulated correctly. When Ibne Saeed asked, “How
should I pray?” the Imam replied:

“Whoever obeys God’s orders and offers his Du’as properly, they will be answered. First,
praise God Almighty, then remember Him and thank Him for His blessings. After that, send
greetings to the Holy Prophet (swt) and his progeny, then confess your sins and beg for His
forgiveness. That is the right way for Du’a.”

The Delay In Answering Du’a

Occasionally we may experience that our du’as take time in being fulfilled. Allah (swt) delays
fulfilling our du’as for many reasons. Perhaps it will not be good for us presently and only Allah
(swt) is aware of any evil or dangerous consequence it may bring. It is also possible that Allah
(swt) is testing our taqwa (piety) and patience: do we become resentful or angry with Him? Do
we continue to persist in asking Him for His Grace, or do we give up and become disappointed?
It is wise to note here that only the weak and proud ever become disappointed in Allah (swt).
This is a form of KUFR and is HARAM. We must always increase our hope and utmost trust in
Allah (swt) and NEVER despair of our Lord’s Mercy, rather always continue to seek from His
bountiful treasures.

Ameer-ul-Mo’mineen, Imam Ali Ibne Abu Talib (as) has said:

“Sometimes God Almighty delays answering du’as so as to give both a greater reward and a
further blessing.”

At other times, the delay in answering the Du’a is due to the servant’s preferred position with
Allah (swt), for He likes to hear the voice of His servant. In this connection, Jafar Ibne Abdullah
Ansari quotes the Holy Prophet (saw) as saying:

“If a servant who is favoured by God supplicates, God says to Jibraeel: Grant his request but
delay it, for I like the sound of his voice, and I wish that he may ask for a long time.”

Therefore, repetition of Du’a may help it to be answered. Nevertheless, you must never become
proud and revere yourself as one of Allah’s favourites. Say to yourself: perhaps the reason of my
Du’a not being fulfilled is because of my sins, denying people’s rights, negligence, hard-
heartedness, or because of lack of good intention towards God which do not allow my deeds to
ascend to heaven. As we read in the Du’a of Kumail every Thursday night, “Allahummagh-
firliy-adhunubal-latee-tughay-urun-ni’am!        Allahummagh-firliy-adhunubal-latee-tah’bisud-
du’aa!”, which translates:

“Oh Allah, forgive me those sins which alter blessings! Oh Allah, forgive me those sins which
hold back blessings!”

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Here we see the importance of taqwa and piety for our du’as to be answered. Begging Allah’s
forgiveness opens up the doors of His mercy and blessings. In Imam Zainul Abideen’s (as)
Book of Supplications entitled “Al-Sahifat al-Kamilat al-Sajjadiyyah” (The Psalms of Islam),
he supplicates:

“My God! By Your Glory, even if You put a chain around my neck, deprive me of Your pardon,
expose my disgrace before the people, give orders to put me into the Fire, and make a
separation between the righteous and me, I will never lose my hope in You, nor will I expel from
my heart the desire of seeking Your pardon and forgiveness, or expel from my heart Your love. I
will never forget Your kindness and Your concealing and hiding my defects.”

Imam Sadiq (as) also said:
“Whoever wishes to supplicate, should first recite salawat, then recite Du’a for the fulfillment of
his desire and finally end the Du’a with salawat, for God is too generous to fulfill two sides of a
du’a and ignore its middle since salawat is accepted by Him.”

The Best Time for Du’a

The following times are the best for supplication:

   •      After the recitation of the Holy Qur’an
   •      During Hajj
   •      During illness
   •      While giving charity
   •      After performing wajib prayers
   •      After being hurt, physically or emotionally
   •      Between Adhaan and Iqamah
   •      While tears are running
   •      Shab-e-Juma (between Thursday night and Friday morning)
   •      Friday

We may be oblivious or unaware of the spiritual significance of the night before Friday, and the
day of Friday itself. Imam Sadiq (as) has said:

“The Sun has not risen on a better day than Friday. When the birds of the sky meet one another
on this day, the greet each other and say, What a good day!”

Imam Baqar (as) has said: “If you decide to give charity, delay it until Friday.”

Imam Baqar (as) has also said:

“Throughout Thursday night and Friday morning, God calls:

Isn’t there any believing servant who calls upon Me until before dawn so that I will grant his
worldly and spiritual requests?

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Isn’t there any believing servant who repents his sins before dawn so that I will forgive him?
Isn’t there any ailing and believing servant who asks Me to heal him before dawn so that I will
heal him?
Isn’t there any believing servant whose sustenance is meager and asks Me to increase it before

Therefore, this is the best time to supplicate, recite du’a and ask for Allah’s (swt) forgiveness,
which is pivotal for having our du’as answered.

Other Factors

There is a great deal of importance attached to the kind of ring we wear. According to the
sayings of our Ma’soomeen (as), two particular stones are highly beneficial: agate (a’qeeq) and
turquoise (firoz). It has been reported on the authority of Imam Raza (as):

“Whoever wears a ring with an agate (a’qeeq), firstly he will not become needy and secondly,
whatever God has destined for him will be good.”

Ameer-ul-Mo’mineen Imam Ali Ibne Abu Talib (as) has said:

“Wear a ring with agate (a’qeeq) so that God will give you blessings and you will be safe from

A man once came to the Holy Prophet (saw) and complained of hardships. The Holy Prophet
(saw) said:

“Why aren’t you wearing a ring with agate (a’qeeq)? This ring will safeguard man from all evil.
Whoever wears a ring with agate will be protected by God forever. No hand raised towards
Allah is more beloved than a hand wearing a ring of agate.”

Allah (swt) has said:

“Performing two raka’ats of prayer wearing a ring of agate is equal to a thousand raka’ats
without it.”

One saying of a Ma’soom (as) says:

“It is good to wear a ring with turquoise (firoz). Turquoise originally comes from Paradise and
Jibraeel brought it for the Messenger of Allah as a gift, and the Holy Prophet (saw) too gave it to
Ali (as) as a gift.”

Du’a For Others

Nothing pleases Allah (swt) more than when we pray for others. Imam Sadiq (as) has said:

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“Whoever recites Du’a for forty believers and then for himself, his Du’a will be fulfilled.” Also,
“A man’s Du’a for his believing brother will have his own sustenance increased and all evils

The Holy Prophet (saw) has said:

“No du’a is more swiftly answered than a du’a recited for others.”

Also, “Whenever you recite Du’a, include others in your Du’a, for it is highly recommended.”

Having said this, in conclusion, one must bear in mind all the requirements necessary for having
one’s du’as fulfilled. There must be sincerity and love in your heart, love and respect for your
fellow Mo’mineen, taqwa and piety, and obeying Allah’s (swt) commands. A critical part of
supplication is first to beg Allah’s (swt) forgiveness for our sins, which deter the fulfillment of
our desires.

Lastly, please let us always remember our fellow brothers and sisters in Islam, our family,
friends and neighbours in our Du’as, as Allah (swt) prefers. For perhaps then, we will find, if
Allah (swt) wills, our deepest wishes just may come true.

Article By Shahana Jafri

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                                 BOYS - KEEPING A BEARD

A beard is considered a feature of beauty and a symbol of manliness. Men should be conscious
of, and cultivate, their masculinity, and women should be conscious of, and cultivate, their
femininity; no sex should imitate the other, because it means an inferiority complex with respect
to the other. For this reason, it is forbidden to shave the beard, but it is not necessary that the
beard should be very long. It is permitted for a man to keep the beard trimmed but not such that
people would say he shaved, or he had just neglected to shave, a medium beard is recommended.
A moustache should not be allowed to grow too long, it should be clipped so that it does not
cover the lips. This may be part of Islam's concern for hygiene and neatness. A beard
distinguishes Muslim men from others. The Prophet commanded Muslims to keep themselves
distinct from, and not imitate, other communities. It is unlawful on the basis of obligatory
precaution to shave one’s beard, and it is also unlawful to get wages for shaving the beard of
another person. However, if a person who does not shave his beard is made a target of ridicule
and has to suffer humiliation which is intolerable in the eyes of the wise persons, it is permissible
for him to shave his beard.

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                               GIRLS - IMPORTANCE OF HIJAB

The importance of Hijab will be briefly discussed in the light of the verses of the
Holy Qur'an on the subject. Allah says:

"Say unto the believer men to cast down their gaze and guard their private parts; that is purer
for them. Verily Allah is Well-Aware of what you do. And say unto the believing women that they
cast down their gaze and guard their private parts; and not to display their adornment (Zeenat)
except what becomes apparent of it; and to draw their headcovers (Khumur) over their neck slits
(Juyoob); and not to display their "Zeenat" except to their husbands… “
                                                                        (An Noor, 24:31,32 part)

The verse first informs men of their duty in Hijab and then the women. Some important words in
the second verse are:

Zeenat: This is something we use to beautify ourselves like clothes, ornaments,       jewellery, etc.

Khumur: These are head covers or scarves.

Juyoob: The neck slit was usually low in Arab dress and the women did not cover their necks. So
in this verse they were ordered to cover their exposed necks with the head covers.

In another verse Allah says:

“O Prophet! Say unto your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers that they
let down upon themselves a robe (Jilbab); so that they may be distinguished, so that they will not
be troubled; Allah is Oft-Forgiving, the Most Merciful.”
                                                                              (Al Ahzab, 33:59)

Here the word Jilbab refers to a covering that is bigger than a head cover and shorter than a
shawl and is designed to cover the head and shoulders. According to the command of Allah, the
coverings for women that form their Hijab is Wajib, and disobedience of this command earns
Allah's anger. The entire body of the woman except hands and face should be covered. The
overall appearance of the dress is that it must be loose so it does not reveal the form of the
woman, and it should not be attractive in a way that it draws the eyes of the people to the wearer.

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Arabic root word “hijaba” means to hide from view or to conceal.

The requirements of Hijaab:

1) cover body parts, arms, legs, feet, private parts, and hair and neck for women, for men,
technically from navel to knees, however, it is preferred that they also expose as little skin as
possible out of respect and dignity.
2) clothing should be loose-fitting and non-revealing as to the shape of the body
3) clothing should be thick, not sheer, see-through or transparent.

Hijaab, apart from modest clothing, is also modest behaviour. Once observing hijaab, for both
men and women, we are not permitted to behave in an immodest manner. We must carry
ourselves accordingly in our actions, our speech, our language, and our daily interactions with
other people, Muslim and non-Muslim alike.

Verses from Holy Quran:

For Muslim men and women, for believing men and women, for devout men and women, for true
men and women, for men and women who are patient and constant, for men and women who
humble themselves, for men and women who give in charity, for men and women who fast (and
deny themselves), for men and women who guard their chastity, and for men and women who
engage much in God's praise -- for them has God prepared forgiveness and great reward.
[ Quran 33:35

“Oh children of Adam! We have bestowed raiment upon you to cover yourselves (screen your
private parts) for the raiment of righteousness is better for you.”

“And say to the believing men that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty, that
will make for greater purity for them: and God is well acquainted with all that they do…

Apart from Quranic verses, we also have various ahadith from our Masomeen, but I will just
mention one from the Holy Prophet (SAW) : the daughter of AbuBakr, Asma, appeared in front
of the Holy Prophet wearing thin clothing. The Holy Prophet (SAW) said to her “Oh Asma,
when a girl becomes baligh, it is not proper that anything should remain exposed except this and
this. He pointed to her face and hands.” (Abu Dawood in Bukhari)

Why wear Hijaab?

   • It is wajib, commanded by Allah swt ( that is reason enough)

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   •      Hijab depicts modesty, eeman, haya, taqwa, humility, and purity
   •      Hijab commands respect from others and distinguishes a Muslim woman from others. It
          is a shield that protects her from harm
   •      Lastly, if none of the above, hijab is a very loud message. It speaks volumes, it says I am
          a proud Muslimah, and I liberate myself from the chains and shackles of male scrutiny. I
          refuse to conform, or surrender to how society defines me, and what Western cultural
          norms dictate to me. Although you wish to see me as merely an object, I will force you
          to see me differently, to appreciate my intellect, my competence and my contributions as
          a productive member of society.
   •      You blantly reject the demands of a MALE DOMINATED SOCIETY!

          As many Hijab wearing, practicing Muslim sisters have already experienced, the Western
          feminist ideology only hurts those who are ready to sacrifice their Next Life for the
          success of the dunya. Our practicing, Hijab wearing sisters have proven time and time
          again that they can wear their Hijab and become teachers, doctors, nurses, accountants,
          principals, economists, professors, etc... On the same level, without sacrificing their
          identity as Muslims; they are accepting the challenge of success while not simultaneously
          sacrificing their Islam.

          For Muslim women, COVERING THE HEAD IS NOT THE SIGN OF
          DEGRADATION or oppression. It is a commandment from Allah, who is not male or
          female, and thus, would not discriminate against women, a segment of His creation.

          Rather, HEAD-COVERING IS A SIGN OF PURITY AND DIGNITY. It highlights the
          Muslim woman as a pure, chaste woman and sets her apart from the immoral behavior
          associated with women who dress immodestly.

          AND THE EVIL THAT EXISTS IN THE WORLD. When a woman wears a hijab she is
          less likely to be harassed by men with lusty motives; SHE IS LESS LIKELY TO BE

          The Hijab allows a woman to move about outside the confines of her home WITH HER
          ATTENTION ON THE TASKS SHE HAS SET OUT TO DO. The Muslim woman does
          not try to impress anyone but Allah when outside of her home. She is not concerned if
          men find her attractive, or if people are impressed because she has the latest fashions, or
          the newest hairstyle. She leaves her home as a SELF-CONFIDENT PART OF HUMAN
          RACE, not as a fashion-plate seeking stares and adoration in order to gain self-esteem.

          The hijab cuts down on competition among women. How many people in the West
          sacrifice financial savings and health in order to have plastic surgery - in a desperate
          attempt to meet up to an unrealistic standard of beauty. IN ISLAM, WOMEN ARE
          SOCIETY. When women wear hijab one finds that the most beautiful women are not
          necessarily the most popular. Rather, a woman is assessed for her mind, and not just
          superficial physical traits.

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                                              Bibi Fatima (a.s)

Name: Fatima - meaning the person who will save people from the fire of hell
Title: az- Zahra'.
Father's name: Muhammad ibn `Abdillah.
Mother's name: khadijah bint khuwaylid.
Birth: Born in Mecca of Friday, 20th jumada ` th-thaaniyah in the fifth year after the declaration of the
prophet - hood (615 AD).
Death: Died at the age of 18 in Medina on 14th Jumadiul Awwal 11 AH ( 632 AD); buried in the
graveyard called Jannatul-Baqi in Medina.

Bibi Fatima a.s is refered to as Sayadatun Nisa il Alameen – Chief of the women of the worlds.
Before her the 4 women chosen were Bibi mariam ,Bibi Asiah and Bibi Hawa , Bibi khadija. She
was also known as Um-e-Abiha – Mother of her father because she would caress the wounds of
her father and would take care of him just like a mother takes care of their children. The Prophet
loved her so much and would respect her because of her knowledge that he would stand up when
she would enter the room.

Bibi Fatima - a role model:
Bibi Fatima is a role model for all women. She showed that a woman in hijab is not backward
but can achieve major heights. Her khutba was such that there was no comparison until Imam Ali
began giving sermons after 25 years, when he became the Khalifatul Muslimeen of all muslims.

A note on hijab: Boys are allowed to talk to girls and vice versa but the conversation should be
minimum and it should not be any loose talk. (unnecessary talk)

Her marriage: It is said Ali and Fatima were made for each other.1st Zilhaj 2.A.H was Imam ali
and Bibi Fatimas marriage.

Tasbihe Fatema: It has been narrated that one day Bibi Fatema went to the house of the Prophet
to ask for a kaniz to help her in the house work. The Prophet asked if he should give her
something better than a kaniz that would help in this world and the next. So he gave her the
tasbih of Bibi Fatema. Bibi Fatema did get a kaniz later on and her behaviour with them was that
one day she would work and the other day the kaniz would work so each would get a day’s rest
in between.

Her children: On Ramadhan 15 , 3 AH Fatima gave birth to her first son. After Al-Hassan was
born Fatima asked Ali to name the baby but Imam Ali a.s said he would not name him before
Allah’s Prophet.

The Prophet replied: I too would not name him before my lord .

At that moment Allah revealed to Gabraeil : A son was born to Muhammad , therefore descend
and give him my blessings and congratulate him and say surely Ali is to you as Haroon was to
musa , so give him (the newborn baby) the name of Haroons son.

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When Gabraeil had revealed the message to the Prophet , he asked “What was Haroons
sons name?

Gabraeil said :Shabbar

The Prophet said “My tounge is arabic”

Gabraeil said: Name him Al -Hassan

Imam Hussain was born on 3rd Shaban 4A.H. the above incident was repeated at the same time
and the Prophet was told to name him Hussein which corresponds to Shabbir of Haroon’s son.

When Gabriel descended to the Prophet, scores of angels accompanied him to congratulate and
console the Prophet for Hussein’s birth and expected martyrdom. The Holy Prophet told Fatima
all about Karbala as everyone listened and cried.

Zainab was born in shaban 5 A.H ,When her mother brought her to Imam Ali for him to name
her. He said he wouldn’t name her before Allah s.w.t’s messenger .At this time the Holy
prophet(s.a.w) was on a trip and when he returned he again refused to name her before his lord .
So Gabriel descended to inform the prophet about Allah s.w.t’s blessing and said : The name of
this baby is Zainab ; Allah chose this name for her .

Zainab means – the father’s beauty and truly she was his beauty as when she gave her sermons in
Kufa, people were reminded of her father.

Bibi Kulsum was the 4th child born to Bibi Fatima. She also shared the relationship with the
Prophet , Imam Ali and Fatima Zahra just like her brothers and sister. She was also present in

The Prophet’s Death and after:
   Omar was surprised and couldn’t believe that the prophet had died. The adopted child Zaid
   bin Haraifa was trying to calm Omar but Omar got angry at him and starting screaming. Abu
   Bakr tried to calm him as well and so omar gradually understood what had happened.

   When the people heard about the Prophet’s death, they were more worried about who would
   be the successor and so they all met at a place called “Saqeefa”. This was an open place,
   without shade where people usually come here to solve their problems. Saqeefa means

   The Muhajireen (people who migrated from Makkah) and the Ansar (people of Madinah)
   were discussing why a member of their group should become the successor of the Prophet.

   When the Muhajirs came to Madina they never brought much so the prophet paired them
   with the Ansaar so they could share stuff. The Ansar claimed they deserved the right to

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   choose a successorfrom one of their ownand the Muhajireen felt the same way, additionally
   they were the first to accept Islam.

   When the Holy Prophet s.a.w died, the Imam gave ghusl and buried the prophet while the
   others were at saqeefa (the meeting at saqeefa where the new qalifa after the prophet would
   be chosen)

   It was here that Umar suggested that Abu Bakr be made Khalifa as he was the first “Man” to
   follow Islam. So everyone paid the allegiance except the few chosen companions who
   believed that Imam Ali was the right Khalifa.

   Abu Bakr and Umar wanted Imam Ali’s allegiance. These people came to the Imams house
   and Bibi Fatima did not open the door. They told her to send the Imam but she said no and
   they burned the door on her and Mohsin who was in the stomach died.

   Abu Bakr and Umar also tried to take fadaq away from Bibi Fatima but Bibi Fatima gave a
   strong sermon that Fadaq was a gift from the prophet but they did not give Fadaq back to her
   as if they accepted her honesty now, they would have to accept it when she said about Imam
   Ali being the Khalifa.

   Fadaq was a gift from the Prophet to Bibi Fatema, it was a village located at a two-day
   walking distance from Madina. It had been gifted to the Prophet by the jews after Khaibar.

   Bibi Fatema went to court to fight for her rights because she wanted the right Islam to come
   to us but alas infiltrations happened. Muawiya taught all the children to give lanat on the
   Imam. We see this incident when one of the men comes to Imam Hassan and says all these
   bad things about that weren’t even true but the Imam never got angry and infact behaved
   with him very nicely that at the end, the man left praising Imam Hasan.

   The House of Grief – Baytul Huzn
   This was the house that Imam Ali built for her so that she could go outside Madina and cry
   for everything that had happened to her.
   She would often say : Such troubles have befallen me that if they were to fall on the day, it
   would be converted to the night.

   Her Will.
   Bibi Fatema narrated this as part of her will
   I ask you not to let anyone who did injustice to me to witness my funeral, for they certainly
   are enemies of mine., and the enemy of Allah’s messenger. Also don’t give them the chance
   to pray over me, not to any of their followers. Bury me at night when eyes are rested and
   sight is put to sleep.

   Her Coffin was designed by Asma bint Umais and Bibi Fatema was really happy with it
   when Asma had shown it to her that she smiled that her hijab would still be protected when
   she died.

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   Bibi Fatema was thus given a quiet funeral on 14 jamadil Awwal ( 75 dyas after the prophet
   died) or 3 Jamadil Akhir (90 days) since there are 2 hadith. She was buried in the darkness of
   the night and Imam Ali dug 4 graves so that people would not know her real grave. This is
   still hidden to us.

   A hadith from Bibi Fatema.
   - Bibi Fatima said- One who sends towards Allah the best of his action, Allah will send to
      them the best of his destiny(maslihat)

Ahadith have also extolled her virtues including her truthfulness, her worship, her modesty and
her knowledge. And the Holy Prophet SAW declared that Bibi Fatema AS is a part of him,
therefore whoever angers her angers him, whoever hurts her hurts him.

On the wafaat and wiladat of Bibi Fatema AS we are advised to:
• Perform ghusl.
• Give alms in the name of Allah SWT.
• Recite Ziyarat of Bibi Fatema AS.
• Recite Ziyarat Jammi-ah Kabeer or Sagheer.
• Perform the prayers of Bibi Fatema AS.
• On the wiladat of Bibi Fatema AS in addition to the amaal listed above, it is desirable to fast.

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What is The Month of Ramadhan?

Ramadan comes from the word Ramad. Ramad means strong shining rays of the sun at pebbles.
It is given this name because just as the sun burns away the wood and heats up the pebbles,
Ramadan burns away are sins if we are really repentant.

The Holy Month of Ramadhan, which begins after the crescent of the new moon is spotted, is
one of the most sacred Islamic observances because it marks the month in which Allah revealed
the Holy Qur'an to Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h), bringing with it all the glory. This is the month
in which the doors of heavens are kept open, doors of hell are closed and Satan is kept in chains.

Ramadhan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. Abstaining from eating, drinking is simply
the means to attain the spiritual experience, but it is certainly not the ends. Each Ramadhan
brings new insights and meanings for the faithful. This is the month to learn how to be patient as
there are so many times when we have to practice self restraint ( there is food in the fridge but
we don’t eat, on a hot day even though we are very thirsty we do not drink).
        • It also teaches us how to stop back biting or swearing as it is fasting of not only the
            stomach but of the eyes, ears, hands and all parts of the body.

Ramadan is the month of many blessings so don’t delay to gain as much as you can and have
faith. Allah gives us a chance to improve ourselves in this month so you can show your new
found patience and faithfulness for the next 11 months. Its like an energizing month for the rest
of the year.

Ramadhan is a month of heightened devotion. In it, Salaat is performed with greater intensity. It
is a period of intense reflection and devotion, seeking guidance and forgiveness, and reading the
Qur'an. Ramadhan is a great opportunity to get closer to the blessed guidance of the Qur'an
which was revealed in this month. Ramadhan is also called the month of the Qur'an.

   Remember this month is gift for you from Allah, so use it and get FAITH!

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                                    Important points to remember:

          •   This is the month of rewards e.g. do one good deed get 10 sawabs instead of one
          •   Even if your sleeping or thinking of doing something good, you get sawabs
          •   Holly Prophet said, “Fasting is armor against fire.”
          •   Fasting restricts you from committing sins and is a way to cleanse yourself to better
              serve Allah – from Quran (2:183)
          • We learn how people who are less fortunate then you we are, survive each day that is
              why it is called the month of patience and equality
          • Other Prophets also fasted.
                  o Nabi Musa – 40 nights when he got the Tawrat
                  o Nabi Isa – 40 days
                  o References : Matthew 4:1-2 and Exodus 34:28 (books of the Christian and the
                      Jews – that is the old and new testament.)
                  o Roman Catholics also perform certain types of fast 40 days before easter.
          • Fasting is of different levels and speech is one of them – Nabi Zachariah and Bibi
              Maryam both had fasts of speech. Story can be found in Sura Maryam.
          • Allah is even more merciful in this month
          • Ayah 2:186 Ask and you shall receive, Allah answer all prayer so believe in him
          • From the 6th Imam we have – Ramadan is also the name of Allah so always refer to it
              as Month of Ramadan.
          • Still get blessings after Ramadan
          • If you fast 1 day out of Ramadan you get sawabs for 10 days of fasting. So if you fast
              for 3 days then you will get the reward of fasting the whole month.
          • The fifth Imam quotes the holly Prophet as saying, “Oh Jabir. This is the month of
              fasting, whom ever fasts during the days, stays up at nights, does not eat what is
              forbidden to eat, does not engage in forbidden acts and watches his tongue during this
              month shall leave all his sins behind as he leaves this month.”
          Jabir said, “Oh Prophet of Allah, how beautiul are these words.”
          The Prophet replays, “Oh, Jabir, how hard are these conditions.”

What did we learn from this topic?

In this Topic we learnt about the Holy month of Ramadhan and covered afew important points
which we should all try to remember.

The hadith’s covered in this lesson:
           1. From the Prophet
           2. From the 6th Imam
           3. From the 5th Imam

The Quranic Ayahs covered in this lesson:
                 2:183, 184 and 186
                 Surah Maryam (19:5-10 and 27 onwards)

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                LEVEL 8


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                             THE LIFE OF THE PROPHET (SAW)

The Age of Ignorance

The State of the World before Islam

When Almighty Allah sent His last and greatest Prophet, Muhammad [s], mankind was
immersed in a state of degeneration. The messages of the past prophets had been distorted and
ignored, civilisation was on the decline and humanity had slumped into an age of darkness, with
disbelief, oppression and corruption rife everywhere. The whole world presented the gloomiest
picture ever of human history. Hence, the Qur'an's terming of this chaotic state of affairs as
'Ignorance', or to put it exactly in the words the Holy Book has used 'Jahiliyah'.

Consequently it is incorrect to view 'Jahiliyah' as something of the remote past, for it is quite
clear from the Qur'an's terminology that any people rejecting Divine Messengers, turning a deaf
ear to the Almighty's revelations and overcome with carnal desires, can aptly be termed an
ignorant lot. Therefore broadly speaking, the term 'Jahiliyah' is not limited to any particular era
cut can also be applied to all similar societies irrespective of whether they existed in the past or
are still found in our contemporary era, the so-called, Space Age.

Accordingly, it is easy to recognise the symptoms of 'Jahiliyah', there is oppression and
corruption, because the salient features of such a society are disbelief, deviation, breach of divine
commandments, spread of injustice and vices such as usury, drinking alcohol, adultery,
gambling, bloodshed, moral decadence, etc. Thus any society in which such perversions prevail
is without doubt 'Jahiliyah'.

Such was the sad state of affairs in which mankind lived, before Allah sent them a Prophet,
describing him as a 'Mercy for the creation'. The Arabs among whom Muhammad [s] was born
were fragmented into a number of heterogeneous tribes constantly engaged in internecine
bloodshed. They had replaced Abraham's monotheism with the worship of idols, stars, angels
and demons, turning the Ka'aba built for the One and Only Creator, into a pantheon of idols.
Tribal rivalries and blood feuds, fuelled among them like the burning desert sands of Arabia.

Thus it was in such a chaotic state of depression that Almighty Allah sent His last great Prophet,
with the universal Message of Islam to save mankind from disbelief, oppression, corruption,
ignorance and moral decadence that was dragging humanity towards self-annihilation.


At that time, the whole world, especially Arabia, was steeped in ignorance, corruption, and turmoil.
The Arabs were suffering immensely from superstitions and unchasteness. Ignorance had darkened
the lives of the Arabs, who were leading tormented lives. Plunder and murder were quite prevalent -
plunder of the people's meager properties and unjust killing!

Most shameful of all was their worship of lifeless statues -idols. False beliefs and class differences
were strong. What was lacking was law and justice. The apathetic, wealthy people amassed wealth

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by exploiting the weak and by overcharging the orphan and the widow. They lorded over the poor
class and exploited them.

 Instead of acquiring knowledge and virtue, they prided themselves in their ancestors and in the
large numbers of their relatives; sometimes they even went to cemeteries and counted the
number of their dead relatives to prove there were more people in their tribe than in other tribes.
Murder, bloodshed, drinking, and illegitimate sexual intercourse were quite ordinary and

Such was the situation and moral conditions of a miserable society out of whose dark horizon
came the light of Islam.

It is crystal clear that a person who not only is not affected by such a corrosive society, but also
grieves over it and attempts to combat it, possesses a great divine character and is competent to
lead people and guide them onto the path of salvation.

Due to their ignorance, the Arab tribes in those days generally engaged in worshipping natural
phenomena and in idolatry. The House of God, the Ka'aba, was used as the idol-temple of the

Any one of the indecent, degrading social and moral customs in Arabia at that time was enough
to destroy the honour of a whole nation. Before Islam, the anti-human deviations of the Arabs
had created a situation whereby the fruit was crime and corruption, the nourishment was corpses,
the motto was fear and dread, and the logic was the sword.

The Arabs wrongly believed that only those were superior who descended from the Arab race
and had Arab blood! As a matter of fact, the twentieth-century form of nationalism and racism
was quite prevalent among the Arabs during the first pagan period.

In addition, the Arabs vainly gloried in their wealth and the number of their children. Each tribe
having wealth and a large number of offspring prided itself on them and considered them to be
among its crowning achievements.

Plunder, robbery, savagery, aggression, and treachery were their obvious characteristics, and
genocide was considered a sign of bravery and courage. As the Arabs before the time of
Muhammad (peace and the mercy of God be upon him and his descendants) believed the birth of
a daughter to be harmful or were either afraid of poverty and destitution, they either killed their
innocent daughters or buried them alive. If a man was given the news that his wife had borne a
baby daughter, his face would become red with rage. He would then seclude himself plotting
what to do with his newborn daughter! Should he bear the shame and disdain and take care of her
or should he bury her alive and banish the disgrace and disdain from himself because in some
cases even the existence of one daughter in a family was considered shameful.

`And they ascribe daughters to God, glory be to Him, and for themselves (they would have) what
they desire. And when a daughter is announced to one of them, his face becomes black and he is
full of wrath. He hides himself from the people because of the evil of that which is announced to

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him. Shall he keep it with disgrace or bury it (alive) in the dust? Now surely evil is what they
judge' (16:58-59).

`And do not kill your children for fear of poverty; We give them sustenance and yourselves (too);
surely to kill them is a great wrong' (17:31).

In the Nahj ul-Balaghah, Imam 'Ali has described the social conditions of the Arabs in the
following way,'... And you Arabs were at that time followers of the worst beliefs and lived in a
land of burning deserts. You lived on the stony ground amidst poisonous snakes that fled no voice
or sounds. You drank polluted water, ate rough, unwholesome foods, shed each other's blood, and
removed yourselves from your relatives. Idols had been set all around you and you did not avoid

Thus the Arabs lived in a filthy, depraved environment and as a result of misdirection and
immaturity, had turned into brutal, plundering, and seditious people. Like most people of that
time, they had adopted superstitious, illusive myths, and false notions as `religion'.

It goes without saying that for a basic reformation of such a society, a fundamental, comprehensive,
and all-embracing revolution was quite necessary. However, the leader of such a vital movement
and revolution had to be a divine man sent down by God so he would be and would remain devoid
of tyranny, and any aggressive, selfish tendencies, and would not destroy his enemies for his own
selfish interests, under the pretext of purification, but would try to reform and rectify them, working
solely for God's sake, for the people's welfare, and for the improvement of human societies.

There is no doubt that a leader who is himself immoral, unscrupulous, and without praise-worthy
human characteristics is unable to rectify human societies and save the people. It is only divine
leaders who, inspired by Almighty God, are able to make profound basic transformations in all
phases of the people's individual and social life.

Now we must try to understand what kind of person such a leader of the worldwide revolution
was and what changes he made in the world.

The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) is born

Muhammad (s.a.w.a.) was born on Friday, the 17th Rabi'-ul-Awwal, 1st year of 'Amul-Fil
(corresponding to 570 C.E.) to bring the Message of God to the world. In Sunni circles, 12th
Rabi'-ul-Awwal is more famous.

'Abdullah, father of the Prophet, died a few month before (or two months after) his birth, and his
grandfather 'AbdulMuttalib took over the care and upbringing of the child. After a few months,
according to the age-long custom of the Arabs, the child was entrusted to a bedouin woman
Halimah by name, of the tribe of Bani-Sa'd, for his upbringing.

When he was only six years old, he lost his mother as well; so, the doubly-orphaned child was
brought up by 'Abdul-Muttalib with the most tender care. It was the will of God that the Prophet
to-be should undergo all the sufferings, pains and privations incidental to human life in order that

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he might learn to bear them with becoming fortitude and raise his stature in human perfection.
Not two years had passed before 'Abdul-Muttalib also died.

'Abdul-Muttalib died at the age of 82, leaving the care and custody of the orphaned Muhammad
(s.a.w.a.) to Abu Talib. Abu Talib and his wife, Fatimah Bint Asad, loved Muhammad more than
their own children. As the Holy Prophet himself said, Fatima Bint Asad was his "mother" who
kept her own children waiting while she fed the Holy Prophet, kept her own children cold while
she gave him warm clothes. Abu Talib always kept the child with him day and night.

Sacrilegious War (Harb-ul-Fijar) and League of Virtuous (Hilful-Fudhul)

At a place known as 'Ukaz, a great annual fair used to be held during the month of Dhul-Qa'dah
during which war and bloodshed were forbidden. At the time of the fair, 'Ukaz presented a scene
of pleasure and abandonment with its dancing girls, gaming tables, drunken orgies, poetic
contests and shows of prowess ending frequently in brawls and bloodshed. At one of the fairs,
war broke out between the Quraish and the Banu Kinanah on one side and the Qais 'Aylan on the
other. This war continued for a number of years with a considerable loss of life and varying
fortunes. The lewd scenes, drunken affrays and the horrors of the war must have created a deep
impression on Muhammad's sensitive mind. When the Quraish were ultimately victorious, a
league was formed, on the suggestion of Zubayr, an uncle of the Prophet, to prevent disturbances
of peace, to help victims of oppression, and to protect travelers. Muhammad took a very active
interest in the functioning of this League which came into being as a result of a settlement known
as Hilf-ul-Fudhul between Banu Hashim, Banu Taym, Banu Asad, Banu Zuhrah and Banu
Muttalib. The League continued to function for half a century following the inception of Islam.

Muhammad (s.a.w.a.) marries Khadijah

Now, Muhammad (s.a.w.a.) was old enough to go with the trade caravans. But Abu Talib's
financial position had become very weak because of the expenses of business, and it was no
longer possible for him to equip Muhammad (s.a.w.a.) with the merchandise on his own. He,
therefore, advised him to act as agent for a noble lady, Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, who was the
wealthiest person in Quraish. It is written that in the trade caravans, her merchandise usually
equaled the merchandise of the whole tribe put together.

Her geneology joins with that of the Holy Prophet at Qusayi. She was Khadijah daughter of
Khuwaylid ibn Asad ibn 'Abdul-'Uzza ibn Qusayi.

The reputation which Muhammad (s.a.w.a.) enjoyed for his honesty and integrity, led Khadijah
to willingly entrust her goods to him for sale in Syria. He traded in such a way that the goods
earned more profit than expected, and yet he was praised for his integrity, honesty and
generosity. Khadijah was very much impressed. Only two months after his return to Mecca, he
was married to Khadijah. He was twenty-five years of age and Khadijah was forty and a widow.

Hazrat Khadijah was respected so much that the Meccans called her Tahirah (the pure one).

She was the first person to testify to the truth of the Holy Prophet. She spent all her wealth in the

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cause of Islam. And she was a source of comfort and consolation to the Holy Prophet.

The Holy Prophet said:

"Four women are the supreme-most amongst the women of Paradise: Maryam mother of 'Isa
(Jesus) (a.s.), Asiyah wife of Pharaoh, Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, and Fatimah hint Muhammad."

Ayishah said:

"I never envied any woman as much as I envied Khadijah. The Holy Prophet always
remembered her. Whenever any sheep or goat was slaughtered, the choicest parts were sent to
Khadijah's relatives and friends. I used to say, 'It appears that Khadijah was the only woman in
the world.' Hearing this, the Holy Prophet was very much annoyed and said: 'Khadijah had many
virtues, which others do not have. "

She also said:

"Once the Holy Prophet remembered her and I said, 'How long will you go on remembering a
woman so old that she had no teeth in her mouth? Allah has given you a woman better than her
(meaning herself).' The Holy Prophet was so angry that the hair of his head was raised. He said:
'By Allah, I do not have better than Khadijah. She believed in me when others were steeped into
infidelity. She testified to my truth when others rejected my claim. She helped me with her
wealth when others deprived me. And Allah gave me children by her." 'Ayishah says that from
then on she decided not to say any unkind word about Khadijah. (Sahih al-Bukhari, vol. 3).

She was 65 years old when she died, and she was buried at Hajun. Her grave was demolished in
1925 like those of 'AbdulMuttalib, Abu Talib and others.

Hijrah to Abyssinia

The Holy Prophet, with his small group of followers faced many hardships in the early days of
Islam. They were ostracized, criticized, abused and isolated for rejecting and abandoning the
traditional polytheistic practices and beliefs and instead, adopting faith in one God. When
endurance was reaching its limits and persecution became unbearable, the Prophet advised a
group of his followers to migrate to Abyssinia where a benign Christian king reigned. This was
the first Hijrah (Migration) in Islam and fifteen people took part in it:

And those who become fugitives for Allah's sake after they are oppressed, verily We shall give
them good abode in the world and surely the reward of the Hereafter is greater, if they only
knew. (Qur'an, 16:41)

And what was all this tyranny and persecution for? Just for believing in one God and for leading a
chaste and pious life! Further migration of some people led to intensified persecution of those left
behind. The Prophet advised a second Hijrah to Abyssinia, and this time about a hundred people,
including Jafar, the elder brother of 'Ali, went away. The Quraish sent a deputation with 'Amr ibn
al-'As and 'Ammara ibn Rabi'ah to Negus (Nijashi, in Arabic), the king of Abyssinia, to demand

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the deportation of the emigrants back to Mecca to be punished by death. Having won the favor of
the clergy, the deputation tried to prejudice the king against the fugitives. Asked to explain the
position, Jafar delivered a speech, which is a brilliant summary of the fundamentals of Islam and
all that it stands for:

"O king! We were plunged in the depth of ignorance and barbarism; we adored idols; we lived in
unchastity; we ate dead animals, and we spoke abomination. We disregarded every feeling of
humanity, and the duties of hospitality and neighborhood. We knew no law but that of the strong.
At that time, God raised from among us a man of whose birth, truthfulness, honesty and purity we
were aware, and he called us to the Unity of God and taught us not to associate anything with
Him. He forbade us to worship idols and enjoined us to speak the truth, to be faithful to our trusts,
to be merciful, and to regard the rights of neighbors. He forbade us to speak ill of women and to
eat the substance of orphans. He ordered us to flee from vices, to abstain from evil, to offer
prayers, to render alms, and to observe the fast. We have believed in him; we have accepted his
teachings and injunctions to worship God, and not to associate anything with Him. For this reason,
our people have risen against us and persecuted us in order to make us forego the worship of God
and return to the worship of idols of wood and stone and other abominations. They have tortured
us and injured us. Having found no safety among them, we have come to thy country and hope
thou wilt protect us from their oppression."

The king refused to oblige the deputation, and the latter had to return disappointed. Muslim
traditions indicate that the king later on secretly converted to Islam.

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Important Events of Migration to Madina

The Prophet's entry into Madina ushers in a new phase for the divine message. Islam gaining
fresh followers began to assert its strength and soon started to spread out over the four corners of
the Arabian Peninsula.

The Holy Prophet was 53 years of age at the time of his auspicious migration. In Madina he
spent the remaining 10 years of his life and it was here that other brilliant aspects of his
immaculate personality became fully manifest. The divine call now entered a decisive stage and
many important events took place in Madina, which eventually laid a firm foundation for the
spread of Islam to the furthest reaches of the globe. Here we shall study some of the major
landmarks in the life of Prophet Muhammad [s] and Islam at Madina.

1. The Building of the First Mosque

The entry into Madina was followed by the building of the mosque, the first-ever for the
Muslims who had just emerged from years of oppression in Makkah. It was one of the most
important landmarks for Muslims who now had a centre of their own for open uninhibited
gatherings, a school for learning the Qur'an and a headquarters for receiving necessary
instructions from their leader. Gone were the days of secret underground meetings in Makkah,
where the fear of persecution had always weighed heavily for the faithful. Yathrib which from
now onwards was Madinat-an-Nabi (city of the Prophet) or Al-Madina al Munawwara
(illuminated city), provided a free open atmosphere for the growth of the true faith.

Makkan immigrants mixed with the local populace, the 'Ansar' (Helpers), and cheerfully started
giving shape to Islam's first-ever mosque which would be known as Masjid-an-Nabi (Prophet's
Mosque). The building was soon constructed of clay and tree trunks with palm leaves serving as
a thatched roof. The Messenger of Allah himself took part in the construction and the following
year he enlarged its precincts to cover an area of 2475 square meters.

All Muslims enthusiastically assembled there for the daily prayers, which were led by the
Prophet himself. He used to deliver sermons there, teach the Qur'an and the laws of Islam to the
faithful, discourse with his companions, prepare them for 'Jihad' (holy struggle) and would look
into their problems and other relevant issues. Thus, the Mosque was actually the headquarters of
the first-ever Islamic State established by the Messenger. It still stands majestically today,
frequently enlarged and beautified throughout the last fourteen centuries. The tomb of Prophet
Muhammad [s] is situated within its enclosure, and draws millions of Muslims from all over the

2. Fraternisation

The second important step taken by the Prophet in Madina was the fraternising of 'Muhajireen'
(Makkan Immigrants) with the 'Ansar' (Madinite Helpers) in the bonds of Islamic brotherhood.
He fraternised each Muhajir with an Ansar, joining them together as brothers in faith. And he
himself clasped the hand of his beloved cousin Ali bin Abi Talib [a] as the supreme symbol of

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brotherhood, fraternity and solidarity in the Islamic society.

Before proceeding further let us say a few words about the Muhajireen and the Ansar, who
formed the pillars of the Islamic State. Allah, the Exalted describes them in the Qur'an as

"And as for the first and foremost of the Muhajireen (emigrants) and the Ansar (helpers), and
those who followed suit in good deeds; Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with
Him; and He has prepared for them gardens watered by running streams, therein dwelling
forever; that is a supreme triumph." Holy Qur'an (9:100)

Muhajireen and Ansar

Muhammad changed the names of the two Muslim groups now living in Medina. He called the
refugees from Makkah "Muhajireen" (Emigrants); and he called the citizens of Yathrib who had
welcomed them, "Ansar" (Supporters). The two groups were known by these names ever after.

Ali ibn Abi Talib alone was left without a "brother." He was wondering why when the Apostle of
God held him by his arms and said to him: "You are my brother in this world and in the next."

The Muhajireen as the name suggests were the Muslim emigrants from Makkah who had
followed the Prophet of Madina to safeguard their faith and to escape persecution from the
infidels. They had embraced Islam in its early formative years and most of them had steadfastly
endured severe pain and hardship in the way of liberty, truth and justice.

On the other hand, the Ansar were the indigenous inhabitants of Madina, who believed in the
Message of Islam and rallied to the help of the Prophet. They welcomed him to their city, and
fought alongside him against the pagans of Arabia. It was their faith and selfless devotion which
cemented Islamic unity and brought many a glorious victory for Islam.

At the time of the H4ra most of the Muhajireen were poor and possessed nothing, but the Ansar
displaying the finest example of Islamic brotherhood, provided them with their needs such as
houses, money and food. They lodged them in their own houses, shared their wealth with them
and gave their daughters in marriage to the Makkan Muslims.

Such were the Muhajireen and the Ansar - brothers sharing food, clothing and residence, and
defending and helping each other as ordered by the Almighty. From them we learn patience, self-
sacrifice, fraternity, piety and devoted zeal to spread the call of Islam to less fortunate people
around the world.

An Assessment of the Roles of the Muhajireen and the Ansar

The Muhajireen had lost all their material possessions in Makkah, and all of them entered
Yathrib (Medina) empty-handed. They consisted of two distinct groups. One group was made up
of those men who were merchants and traders by profession, and they were very rich. When they
went to Medina, they entered business, were successful at it, and they became rich again.

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The other group comprised the "ascetics" of Islam. They were poor in Makkah, and when they
migrated to Medina, they still chose to be poor. They spurned worldly riches, and they never
held economic power in their hands at any time. Representatives of this group were men like
Abu Dharr el-Ghiffari; Ammar ibn Yasir and Miqdad ibn al-Aswad. God paid them His tributes
in His Book as follows:

(some part is due) to the indigent Muhajirs, those who were expelled from their homes and their
property , while seeking grace from Allah and (His) good pleasure, and aiding Allah and His
Apostle: such are indeed the sincere ones. (Chapter 59; verse 8)

The Ansar treated the Muhajireen from Makkah better than the real brothers of the latter would
have done. They lodged them in their own homes, gave them household effects; made them
partners in farming, or gave them half of their land. Those Ansars who were in business, made
the Muhajirs their partners in business. History cannot produce a parallel to the generosity of the
Ansars. They were "hosts" not only to the homeless and destitute Muhajireen but also to Islam
itself. Islam, uprooted in Makkah, struck new roots in Medina, burgeoned and soon became

The Ansar were indispensable for the physical survival of Islam. Where would Islam be and
where would the Muhajireen be if the Ansar had not given them sanctuary? When hostilities with
the idolaters began, it were the Ansar, and not the Muhajireen, who bore the brunt of fighting.
Without the massive and monolithic support that they gave to the Prophet, the battles of Islam
could not have been fought, much less victory won. They were also the recipients of Heaven's
compliments and recognition, as we read in the following verse of Al-Qur’an al-Majid:

But those who, before them, had homes (in Medina) and had adopted the faith, – show their
affection to such as came to them for refuge, and entertain no desire, in their hearts for things
given to the (latter), but give them preference over themselves, even though poverty was their
(own lot). And those saved from the covetousness of their own souls, – they are the ones that
achieve prosperity. (Chapter 59; verse 9)

The Muhajireen, at the beginning, had no way of repaying the Ansar for their generosity and
kindness. But did they ever acknowledge their gratitude? It appears that with the exception of
two Muhajirs, no one else ever did. The two exceptions were Muhammad Mustafa, the Apostle
of God, and Ali, his vicegerent. They acknowledged their debt of gratitude to the Ansar both by
word and by deed, and they never missed an opportunity of doing so. After all, both Muhammad
and Ali, as the only guardians of the ethos of Islam, were aware that it (Islam) had found a haven
in Medina with the Ansar. The latter, therefore, held a very special place in their hearts.

3. The Islamic State

The other important event after the Hijra was the establishment of the Islamic State and
Government by the Prophet, who by applying the gradual unfolding of divine commandments,
moulded the hitherto ignorant Arabs into a real Islamic society. Expounding the eternal miracle
of the Holy Qur'an and setting his own divinely inspired personality as a practical example, he

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firmly erected the pillars of justice and virtue. In short, Prophet Muhammad [s] presented to the
dark world seething under tyranny and oppression, the most perfect ever constitution - spiritual,
social and political and a key to their salvation both in this mortal life and the hereafter.

The Charter or Constitution of Medina

The citizens of Yathrib (Madina) acknowledged Muhammad as their sovereign, and he gave
them a "Citizen's Charter" which is believed to have been the first written document in Islam
(other than Qur’an). The original charter as preserved by Ibn Ishaq, contains forty-seven (47)
clauses. Following are the more important ones out of them:

* All disputes between any two parties in Yathrib would be referred to Muhammad for his
decision on them.
* Muslims and Jews would enjoy the same rights.
* Each group in Yathrib would follow its own faith, and no one group would meddle in the
affairs of any other groups.
* In the event of an external attack upon Yathrib, both groups, i.e., the Muslims and the Jews,
would defend the city.
* Both groups would refrain from shedding blood in the city.
* Muslims would not go to war against other Muslims for the sake of non-Muslims

4. Jihad

The next stage was Jihad or holy struggle, a thing not known in Makkah. It was the natural
consequence to the setting up of a state. Unbelievers, ever-intent to stamp out the divine call but
seeing Islam finely knit unto a secure state, resorted to arms, and the Muslims had to follow suit
to defend their faith, and according to Allah's injunctions went out to do battle with the

The first ever battle between Islam and blasphemy occurred in the second year of the Hijra at a
place called 'Badr' in which the new-found Islamic State, assembling a modest force of only 313
Muslims defeated a vastly outnumbering army of disbelievers. The victory led to many other
battles and skirmishes with the Makkan infidels, who each time came out in larger numbers to
avenge their previous setbacks, but by Allah's Grace suffered defeat after defeat at the hands of
the faithful.

The victories brought strength and courage to the Muslims and helped facilitate the spread of
Islam and monotheism to the farthest reaches of polytheist Arabia.

5. End of Jewish Plots and Treacheries

Ever since the Prophet's entry into Madina, the treacherous Jews had vehemently opposed him
and his Islamic call, evoking memories of their hostility to the previous Prophet, Jesus Christ (a),
half a millennium ago. The crafty Jews entered into an alliance with the polytheist Quraish in a
bid to stamp out Islam. They conspired to kill Prophet Muhammad [s] despite the fact that he
was lenient towards them and had treated them kindly, hoping to convince them of Islam's truth.

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But eventually as Jewish plots and aggressions increased, he had no choice other than to take up
arms against them, in order to protect Islam and the Muslims. At the battle of Khaiber which is
famous for Imam Ali's [a] heroic exploits, the Prophet defeated them ending Jewish intrigues and
conspiracies in Arabia.

6. The Treaty of Hudaibiyah

Another important landmark in the Prophet's life and progress of the Islamic call was the treaty
of Hudaibiyah.

One night Prophet Muhammad [s] had a dream in which he saw that he and his companions were
entering the precincts of the Holy Ka'aba in Makkah to perform the 'Tawaf' (circumambulation),
but the infidel Arabs were trying to obstruct their entrance. Following the dream, he decided to
go to Makkah with some 1,500 Muslims to perform the pilgrimage. It was in the sixth year of the
Hijra, and when the party arrived at a place called Hudaibiyah, the infidels confronted them and
blocked all routes to Makkah. After some deliberations the infidels and the Prophet concluded a
treaty, stipulating that the Muslim party would for the moment go back to Madina, but would
return the next year for performing the pilgrimage. There were some other terms too.

As per the treaty the Messenger and his companions turned back to Madina, but the next year the
Prophet along with a group of Muslims entered Makkah - 7 years after his historical migration -
to perform the Umrah ritual (the lesser pilgrimage). Thus, his dream came true, and it was
another undeniable proof of his Prophethood.

Madinah (Almadina Al-Munawara) the light city, is the city of the Prophet Muhammad and also
his burial place. It was the first Islamic City to support the Prophet Muhammad, and it joined
him in fighting decisive battles which were instrumental in the victory of Islam and its
subsequent spread. This is the city of the "Ansar" (Supporters) and their brothers the
"Muhajireen" (Emigrants), who together formed the first Islamic army which entered Makkah
in triumph eight years after the Prophet's "Hijrah" (Migration). It was a city which loved the
Prophet, and which he in turn loved. On its soil he built his sacred mosque, and it was here that
he was buried.

Madinah was also the city of the "Khulfai Rashiduun" (Orthodox Caliphs of Islam), who
shouldered the responsibility of Jihad, or holy struggle, fighting against renegades and
propagating Islam in the countries surrounding the Arabian Peninsula. It was the seat of the first
Islamic state, and witnessed the Prophet's companions administering the affairs of the Moslem
community, compiling the Holy Koran, and dispatching armies to Persia, Syria and Egypt.

It is now the city of the Second Holy Mosque, and the Monarch, government and people of the
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia take pride in serving and developing it in keeping with its
distinguished status in Islamic history.

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Masjid-an Nabawi

Unique Merit of the Prophet's Mosque. The Prophet Muhammad himself participated in the
construction of this mosque, called it "My Mosque" and led prayers in it for years. It is a great
privilege for the pilgrims to visit our beloved Prophet's tomb. The Holy Prophet Muhammad is
reported to have said:

"A salaat performed in the Prophet's Mosque is better than a thousand salaats in any other place
except Masjid al-Haram in Makkah" - Bukhari and Muslim.
"The person who offers 40 prayers consecutively in my Mosque, without missing a prayer in
between, will secure immunity from the fire of Hell and other torments and also from
hypocrisy." - reported by Hazrat Anas "The person who comes solely for the purpose of paying a
visit to my grave, has a right on me that I should intercede for him." - from Ilm al-Fiqh, Vol. V
"The person who performs Hajj and then visits my Tomb, will be regarded as though he had seen
me in my worldly life." - Baihaqi

Masjid Quba

It is about two miles south-west from Masjid-an Nabawi. This is the very first mosque of the
muslims. The Prophet Muhammad and his companions built it with their own hands. This is the
first mosque in the history of Islam whose foundation stone was laid down by Prophet
Muhammad (peace be upon him) himself on his migration to Madinah. To offer 2 rakaats of nafl
in it is equal to one Umrah


In 6 A.H., the Holy Prophet of Islam dispatched several representatives to rulers and kings of
different parts of the world, each with a letter in which he invited them to become Muslims and
submit to God's faith. All these letters had the same purpose, that is, the invitation to monotheism
and Islamic fraternity.

Since the Holy Prophet's mission was divine, in obedience to God's command, consistent with
human nature, and meant to lead people to God's path, it highly impressed such just, truth
seeking people as Najashi, Muquqs, and others, so they submitted to Islam.

Research made on the collection of the Prophet's letters indicates that he sent 62 letters to kings,
chiefs of tribes and clans, and heads of convents. The texts of 29 of these letters are available.

Abu Bakr Versus Fatima (A)

Fadak was a village located at a two-day walking distance from Medina. Apparently, it was
inhabited by Jews who refused to submit to Islam at the beginning, but when the later realized
the might of the Muslims, especially after they, led by Ali Ibn Abu Talib conquered Khaibar, the
Jews decided to yield to the Messenger of Allah without fighting. So he took possession of the

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Fatima-the only surviving child of the Prophet, his most beloved- claimed inheritance of the
property which could be apportioned to her in the lands of Medina and in Khaibar, as also Fadak,
which having been acquired without the use of force, the Prophet had given her for her
maintenance, in accordance with the commands of Allah.

Yet, Fadak became an arena for political games when Abu Bakr refused to transfer it to Fatima.
It is appropriate here to speak about Fadak before clarifying the corresponding events which
occurred in its regard:

Fadak Becomes the Prophet's Personal Property

Since the reason that motivated the inhabitants of Fadak to transfer its possession to Allah's
Messenger was fear of the Muslims after they had conquered Khaibar, this property became the
sole possession of the Prophet. This conforms to Allah's decree in the Holy Quran:

"What Allah has bestowed on His Apostle (and taken away) from them for this (which) ye made
no expedition with either calvary or camelry: But Allah gives power to His Apostles over any He
pleases: and Allah Has power over all things." (59: 6)

There was no dispute between the Muslims that Fadak belonged to the Prophet (S); rather, the
disagreement was related to how much Fadak had the Jews granted him as part of the peace

Therefore, after realizing beyond doubt that Fadak was the personal property of Allah's
Messenger (S), it is appropriate to inquire as to what he did with it? But the answer is clear. He
granted it to Fatima (A) before his death. In other words, Fadak became the personal property of
Lady Fatima Zahra (A). Moreover, it is not for anyone to object to the Prophet for granting his
own property to any person he wished-including his daughter.

Fadak is Confiscated

The first decision Abu Bakr makes is to confiscate Fadak, the grazing area which belonged to
Fatima. Ali is personally and economically paralyzed by this act. His income now depends
completely upon what he received from the public purse. They leave Ali alone. Those who had
gathered around him are dispersed either through force or by their own decision. In this way,
there is no danger of revolt from his non allegiance and disobe dience. They know that as long as
Fatima is alive, they can not get Ali's allegiance. Ali cannot give his allegiance be cause Fatima
opposes a power or force which does not know the meaning of right. She has not the least bit of
softness for them. She holds her strict position until her death. The feeling of anger does not
leave her. She does not let go for a moment.

The Prophet passes away. Fatima's legacy, which is the only means of income for herself, her
husband and her children, is confiscated. Power falls into the hands of Abu Bakr and Omar. The
fate and future of Islam is given into the political hands of men such as Abdul Rahman ibn Ouf, a
worshipper of money, the aristocrat, Othman, the careless, Khalid ibn Valid and Saied ibn
Vaqas, a man without piety. They become the principal agents of the Caliphate of the Prophet.

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Ali remains at home. He spends his time gathering together the Quran because he fears for the
future. Balal has to leave Medina. He goes to Damascus and remains silent forever. Salman
retreats to a corner. He tells those who are hurriedly and victoriously returning from Saqifeh,
'You did what you shouldn't have done and you didn't do what you should have done.' Then, full
of sorrow, having lost hope, he returns to Iran. He dies at Madayen. Abuzar, the close
Companion of the Prophet and Ammar are all that remain.

Fatima Does Not Give Up

But Fatima does not sit down. Under a mountain, full of sorrow, bearing her bereaving spirit, she
continues her resistance and her struggle against the oppressive Caliphate. She believes the
Caliphate to be unworthy. In order to get back Fadak, she does not stand still. She tries to prove
to everyone that the Caliph was taking out political revenge upon her and striking an economic
blow to Ali with this act of taking Fadak. She proves what rights they deny in order to serve their
own purposes. They do not refrain from deviating from a saying of the Prophet or its meaning.
She wants the thoughts of people to know to what extent these people who call themselves
`followers of the custom of the Prophet' and who actually establish their own Caliphate on this
basis, oppress the family of the Prophet. They cut off the right which each and every Muslim
child has to receive and every father has the right to give.

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                              THE CHANGE OF QIBLAH
When Allah first ordered the Holy Prophet (S) and all Muslims to offer the daily Salaat, they
were required to pray facing Baytul Muqaddas (Jerusalem). This was the practice in Makka and
continued in Madina until the seventeenth month after Hijrat.

In Madina, the Jews also said their prayers facing Baytul Muqaddas. They did not like the fact
that the Muslims had the same Qiblah as they did, and tried to use this fact to discredit Islam and
the Holy Prophet (S). They said to the Muslims, "Muhammad claims to have a religion whose
laws supersede all other previous laws, yet he does not have an independent Qiblah, and offers
his prayers facing the Qiblah of the Jews."

After the Holy Prophet (S) received this news he used to come out at night and look into the sky
awaiting the revelation from Allah about this matter. The following verse was revealed at this

“Many a time We have seen you turn your face towards heaven. We will make you turn towards
a Qiblah that will please you...” Baqarah, 2:144

The fact that the Qiblah was the same as that of the Jews was also because it was a test of the
faith of the people. The true faith of the followers would be tested by seeing if any of them
refused or delayed to turn towards the new Qiblah as chosen by Allah .

This is confirmed in the Holy Qur'an in the following verse:

“…We decreed your former Qiblah only so that We may know the Prophet's true followers and
those who were to deny him. It was indeed a hard test, but not for those whom Allah
guided...”Baqarah, 2:143

One day, while the Holy Prophet (S) and the Muslims were praying together, the command came
from Allah to change the Qiblah from Baytul Muqaddas to the Holy Ka’ba in Makka. After the
Holy Prophet (S) had already completed two raka'ats of the noon prayer, the Angel Jibraeel (A)
communicated to him the command of Allah.

He held the hand of the Holy Prophet (S) and turned him towards the Holy Ka’ba in Masjidul
Haraam in Makka. The Holy Prophet (S) at once changed his direction in the middle of Salaat.
Imam Ali (A) followed this change immediately. The other Muslims were confused by this
action and only a few followed the example of Imam Ali (A).

The mosque where this happened is known as "Masjide Dhul Qiblatain" which means "The
Mosque with the Two Qiblahs". This mosque still exists in Madina today. With modern
instruments and science we can pinpoint the exact location of Madina to be at latitude 24 degrees
and longitude 39 degrees. This makes the Qiblah 45 degrees south of Madina.

The Holy Prophet (S) turned towards the new Qiblah without hesitation. The old and new
Qiblahs can still be seen today in Masjide Dhul Qiblatain. It was one of the Holy Prophet's (S)

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miracles that he turned exactly to face the Holy Ka’ba without the use of any scientific
instrument or computation.

The Holy Ka’ba which serves as the Qiblah for all Muslims today has always been respected by
the Arabs, even before the Holy Prophet (S). It was for this reason that this new Qiblah served to
attract more Arabs towards Islam.

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                                THE BATTLE OF BADR
In the middle of Jamadil Awwal of 2 A.H., a report was received in Madina that a trade caravan
was going from Makka to Syria under the leadership of Abu Sufyan. The Holy Prophet (S)
decided to send two men to find out more facts about this caravan. He told them to find out about
its route, the number of guards, as well as the nature of the goods they were carrying. The two
men gathered the following information:

1. It was a big caravan and all the Makkans had shares in its goods.
2. The leader of the caravan was Abu Sufyan and it was guarded by 40 men.
3. The goods were loaded on 1,000 camels and were valued at about 50,000 Dinars.

The Quraish had confiscated the property of all the Muslims who had migrated from Makka, and
therefore the Holy Prophet (S) decided to also seize the property of the Makkans as
compensation. Although the Muslims pursued Abu Sufyan, they could not reach him. However,
the time of the return of the caravan was almost certain because the Quraish always used to
return from Syria to Makka in the early autumn.

The Holy Prophet (S) left Madina and proceeded towards the valley of Badr, 80 miles away,
where he awaited the return of the caravan. Abu Sufyan realised that the Muslims would wait
for him at Badr which was a stopping place on the route to Makka, so he sent an urgent message
to Makka for help. The Makkans immediately sent out a large army under the command of Abu
Jahl to fight the Muslims at Badr. The Holy Prophet (S) was informed of the march of the
Makkan army and he asked the Muslims what they thought about engaging in a battle. Although
some Muslims wanted to return to Madina, Miqdaad, who was a true Muslim, stood up and
declared, "O Prophet of Allah, we are with you and we shall fight."Meanwhile Abu Sufyan
decided to take a longer route back home, and avoid Badr.

Once he was safely in Makka, he sent a message to Abu Jahl to return, but Abu Jahl was too
proud to go back and wanted to crush the Muslims with his large army. The two armies clashed
on 17th of Mahe Ramadhan 2 A.H. The Muslim army consisted of 313 soldiers, having between
them only 2 horses and 70 camels. The Makkan army had 900 soldiers, 100 horses and 700
camels. They were much better equipped than the Muslims.

According to Arab custom, there was single combat before the battle began. Three famous
warriors, Utbah bin Rabiyyah, Shaybah bin Rabiyyah and Walid bin Utbah challenged the
Muslims. Three Muslims, Awf, Ma'uz and Abdullah Rawahah came forward. Because these men
were from the Ansar of Madina, Utbah said, "We have no fight with you. Send us our equals."

The Holy Prophet (S) then sent ‘Ubaydah, Hamza and Imam Ali (A). Ubaydah faced Utbah,
Hamza faced Shaybah and Imam Ali (A) faced Walid. Hamza and Imam Ali (A) soon killed
their opponents, but Ubaydah was badly hurt and later died. Imam Ali (A) then killed Utbah. The
Quraish were disturbed to see the skill of the Muslim warriors and began to attack together.

The Holy Prophet (S) held back his small army and ordered them to fire arrows at the enemy.
This organised attack broke up the ranks of the Makkans and, seeing their confusion, the Holy

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Prophet (S) ordered a general attack. The Muslims began to fight with confidence and the valley
of Badr rang with the sounds of battle. Then Imam Ali (A) tore into the heart of the Makkan
army, killing enemy soldiers with terrifying ease.

His power and skill with the sword struck terror into the hearts of the Makkans, who began to
flee. Before long, the battle was over and the Muslims had achieved a great victory, despite
being outnumbered.

In this battle the Muslims lost 14 men, while 70 Makkans, including their chiefs Abu Jahl,
Nawfal, Umayyah and others were killed. Out of these, Imam Ali (A) killed 36 men himself and
helped in killing several others. 70 prisoners were taken by the Muslims. The prisoners were
treated with much kindness by the citizens of Madina and some became Muslims. "Blessing be
on the men of Madina", said one of these prisoners in later days, "they made us ride, while they
themselves walked, they gave us wheat and bread to eat when there was little of it; contenting
themselves with dates".

The rich prisoners paid ransom and were set free. Others were asked to teach 10 children each to
read and write while the rest were released by the Holy Prophet (S), and allowed to return to
Makka. The victory at Badr strengthened the faith of the Muslims and warned the unbelievers of
Makka that Islam was now a force to be reckoned with. During the same year Allah sent down
the command making fasting compulsory on Muslims. The following verse of the Holy Qur'an
was revealed in this respect:

“The month of Ramadhan (is) that in which the Qur'an was sent down; aguidance for mankind
and clear evidence of guidance and discrimination (between right and wrong). So whoever of
you witnesses the month, he shall fast therein, and whoever is ill or on a journey, (he shall fast)
the same number of other days”... Baqarah, 2:185

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                         THE BATTLE OF UHUD - PART 1
The Makkans were determined to take revenge for their defeat at Badr. Their women could not
accept that their brave champions had been so easily killed by the Muslims, and they mocked
their men for their weakness. Abu Sufyan wanted to keep the anger of the people high and he
forbade any mourning within Makka until they had fully avenged their dead companions. The
emotions of the people were further fuelled by some Jews, who composed poems to incite them
to war.

The final straw was when the Holy Prophet (S) blocked the trade routes of the Quraish to Iraq.
The chiefs of the Makkans decided that they now had enough reasons to march against the
Muslims. The Quraish traders would regain access for their caravans if the Muslims were
defeated, so they agreed to pay all the expenses of the proposed war.

Abu Sufyan was aware of the bravery of the Muslims, and he knew that he would have to
outnumber them if he wanted to win. He therefore enlisted the tribes of Kanaanah and Saqeef,
promising them weapons and full provisions for the journey.

A large number of slaves also joined the Quraish army tempted by promises of freedom.
Amongst them was Wahshi, an Ethiopian slave. He possessed great skill in the use of the
throwing spear, and had been promised his freedom if he killed the Holy Prophet (S), Imam Ali
(A) or Hamza.

Abu Sufyan managed to prepare a large army consisting of 700 armour-clad men, 3,000 camel
soldiers, a cavalry of 200 men and a group of foot soldiers. This army marched towards Madina
and camped at the foot of the hills of Uhud, on 5th Shawwal 3 A.H.

The Holy Prophet (S) had already received news of the plans of the Quraish from his uncle
Abbas, who lived in Makka. After consultation with the Muslims he decided to meet the enemy
outside the city limits of Madina for three reasons. These were:

1. Hand to hand fighting in the narrow streets of Madina would be very disorganised and the
soldiers could not be used together against the enemy. Moreover, once the enemy was allowed
into the city, the lives of the women and children would be in danger.

2. The enemy could surround the city and control all roads leading out of the city. Such a siege
could break the morale of the Muslims.

3. The Holy Prophet (S) did not trust some hypocrites like Abdullah Ubayy, and feared that they
might harm the Muslims from within the city.

The Holy Prophet (S) came out to meet the Quraish with 1,000 men at Uhud, 3 miles outside
Madina. Abdullah Ubayy, who had wanted to fight in Madina, then deserted the Muslim army
with 300 of his men.

He gave the excuse that the Holy Prophet (S) had taken the advice of younger men over his own.

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Thus, the Holy Prophet (S) was left with only 700 men. Only 100 of them were armour-clad and
between them they had only two horses.

The Holy Prophet (S) began to set up his army in fighting formations. 50 archers were posted at
a pass between the hills of Uhud to guard the army from any attack from the rear. They had strict
orders not to leave their post, whatever the outcome of the battle. The Holy Prophet (S) knew
that the Muslims would be worried at being outnumbered in the battle, so he strengthened their
morale with an address. He said to them, "It is a difficult task to fight the enemy, and only those
who are guided and supported by Allah can remain steadfast. Remember that Allah is with those
who obey Him, while Shaitan is the companion of those who disobey Him. Remain firm in Jihad
and use it to acquire the blessings that Allah has promised you. None dies in this world until
Allah decides."

He then told them not to start fighting until orders were given to fight. On the side of the
Makkans, Abu Sufyan had divided his army into 3 parts. The armoured men were placed in the
middle. Preparations were now complete and the small band of Muslims stood against the large
army of unbelievers, ready to give their lives away for the sake of the defence of Islam.

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                          THE BATTLE OF UHUD - PART 2
The man who began the Battle of Uhud was Talha bin Abi Talha, a great warrior from the army
of Abu Sufyan. He entered the battlefield and challenged the Muslims to individual combat. The
challenge was accepted by Imam Ali (A) and very soon Talha's dead body lay on the ground.
The standard was taken by his two brothers but they were both cut down by arrows from the

Thereafter nine people of the Makkan army took the standard, one after the other, but every one
of them was sent to Hell by Imam Ali (A). After them, an Ethiopian soldier by the name of
Sawaab came to the field. He had a frightening figure and on seeing him none of the Muslims
dared to come forward. This man was killed by Imam Ali (A) by a single blow.

Seeing his men being so easily killed, Abu Sufyan ordered a general attack. The two armies met
and the air was filled with the sound of weapons. From the side of the Muslims, Hamza, Abu
Dujana and Imam Ali (A) gave a heroic account of their valour and began to create chaos in the
army of Abu Sufyan.

At this time, the Ethiopian slave Wahshi got behind Hamza unnoticed. With a swift and accurate
throw, the accursed man managed to pierce the abdomen of Hamza and kill him.

The Muslims continued to attack the enemy successfully and the Makkans began to lose heart.
After losing a lot of men they decided that they had had enough and fled the battlefield.

It was at this point that the Muslims made a grave error that cost them dearly. Instead of
following the Holy Prophet's (S) orders and pursuing the enemy out of the battlefield, they lay
down their own weapons and started gathering the booty.

Thinking that the battle was over, the majority of the archers guarding the passage in the hill left
their posts to gather the spoils, against the orders of their leader. One of the Makkan
commanders, Khalid bin Walid, was fleeing when he saw the opportunity to attack the Muslims
from behind. He gathered his men and launched a furious attack from the rear.

The Muslims were taken so much by surprise that they did not know what to do. In the
confusion, their ranks became disorganised. The retreating Makkan forces rallied again and
began a fresh onslaught from the front.

The Muslim army's standard bearer, Mus'ab bin Umair was killed. He bore a great facial
resemblance to the Holy Prophet (S) and so the Makkans raised a cry that the Holy Prophet (S)
had been killed. This threw the Muslims into further chaos and utter dismay.

Many of their famous personalities were disheartened. Some of the weak hearted like Abu Bakr
and Umar bin Khattab threw away their swords saying there was no use fighting when the Holy
Prophet (S) was no more. Uthman also fled, running so far away that he returned to Madina after
3 days.

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On the other hand, many valiant soldiers remained faithful and entered the middle of the Makkan
ranks determined to fight to their last breath. This went on until a Muslim saw the Holy Prophet
(S) and shouted at the top of his voice that he was still alive. The spirit of the Muslims revived
but the Holy Prophet (S) now became the chief target of the Makkan forces. The Makkans
attacked him and his two upper teeth were broken by the sword of one of them. He had fallen
into a pit where Imam Ali (A) found him and protected him against the continuous furious attack
of the Makkans. Other faithful companions, including the brave lady Umme Ammaarah, also
prevented the enemy from getting too close to the Holy Prophet (S) and shielded him against the
rain of arrows.

It was in this battle that the reputation of Imam Ali (A) was confirmed and he was acknowledged
as a master in the field of sword fighting. He fought so hard that his sword broke. The Holy
Prophet (S) then gave him own sword "Zulfiqar". In appreciation of the bravery of Imam Ali (A)
the voice of the angel Jibraeel (A) was heard from above saying, "There is no warrior except Ali;
there is no sword except Zulfiqar."

The Makkan forces had turned the tables but they were too exhausted to push their advantage
either by attacking Madina or by driving the Muslims from the heights of the hills of Uhud. They
satisfied their desire for revenge by committing horrible brutalities upon the slain and the
injured, cutting off their ears and noses and mutilating their bodies. The brave Hamza was
amongst the martyrs. His liver was torn out and chewed by Hind, wife of Abu Sufyan.

In this battle, 70 Muslims were martyred and 70 wounded. Imam Ali (A) was also heavily
wounded. The Makkans lost 22 warriors, 12 of them at the hands of Imam Ali

The defeat of the Muslims was a test for them and through the ashes of the battle they emerged
more eager and determined to defend their faith and the cause of Islam.

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                               THE BATTLE OF AHZAB
When the Jews of Bani Qaynqaa were expelled from Madina because of their trouble making,
their sister tribe, the Bani Nuzayr, were very angry. They became deadly enemies of Islam and
waited for an opportunity to do the Muslims harm.

Once the Holy Prophet (S), together with a few companions, went to the fort of the Bani Nuzayr.
While he waited outside the fort, the Jews sent one of their men to climb out from inside and kill
him by throwing a huge rock on his head. The Holy Prophet (S) came to know of this
treacherous scheme just in time and immediately left the place. Since the Bani Nuzayr had
broken the treaty which they had signed, the Holy Prophet (S) gave them ten days to leave
Madina. After some resistance, they left Madina, demolishing their houses so that the Muslims
could not occupy them. They were allowed to take away all the possessions that they could carry,
except for weapons of war. Some of them went to Syria and others settled with the Jews of

On settling down at Khayber, the Banu Nuzayr became determined to take revenge on the
Muslims. They contacted the Quraish in Makka and 20 leaders from the Jews and 50 from
Quraish signed an agreement in the Holy Ka’ba that so long as they lived, they would fight the
Holy Prophet (S). Thereafter, the Jews and Quraish contacted their allies and sent agents to a
number of tribes for help. In this way, 10,000 soldiers gathered. They then marched upon
Madina under the command of Abu Sufyan.

When the news of these preparations reached Madina, the Holy Prophet (S) consulted his
companions. Salman Farsi advised to dig a deep and wide ditch on the unprotected side of
Madina. This plan was accepted and the Muslims were divided into parties of 10, and each party
allotted 10 yards to dig. The Holy Prophet himself participated in this task. The ditch or moat
(Khandaq) was completed in time, just three days before the forces of the enemy reached

The Muslims could gather only 3,000 men to oppose this huge army. They camped a few miles
outside Madina. Meanwhile, the leader of Bani Nuzayr met secretly with some Jews who still
lived in Madina. He convinced them to violate the treaty which they had concluded with the
Muslims. Thus, the Muslims were exposed to danger within Madina, and the Jews began
terrorising the women and children. When the Holy Prophet (S) learnt about what was happening
he sent back 500 men to patrol the city.

The enemy was astonished to see the moat because it was a new thing for Arabs. They tried day
and night to cross over, but each time they were repelled by the Muslim soldiers. The enemy
began to shower arrows and stones at the Muslims in their frustration.

Finally, some of the Quraish's warriors - including the famous Amr bin Abdiwad - succeeded in
crossing the moat at a point where it was not very wide. Amr was one of the best warriors in all
of Arabia. In battle he was considered equal to 1,000 warriors. He began to challenge the
Muslims to fight, but his reputation made them hesitate.

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Three times the Holy Prophet (S) urged the Muslims to fight Amr. Each time only Imam Ali (A)
stood up. Finally, the Holy Prophet (S) allowed him to go, giving him his own sword and tying a
special turban on his head. As Imam Ali (A) went to the battle field, the Holy Prophet (S)
exclaimed, "The whole Faith is going to fight the whole Infidelity".

When Amr learnt who Imam’s (A) identity, he refused to fight him, saying that Abu Talib had
been his friend and he did not want to kill his friend's son. Imam Ali (A) told him not to be
concerned about his death because if he died he would be blessed with a place in Heaven while
Amr would end up in Hell.

He then reminded Amr that he had once said that if any opponent made three requests, Amr
would always grant one of them. Amr agreed to this. Imam Ali (A) then invited Amr to accept
Islam or to return to Makka or to come down from his horse as Imam (A) had no horse and was
on foot.

Amr agreed to the last request and came down from his horse. A fierce battle followed. For a
time, so much dust covered both warriors that nobody knew what was happening. Amr sent a
murderous blow to the head of Imam Ali (A). Although Imam Ali (A) blocked it with his shield,
Amr's sword broke through and inflicted a serious cut on his head. Imam Ali (A) then struck a
blow to Amr's feet which brought Amr down. Suddenly the shout of "Allahu Akbar" was heard
from Imam Ali (A) as he chopped off Amr's head. The killing of Amr shocked the other warriors
who had crossed the moat, and they fled away.

The battle was brought to an end because of three factors:

1. The Holy Prophet (S) signed an agreement of peace with some of the tribes who had gathered
to fight the Muslims.
2. The enemy was demoralised at the death of Amr ibn Abdiwad.
3. The severe winter caused the enemies' horses to perish and their food was almost finished.

Finally, the Holy Prophet (S) went to the place where the Mosque of Victory (Masjid-ul- Fath)
now stands, and prayed to Allah for help. A fierce storm raged which uprooted the tents of the
enemies, sending their belongings flying on all sides, and causing terror in their ranks. The
Makkans and Jews fled away from the battle field. This battle is known as Ahzab (Battle of the
Tribes) or Khandaq (Battle of the Moat) and the Muslims emerged victorious in spite of their
fewer numbers.

The Holy Qur'an says:

“O you who believe! Remember the blessing of Allah unto you when the tribes came to you. We
sent upon them a strong wind and an army that you did not see. And Allah sees all that you
do.”………Ahzab, 33:9

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                             THE PLEDGE OF RIZWAAN
In 5 A.H. the Holy Prophet (S) received the commandment of Allah making Haj Wajib on all
Muslims. In the following year he saw in a dream that he was actually performing the Haj along
with his companions. He therefore decided to perform Haj that very year. The Holy Prophet (S)
announced to the Muslims that he intended to go for pilgrimage to Makka in the month of Zilqad
of 6 A.H. The Muhajireen, who had migrated to Madina with the Holy Prophet (S), were
delighted at this opportunity to return to their beloved home town. The Ansar, who were the
original residents of Madina, were also keen to undertake this blessed journey. In all, about 1,400
Muslims prepared to accompany the Holy Prophet (S) to Makka.

The Holy Prophet (S) left Madina on schedule and sent an advance party to scout the route ahead
and to warn him of any threat from the Quraish. He ordered the Muslims not to carry any arms
other than swords. Along the journey, the Holy Prophet (S) and his companions put on their
Ehram, and chose 70 camels for sacrifice during the Haj. Meanwhile, the Quraish learned of the
advance of the Muslims towards Makka and despatched 200 soldiers to stop them. When the
Holy Prophet (S) received word that an ambush awaited them, he asked their guide to take them
on a route that would bypass the enemies. Finally, after travelling through rough country, they
reached a place where there was a well by the name of Hudaybiya, 10 miles from Makka.

Here, the Holy Prophet (S) ordered the Muslims to stop and pitch their tents. He then sent a
message to the Quraish that he wished to enter Makka to perform the pilgrimage. He also let
them know that he had come in peace and wished to settle matters by discussions.

The Holy Prophet (S) then asked Umar bin Khattab, who had not fought the Quraish in any
battle, to act as a representative of the Muslims and go to Makka. Umar excused himself, saying
that his position was weak. The Holy Prophet (S) therefore sent Uthman bin Affan, who was the
nephew of Abu Sufyan, the chief of the Makkans. Because he was related to Abu Sufyan,
Uthman was warmly received in Makka. The Quraish told him that he was free to do the Haj
himself, but they would not allow the rest of the Muslims to enter the city. Uthman refused to
perform the Haj alone, so he was detained in Makka.

When Uthman did not return, the Muslims feared that he had been killed. The Holy Prophet (S)
said that there was a possibility of battle breaking out, so he took a solemn oath of allegiance
from the Muslims that they would support him even in the face of death. This famous allegiance
was taken under an acacia tree, and is known as the Pledge of Rizwaan. The event has been
mentioned in the Holy Qur'an as follows:

“Indeed Allah was well pleased with the believers when they pledged their allegiance to you
under the tree. He knew what was in their hearts so He sent down peace on them and rewarded
them with an immediate victory. “ Fath, 48:18

Soon afterward, Uthman returned from Makka, safe and unharmed. With him was a man called
Suhail who was sent by the Quraish with instructions to settle the dispute peacefully. As a result
of the discussions between Suhail and the Holy Prophet (S), a peace treaty was signed between
the Muslims and the Quraish. The conditions of the treaty were:

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1. The Muslims should return to Madina that year without performing Haj.
2. They could return the next year but their stay would not exceed 3 days.
3. The Muslims should not bring any arms with them except sheathed swords.
4. There would be no war between the Quraish and the Muslims for 10 years.
5. Any idolater or Makkan Muslim visiting Madina without permission of his tribe would be sent
back to Makka, but a Muslim of Madina going to Makka without permission would not be
allowed to return.

Any tribe of Arabia would be free to join any of the parties to the treaty and the allies also would
be bound by this treaty.

At the conclusion of this treaty, the weak-faithed Umar accused the Holy Prophet (S) of selling
them short. Although some of these terms seemed to be against the interests of the Muslims, it
proved not to be the case. After staying 3 days at Hudaybiya, the Muslims returned to Madina.
On the way, the Surah of Fath (Victory), was revealed, which described the treaty as an open
victory for the Muslims.

The Treaty of Hudaybiya brought welcome peace to Arabia after a long period of unrest. In the 2
years after this treaty, more people accepted Islam than in the whole 19 years since the beginning
of the Holy Prophet's (S) mission.

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                      THE BATTLE OF KHAYBER - PART 1
To the north of Madina was situated a fertile land known as the Valley of Khayber. The area was
populated by 20,000 Jews who were skilled in farming and warfare. They had built seven strong
forts in Khayber to protect themselves from any attack. When the Jewish tribes of Bani Qaynqaa
and Bani Nuzayr were expelled from Madina because of their plots against Islam, some of them
settled at Khayber. Here, they continued in their old ways, encouraging and helping the Arab
tribes to harm the State of Islam.

Even after the Jews had lost against the Muslims in the Battle of Ahzab, they remained a source
of danger to the Muslims. Moreover, the Holy Prophet (S) had sent letters to various leaders of
neighbouring countries, and he was worried that those leaders who had rejected the message of
Islam might pair up with the Jews of Khayber to threaten the Muslims.

Since he had just signed a peace treaty with the Quraish, the Holy Prophet (S) knew that he
would have no trouble from them and he could thus concentrate on removing the danger to Islam
from Khayber. He therefore ordered the Muslims to get ready to conquer the last centre of the
Jews in Arabia.

The Muslim army consisted of 1,600 men, of whom 200 were mounted soldiers. The army
marched out under standard of Imam Ali (A). To stop the tribes of Bani Ghatfaan and Bani
Fazarah from assisting their Jewish allies, the Holy Prophet (S) first marched towards them so
that they moved away from their homes.

Then, the Holy Prophet (S) changed his direction for Khayber and by the time the two tribes
realised that the real target was the Jews, it was too late for them to help their allies.

The seven forts of Khayber were named Na'im, Qamus, Katibah, Nastaat, Shiq, Watihand
Sulaalim. All the forts had watchtowers with sentries posted to keep a lookout for any trouble.
The forts were specially constructed to defend the entire area and the walls were equipped with
weapons like giant catapults to push back an enemy attack.

The Muslim army reached the area of Khayber and after studying the situation, they occupied all
the important points of access so that the Jews could not escape. The arrival of the Muslims went
unnoticed and when the farmers came out of the forts the next morning, they were shocked to
find themselves confronted by an army. The Jews rushed back into the forts and held meetings to
decide how to tackle the situation.

Finally, it was decided to move the women and children to one fort and the food to another. This
could be done because the forts were connected by underground tunnels. The Jews then planned
to attack the Muslims with the best warriors from each fort.

Meanwhile the Muslims also prepared for war. The first fort of Khayber to fall to the Muslims
was Na'im. In the conquest of this fort, some Muslims were killed and many were wounded.
These soldiers were taken to a make-shift hospital where their injuries were treated by the
women of the Bani Ghifar tribe.

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The next fort that was attacked was Qamus. After a struggle, this fort was also captured. Two
women who were present in the fort were arrested, one of whom was Safiyah, daughter of Hay
bin Akhtab. This lady later became the wife of the Holy Prophet (S). The conquest of the two
forts greatly increased the confidence of the Muslims, while the Jews became very disturbed and

As the siege of the forts continued, the Muslims began to run out of food and were forced to eat
the meat of horses, which is Makruh but not Haraam to eat. At this difficult time, one shepherd
who tended the sheep of the Jews approached the Holy Prophet (S). After some discussions, he
was convinced of the truth of Islam and became a Muslim. When he asked what he should do
with the sheep that were in his care, the Holy Prophet (S) told him in clear terms in the presence
of hundreds of hungry soldiers,

"In my religion, the breach of trust is one of the greatest crimes. Take the sheep to the gate of the
fort and hand them over to their owners"
The shepherd did as he was ordered and then participated in the battle and was martyred. By his
action the Holy Prophet (S) showed clearly that he was not in Khayber to conquer land and
wealth, but his aim was to remove the threat to Islam from the Jews.

In spite of the needs of his men, he would not permit the unlawful use of the enemy's property
and instead prayed to Allah to grant the Muslims victory over the fort where food was stored.

As days passed, one fort after another came under the hands of the Muslims. Time and time
again, the heroes of Islam showed their bravery and spirit of self-sacrifice to attain the blessings
of Allah .

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                      THE BATTLE OF KHAYBER - PART 2
After capturing the forts of Na'im and Qamus, the Muslims turned their attention to the forts of
Watih and Sulaalim. These forts were very heavily guarded and the Muslims could not gain
victory even after trying for ten days. Both Abu Bakr and Umar led the Muslims on separate
occasions to try and enter the forts but they were forced to retreat. Umar even demoralised the
Muslims by praising the courage of the chief of the Jews, a fearful warrior by the name of
Marhab. This action of Umar displeased the Holy Prophet (S) very much. Finally, the Holy
Prophet (S) announced a famous message. He declared,

"Tomorrow I shall give the standard to a person who loves Allah and the Prophet and who is
loved by Allah and the Prophet, and Allah will accomplish the conquest of this fort at his hands.
He is a man who has never turned his back to the enemy and does not run away from the

All the soldiers were curious to learn who that person would be, and the next morning they
gathered around the Holy Prophet (S) to see who would be chosen to lead the soldiers. The Holy
Prophet (S) asked, "Where is Ali?".

He was informed that Imam Ali (A) was suffering from an eye infection so severe that he was
unable to see. The Holy Prophet (S) ordered that Imam Ali (A) be brought to him. When Imam
Ali (A) came, the Holy Prophet (S) rubbed his eyes and prayed for his recovery. The eyes of
Imam Ali (A) were instantly cured and he never had trouble with them again.

The Holy Prophet (S) then ordered Imam Ali (A) to advance against the enemy. He told him to
ask the chiefs of the forts to accept Islam. If they refused he was to ask them to surrender and
live freely under Muslim protection and pay tax to the Muslim state. If this offer was also
refused, then he should fight.

Imam Ali (A) approached the forts wearing a strong coat of armour and carrying his twin-
tongued sword, Zulfiqar. The Jews sent out one of their best warriors, Harith the brother of
Marhab, to fight the Muslims. The soldiers of Islam were struck with fear when they saw the
powerful Harith advance toward them. However, Imam Ali (A) met his challenge and after a
brief fight, Harith lay dead on the ground.

The death of his brother enraged Marhab. He came out of the fort fully armed and in a deadly
mood. He was dressed in a heavy coat of armour and wore on his head a cap made of stone
which he had covered with a helmet. As he challenged the Muslims, he recited his war poem

"The walls of Khayber testify that I am Marhab. I am the best of warriors and those who face me
in the battlefield are coloured with their own blood.
Imam Ali (A) stepped forward and recited his own poem, stating,
"I am the person whose mother named him Haidar, a wild lion. In battle I make short work of my

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The words of Imam Ali (A) were carefully chosen. He knew that Marhab had been recently
having bad dreams about being ripped apart by a lion and his words therefore caught Marhab by
surprise and disturbed him. However, Marhab advanced with a terrible fury, determined to use
all his skill to avenge his dead brother.

The blows of the two warriors struck awe in the hearts of the onlookers. Suddenly Marhab
plunged his three-pronged lance towards Imam Ali, who avoided the thrust and struck a powerful
blow to the head of Marhab. The sword of Imam Ali (A) broke through the helmet, stone cap and
head of Marhab and finally stopped at his teeth.

A silence fell as the Jews unbelievingly watched their champion fall dead. As he shouted "Allahu
Akbar!" in victory, Imam Ali (A) was surrounded by several experienced Jewish soldiers.
However, they could not match his skill and soon they lay dead.

During the fight someone struck a blow at Imam Ali (A), breaking his shield. He turned to the
gate of the fort and wrenched it off its hinges and used it as a shield. When he finally threw it
away, even 10 Muslims could not lift it. Imam Ali (A) later commented that he had lifted the
gate by the strength granted to him by Allah due to his firm faith in the Day of Judgement.

As a result of the bravery of Imam Ali (A), the fort was taken and soon all forts were within the
hands of the Muslims. The Muslims lost 20 men in this battle while the Jews lost 93 men. The
Holy Prophet (S) had made the Jews realise how useless it was to plot the downfall of the
Muslims. After the victory he restored all their land to them with the orders that half of the profit
from their agricultural activity should be given over to the Muslims in return for protection.

The Jews however, did not forget their humiliation at the hands of the Muslims. After their
defeat, a Jewish woman by the name of Zainab brought some lamb meat as a gift for the Holy
Prophet (S). The meat was poisoned and the Holy Prophet (S) ate only a little bit, but that poison
had an effect on his health in the long term and when he was on his death bed a few years later,
he said that his illness was partly due to the poison he had been given at Khayber.

On the day of the victory, the Muslims who had migrated from Makka to Abyssinia returned
home. The Holy Prophet (S) was overjoyed and commented that he did not know what pleased
him more - the victory at Khayber or the return of his cousin Ja'far bin Abu Talib with the
Muslims from Abyssinia.

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                                 THE STORY OF FADAK
After his victory at Khayber the Holy Prophet (S) decided to destroy the remaining strongholds
of the Jews and thus end the danger to Islam. He therefore turned his attention to the Jewish
village of Fadak, which was a fertile territory 180 kilometres north of Madina. He sent an envoy
to the elders of Fadak. The chief of the village, preferred peace and surrender to fighting. In
return for the protection of the Muslims, he agreed to give half of the produce of the region to the
Holy Prophet (S).

According to the rules of Islam, the lands conquered through war and military power are the
property of all the Muslims and their administration lies with the ruler of the Muslims. However,
those lands that are submitted to the Muslims without war, as in the case of Fadak, belong to the
Holy Prophet (S) and after him, to the Holy Imam (A) of the time. They have the right to
distribute such properties as they see fit. This is evident from the following verse:

“Whatever God has bestowed on His Prophet from the people of the towns is for God and the
Prophet and his relatives and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer, so that it may not
circulate among the rich ones of you...”Hashr, 59 : 7(Part)

The land of Fadak thus came into the possession of the Holy Prophet (S), and when the following
verse was revealed, “And give the kinsman his due, and the needy and the wayfarer...”Bani
Israa'il, 17 : 26(Part) he made a gift of Fadak to his dear daughter Bibi Fatima (A).

He did this for several reasons. Firstly, he was commanded to give his near ones their due. The
Holy Prophet (S) and all the Muslims were indebted to Bibi Khadija (A) who sacrificed her
entire wealth for the sake of the early Muslims. Her money had been used to spread Islam, free
those Muslims who were slaves and support them in their times of trouble as in the three years of
social boycott that they had faced in Makka.

Now the Holy Prophet (S) could return her favours by gifting her daughter the rich land of
Fadak. He also knew that after him, Imam Ali (A) would need Fadak as a source of income to
safeguard his position as Caliph. Finally, he wanted to leave some provision for his daughter and
grandchildren so that they could live with dignity after his death.

However, after the Holy Prophet (S) passed away, Abu Bakr, who had stolen the right of Imam
Ali (A) to the Caliphate, took Fadak away from Bibi Fatima (A). He did this to ensure that Imam
Ali (A) would not have the means to regain his rights. When her agents informed her that they
had been replaced by the Caliph's men at Fadak, Bibi Fatima (A) decided to contest her right by
legal means. Abu Bakr refused to acknowledge her claim, and asked her to provide witnesses.

Although she already possessed the property of Fadak and there had never been anydoubt about
her ownership, she brought two witnesses. These were Imam Ali (A) and a woman named
Umme Ayman, about whom the Holy Prophet (S) had guaranteed that she would go to heaven.

Even then, Abu Bakr would not agree and he quoted a fake tradition saying,

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"The Holy Prophet has said, `We the group of Prophets do not inherit, nor are we inherited and
what we leave is for alms.'"

This was a blatant lie and moreover no one but Abu Bakr claimed to have heard it. Bibi Fatima
(A) then gave an eloquent lecture in which she first explained about the Oneness of Allah and the
nature of the mission of her father. She then proved that Abu Bakr was lying by quoting the
following verse:

“And Sulaiman inherited Dawood...”Naml 27 : 16(Part)

Although Abu Bakr was ashamed of his conduct and decided to return Fadak to her, she never
forgave him for his actions. She did not speak to him again as long as she lived and at her funeral
six months after her father died, he was not allowed to take part as per her will.

Eventually, Abu Bakr wrote a certificate to the effect that Fadak was the absolute property of
Bibi Fatima (A) and gave it to her. However, when she was going back to her house, Umar al-
Khattab chanced to meet her and came to know the contents of the certificate. He brought it back
to Abu Bakr saying, "As Ali is a beneficiary in this case, his evidence is not acceptable. As for
Umme Ayman, being a woman, her testimony is also of no value on its own." Saying this, he
tore up the certificate in the presence of Abu Bakr. This action grieved Bibi Fatima (A) so much
that she cursed him saying, "May Allah cause your abdomen to be torn in the same way."

This prayer proved fateful, because in 24 A.H., Umar was stabbed thrice in the stomach by his
killer, Abu Lulu. After this, Fadak remained in the hands of successive rulers until the time of
the Umayyad Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz, who returned it to Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (A).
However, the next Caliph took it away and it remained with the Bani Umayyah Caliphs until
their rule ended. During the rule of the Bani Abbas it was returned briefly, but then taken away

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                            HER ROLE AND HER LIFE…..
In The Name of Allah, The Beneficent, The Merciful.

This Great Lady was the only daughter of the Holy Prophet (saww) and Hazrat Khadijah. She
was born in Makkah on Friday, 20th Jamdi-ul-Akhar in the 5th year after the declaration of
Prophethood (615 AD).

She was married to the great personality, the 1st Imam, Imam Ali (as). The marriage ceremony
took place on Friday, 1st Zilhajj 2 AH.

As a daughter, she loved her parents very much. As a wife, she was very devoted. As a mother,
she cared for and brought up wonderful children that they have left marks on the face of the

Fatima is a female created by Allah to be a sign of His marvelous and unprecedented might. For,
The Almighty Lord created Muhammad (S) as a sign of His might among prophets; and created
from him his daughter Fatima Zahra to be a sign of His ability to create a female possessing all
moral excellence and talents. In fact, Allah Almighty bestowed Fatima with a vast share of
greatness and a high level of majesty, which no other woman can ever claim to have reached.

She is one of the prominent people close to Allah, whose greatness was acknowledged by
Heaven before the creation of mankind; and in whose regard verses from the Quran, that are and
will be read day and night until the Day of Resurrection, were revealed.

Fatima is a Lady, who as mankind advances in the understanding and realization of facts and
secrets, the greatness of her personality will become more apparent, and the deep meanings and
characteristics of her actions will be more appreciated.

She is Fatima Zahra (A) whom Allah praises, and is "satisfied with her satisfaction, and is
angered when she is angered." And the Messenger of Allah (S) commends her nobility and
meritorious personality, while Imam Ali (A) looks to her with respect and admiration and the
holy Imams of Ahlul Bayt sanctify and venerate her.

Fatima's genius is considered an example of a Muslim woman's adherence to noble traits. Fatima
is a perfect example of how a daughter, wife, and mother should act while keeping their decency
and pure character; she also shows us the Muslim women's role in the social field within the
limits of religion and virtue. Her life confirms that Islam does not deprive women of acquiring
scientific, cultural, and literary knowledge; granting that they safeguard themselves from nudity,
recklessness, unrestraint and such actions, which would bring sorrow upon them and destroy
their identities.

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It is difficult to define the extent of the Prophet's love for Fatima (A) for she occupied a special
place in his heart like no other person did. The Prophet's love for Fatima was mixed with respect
and exaltation; and in addition to being motivated by the father/daughter relationship, this love
was granted to her for the special talents and noble traits Fatima enjoyed. Perhaps we can go to
the extent of saying that the Prophet was commanded to love and respect Fatima (A), a matter
that led him to speak openly about her greatness and talents and her nearness to Allah-and His
Messenger-on every possible occasion.

This reality is supported by the fact that the Prophet (S) did not pay this much attention to any of
his other daughters. Thus, it can again be concluded that his love and respect for Fatima was
motivated by some reason other than fatherhood. In addition to Fatima's noble traits and special
talents, the Prophet (S) knew what was going to happen to her after his death and the great
miseries and sorrows, which she would be inflicted with by some so-called Muslims, after his
departure to the Heavens. So the Prophet intended to make clear to his Ummah the greatness and
excellence of Fatima so as to clarify the falsity of those who would oppose Fatima in the future.

When Fatima Zahra reached nine years of age, she was a full-grown woman who enjoyed
intellectual maturity and integrity of conduct. Allah gifted her with a brilliant mentality and
cleverness, together with beauty, grace and elegance. Her talents were many and her inherited
and acquired noble traits excel those of any female or male.
Fatima's religious feelings and literary knowledge were unlimited. You will come to know that
she was the most knowledgeable and most honorable woman in the world. In fact, history has not
witnessed any other woman who achieved such a high level of education, knowledge, and social
graces that Fatima reached; regardless of the fact that she did not graduate from any educational
establishment save the school of Revelation and Messengership.

Once married to our Beloved Imam Ali (as), Lady Fatima Zahra (A) moved from the home of
Prophethood to the house of Imamate, successorship and guardianship. This turn in Fatima's life,
allowed her to become the companion of the Father of the Imams.

As days passed, Fatima's life became more beautiful and splendid, for she lived in an atmosphere
of sanctity and chaste, surrounded by modesty and humbleness. She aided her husband in his
worldly and religious affairs, and cooperated with him in achieving his exalted goals. This
harmony in their life was preferred by the ideological tranquility they both enjoyed, and the
respect and glorification they held for each other. Fatima realized the great rank her husband
enjoyed. She respected him in the best manner as a Muslim woman should respect her Imam-for
she recognized that Ali (A) was:

The dearest person to Allah's Messenger; The holder of the great guardianship;
The possessor of absolute Imamate; The Prophet's brother, successor and heir; The possessor of
excellent talents;

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His long-standing service to Islam was also apparent to everyone. Likewise, Ali (A) respected
Fatima, not only because she was his wife, but also because she was:

The most beloved to Allah's Messenger; The mistress of all women; And her sanctity was part of
the Prophet's.

Indeed, Fatima enjoyed noble traits which had any woman held even one of them, she would be
worthy of respect and exaltation.


When Fatima (A) was twelve, she became pregnant with Imam Hassan. Thus, the light of
Imamate was carried on from Ali unto Fatima (A). The day the child was to be born was
approaching; the Prophet (S) had to go out of town.

On Ramadhan 15, 3 A.H., Fatima gave birth to her first son. When the Prophet returned, he

"Bring me my son; what have you named him?"

After Al-Hassan was born Fatima asked Ali (A) to name the baby, but Ali said: "I would not
name him before Allah's Prophet".

The Prophet (S) replied: "I too, would not name him before my Lord, Glory be to Him."

At that moment Allah revealed to Gabriel:

'A son was born to Muhammad, therefore descend and give him My blessings and congratulate
him and say: "Surely Ali is to you as Haroun was to Musa, so give him (the newborn baby) the
name of Haroun's son:"'

When Gabriel had revealed the message to the Prophet, he asked: "What was Haroun's son's

Gabriel said: "Shubbar."

The Prophet (S) then said: "My tongue is Arabic."

Gabrial said: "Name him Al-Hassan."

Hence, the Prophet gave him the name Al-Hassan, and made Adhan in his right ear, and Eqamah
in his left ear. On the seventh (7) day, he (S) sacrificed two rams from which he gave the
midwife a thigh and a dinar; he then shaved the baby's head and gave as charity the weight of his
hair in silver. Finally, the Prophet (S) wiped the baby's head with "Khalou" which is a special
perfume made of saffron and other substances.

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Six months after Al-Hassan was born, Fatima (A) became pregnant with her second child.

Lady Fatima started noticing the signs that childbearing was near, but the Prophet (S) had
already foretold of Imam Hussain's birth.

Imam Sadiq (A) said:

"Once, Umme Ayman's neighbors came to the Prophet and said:

"Messenger of Allah, Um Ayman did not sleep last night because of crying; she surely cried until
morning. "

The Prophet summoned her and said:

"Umme Ayman, your neighbors say that you spent the night crying, may Allah not cause your
eyes to cry!! What made you cry?"

She answered: "Messenger of Allah, I had a fearful dream which caused me to cry all night

The Prophet said: "Tell me your dream, for surely Allah and His Messenger are most

She said: "Last night I saw a dream as if one of your limbs was thrown in my house!!"

The Messenger of Allah said: "Your eyes have slept, but you visioned a good thing. Umme
Ayman, Fatima will give birth to Al-Hussain, and you will bring him to me. So one of my limbs
will be in your house."

When Al-Hussain was born, Umme Ayman brought him to the Prophet (S) who said:

"Both the carrier and he who is being carried are welcome. Umme Ayman, this is the
interpretation of your dream."

When the Prophet asked Safia (his aunt) to bring him the newborn child, she said: "We have not
cleaned him yet."

When the Prophet (S) heard this, he said: "You clean him?! Surely Allah the Exalted has cleaned
and purified him."

After Al-Hussain was born, Gabriel again descended to the Prophet and revealed to him to give
the new baby the name Al-Hussain. Al-Hussain is the Arabic version of the old Hebrew name
Shabbir, which was Haroun's second son's name. When Gabriel descended to the Prophet, scores
of angels accompanied him to congratulate and console the Prophet for Hussain's birth and

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expected martyrdom. The Holy Prophet told Fatima all about Karbala as everyone listened and

Imam Hussain (A) was not nursed by any woman, including his mother (A); instead he suckled
the Prophet's tongue until he grew old enough to eat. Because of this, his characteristics were
exactly as those of the Prophet (S).

Seven days after the birth the, Messenger of Allah shaved Hussain's head and gave the weight of
his hair as charity for him.

Lady Zainab was the third child born to Lady Fatima Zahra (A).
Regardless of other unfounded claims, it has been established that Lady Zainab (A) was born in
5 A.H., and that she was the third child of the honorable Alawi household.

It is said that her grandfather, the Prophet named her Zainab that is derived from two words:
"Zain" and "Ab" that together means "The embellishment of her father." Yet, Muhammad Jawad
Mughniah quoted the Egyptian newspaper, Al-Jomhuria dated October 31, 1972, in his book Al-
Hussain Batala Karbala as saying:

"Zainab was born in Shaban 5 A.H. When her mother brought her to Imam Ali (may Allah be
pleased with him) and said: "Name her" he replied: "I would not name her before Allah's
Messenger." At this time the Prophet was on a trip and when he returned, he again refused to
name her before her Lord. So Gabriel descended to inform the Prophet about Allah's blessings
and said: "The name of this baby is Zainab; Allah chose this name for her."

Zainab's history itself speaks of her honorable life and noble traits, as well as the miseries she
encountered during her childhood, such as the death of her great grandfather, the martyrdom of
her mother (A), and the various inflictions which she lived through during the quarter of a
century that her father, Imam Ali (A), was confined to his house as a result of his rights having
been usurped by others.

Moreover, when Zainab emigrated from Medina to Kufa, her Father's capital then, several
misfortunes were destined for her; starting with the martyrdom of Imam Ali (A). This was
followed by fierce battles between her brother, Al-Hassan, and Mu'awiya, which resulted in the
poisoning of the Imam (A). After several years, Zainab faced the greatest disaster of history
when Imam Hussain along with the prominent Hashimite men were massacred at Karbala by the
Umayyads. After massacring the men, Zainab and the women were taken to Syria, but she did
not panic nor did she give into the enemy. From Syria she was sent to Medina and then exiled to
Egypt to live the rest of her life.


Lady Fatima's household welcomed their second daughter and fourth child with happiness and
glorification, as with the other children.

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Lady Umme Kulthum, like her sister, shared the honorable relationship to the Prophet, Imam Ali,
and Fatima Zahra in addition to the excellent upbringing.

She was also a victim of historical oppression in Karbala and sorrowful inflictions and pains.


It was eleven years after Hijra. Allah's Messenger was about to conclude establishing the main
pillars on which the Islamic law, which was ordained to be everlasting for being the final faith,
was to depend.

His noble soul was compelled to return with satisfaction and comfort to the One Who Created it;
after it had attained the goal of bringing about the greatest change in the history of mankind. Yes,
indeed it was inevitable for the Prophet's soul to depart towards Him who it-truly knew, for so
many years called mankind to worship, and courageously struggled in the path of elevating His

The Prophet along with the rest of the Muslims, had made his final morning prayer. It was the
last time they (the people) were to see the Divine light come upon them. By the time the sun had
reached the middle of the sky, the Prophet's sun had made its eternal set.

By noon he was lying dead between his family; they could do nothing save shed tears of sorrow
for the biggest affliction of history.

What a day it was. Greatness, perfection, honor and exaltation had been lost. The house was
crowded with crying people; but Fatima's weeping was the greatest. She had lost her great father
and with him went her happiness and joy; with his death came sadness and pain.

After the Prophet's death, events continued to occur. When studying the era following the
Prophet's death, history speaks of the wonders, which occurred.

We learn of how the Prophet’s dead body was being washed and buried by Ali and his
companions while Abu Bakr and Umar were already holding elections for power! This place of
voting is referred to as “Saqeefa”, and was pre-planned before the Prophet’s death.

Indeed, history tells us about the majority of Muslims who objected to Abu Bakr's seize of power
from its righteous candidate, Ali Ibn Abu Talib (A).

It also tells us how Fatima's rights were violated- especially in Fadak-and how Ali was dragged

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to the Mosque to pay allegiance to Abu Bakr!!

History tells us how Fatima's house was set on fire by Abu Bakr and Umar those who yesterday
pretended to be the best and most pious of the believers….and how attacking Fatima caused the
death of her unborn son Mohsin, who was martyred in her womb as a result of barbaric actions
on the part of these so-called Muslims…

Yes, history tells us how the Prophet (S) died and with him died his repeated warnings to those
who would oppress his family members and that they will be met with the wrath of Allah. It also
tells us of Lady Fatima's sadness and misery which she suffered after the death of her dear

After the Messenger of Allah, Abu Bakr seized Caliphate. He and his followers claimed that
since he was unanimously elected by the Muslims, he was the righteous leader of the Ummah.

Yet, with little reflection upon the matter of Caliphate, one realizes that it is an extension and
continuation of the Prophethood without revelation. Thereupon, since Prophethood can only be
assigned to someone through Divine specification, likewise Caliphate cannot be assigned to
anyone by mankind; rather, it is a Divine code bestowed upon men by Divine specification.

Moreover, this consensus that Abu Bakr and his followers claim to have achieved is not valid;
because the Ansar, Bani Hashim, Ammar, Salman, Miqdad, Abu Dhar and many other
companions opposed the election of Abu Bakr to the Divine post, which was previously granted
to Ali (A) at Ghadeer-e-Khum, where the Prophet had officially declared in front of hundreds of
thousands of Muslims that Ali will be his rightful, God-chosen successor after his death, and
everyone is to accept that! Nevertheless, Abu Bakr was able to seize power and eradicate Ali's
(A) and his followers attempts to regain his righteous post.

Fadak was a piece of land and the personal property of Allah's Messenger (S). He granted it to
Fatima (A) before his death. In other words, Fadak became the personal property of Lady Fatima
Zahra (A). Moreover, it is not for anyone to object to the Prophet for granting his own property
to any person he wished-including his daughter, as Abu Bakr and Umar had objected.

Fatima-the only surviving child of the Prophet, his most beloved- claimed inheritance of the
property which could be apportioned to her in the lands of Medina and in Khaibar, as also Fadak,
which having been acquired without the use of force, the Prophet had given her for her
maintenance, in accordance with the commands of Allah.

Yet, Fadak became an arena for political games when Abu Bakr refused to transfer it to Fatima.
It is appropriate here to speak about Fadak before clarifying the corresponding events which
occurred in its regard:

Fadak was a village located at a two-day walking distance from Medina. Apparently, it was
inhabited by Jews who refused to submit to Islam at the beginning, but when the later realized

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the might of the Muslims, especially after they, led by Ali Ibn Abu Talib conquered Khaibar, the
Jews decided to yield to the Messenger of Allah without fighting. So he took possession of the

The village was valued at 100,000 dirhams by Umar's appraisers when he expelled its inhabitants
to Syria. Umar took possession of the village and paid half of the price to the Jews.

The Real Motives Which Lead Abu Bakr to Take Fadak from Fatima

The history books at hand need thorough examination and revision, for they have been recorded
according to the wishes and satisfactions of despotic rulers throughout history. In view of this,
and in light of the fact that Lady Fatima Zahra (A) was a strong supporter of her husband in his
quest to regain Caliphate, and that her views were proof that the followers of Imam Ali(A) can
use it to easily verify his claims against Abu Bakr; we can easily understand how Abu Bakr was
successful in depriving Lady Fatima Zahra (A) of her rights, and how his moves corresponded to
his adopted political thinking. So, not only was Abu Bakr able to persuade the Muslims to
dismiss Fatima's stands as those of a woman who can be depended upon even in such a
secondary issue like Fadak, but also he aimed at convincing them that since she was not to be
believed in such a matter, she was also to be deserted when it comes to the most important issue
of that time (i.e., Caliphate).

Also Fadak had produced huge profits at the time.

When political opposition fails, silent protest starts. This kind of protest can be more effective
than the first, because in addition to having the benefits of offending and disapproving of the
opponent's acts, it also gives the person the chance of keeping calm and tranquil.

Lady Fatima Zahra (A) acted in such a manner when she realized that with the weaknesses,
which afflicted her, she could not prevail. So she took refuge in a house in Baqi' near the tombs
of martyrs, to cry for her father and complain to him about that which grieved her. Fatima (A)
used to visit the great tomb of her father and take handful of the dirt from his grave and smell it
then begin weeping. Fatima (A)would then return to her home and cry day and night. The elderly
men of Medina came to Imam Ali (A) complaining and said:

'Abu Al-Hassan! Fatima cries day and night so none of us can sleep comfortably. Hence, we
demand you to ask her to either cry during the day or the night."

Imam Ali (A) replied: "Most gladly"

He then proceeded towards Fatima who was crying; when she saw him approaching, she stopped
and Imam Ali (A) said:

"Daughter of Allah's Messenger, the elderly men of Medina have asked me to ask you to either
cry during the day or the night."

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Fatima answered:

"Abu Al-Hassan, how short will my stay among them be? And soon I will depart from them.
Therefore, by Allah, I join my father-Allah 's Messenger (S)."

When Imam Ali (A) saw her insistence, he built a house for her behind Baqi' which later became
known as "The house of griefs." Thereafter, with every sunrise, Fatima (A) would take Al-
Hassan and Al-Hussain to that house and cry until sunset, when Imam Ali (A) would come and
bring them back home.

Once, Lady Fatima Zahra (A) longed for the sound of Adhan-the call for prayer-which was
performed by Bilal. But Bilal had taken an oath to never perform it again after the Prophet's
death; nevertheless, in respect to Fatima's request, he decided to do so. Yet, as soon as Bilal said:
'Allahu Akbar," Fatima (A) remembered the era of her great father (S) and started weeping, so
that when Bilal said:

"I bear witness that Muhammad is His worshipper and Messenger," Fatima took a deep breath
and fell unconscious. When Fatima (A) fell, the people requested Bilal to stop Adhan, because
they believed that Fatima had died.

Imam Ali (A) was surprised to find that his dear wife had left her bed and had started doing the
housework; he asked her about it and she replied:

"This is the last day of my life. I want to wash my children's hair and clothes, because they will
soon be orphans, without a mother!!"

Imam Ali (A) then asked her about the source of know
ledge of this news (the day of her departure). She (A) told him that she had seen the Messenger
of Allah in her dream and he had told her that she was going to join him that night. She then
asked Imam Ali (A) to execute her will.

Fatima (A) then added:

"I ask you not to let anyone who did injustice to me to witness my funeral, for they certainly are
enemies of mine, and the enemy of Allah's Messenger. Also don't give them the chance to pray
over me, nor to any of their followers. Burry me at night when eyes are rested and sight is put to

Fatima Bint Muhammad was ready to meet her Lord. She bathed, than lay down in her garment...
She then instructed Asma Bint Umais to wait awhile and then to call her name; if there was no
answer, this would mean that she (A) had departed towards her Lord.
Asma waited awhile, then called Fatima's name... but there was no answer;
Asma repeated the call:

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"O daughter of the chosen Muhammad!
O daughter of the most honorable of creation!
O daughter of the best of those who have walked on the earth…!!!”
...There is no answer... silence overwhelms the house ...Asma then proceeds towards Fatima and
finds her dead.

In the darkness of the jet-black night, when eyes were asleep and voices were silent, a Heavenly
procession left Ali's house while carrying the Messenger of Allah's daughter to her final abode.

This was on the night of the third (3rd) of Jamadi al-Thani (the second), 11 A.H.
The heartbreaking procession moved towards an unknown location followed by a small number
of devoted ones...
The family and their friends hurry to bury Fatima... then they rush back to their own homes so
that no one would know where Fatima was buried!

At sunrise people gathered to participate in Fatima's funeral, but they were informed that the
beloved daughter of Allah's Messenger (S) had been secretly buried during the night.

Meanwhile, Ali (A) made the shapes of four fresh graves in Baqi' so as to conceal the location
where Fatima was buried. When the people entered the graveyard, they were confused as to
which spot was actually Lady Fatima Zahra's grave; the people turned towards each other and
with feelings of guilt said:

"Our Prophet (S) has not left behind but one daughter, yet she has died and was buried without
our participation in the funeral or the prayer rituals. We do not even realize the place where she
has been buried"

Thus, until this day, the location of Fatima's grave remains a secret.

On the Day when the oppressed and cruel shall bite their hands (in fear); when the oppressors
and tyrants shall be gathered in humiliation and lowliness, remembering their disgraceful and
shameful deeds:
Then every one of them shall review his life, which is packed with oppression against His chosen
worshippers. On that Day shall every human, whatever color, creed, faith, and his deeds may be
shall be gathered... no one will be left behind... even the unborn baby who was never given the
chance of life shall come that Day to present his case...

It is on that Day when the great personality of Lady Zahra (A) shall become manifest to every
soul……and all will look to her and seek comfort….it will be on that Day when all justice shall
be served, and wounds will finally begin to heal…..

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                              THE EVENT OF GHADEER
When the ceremonies of the Haj were over, the Prophet (S) departed from Makka for Madina on
the 14th of Zilhaj. When he reached Rabigh, a place 3 miles from Ju'fah, the angel Jibraeel (A)
revealed the following verse to him:

“O Messenger! Convey what has been revealed to you from your Lord, and if you do not, it
would be as though you have not conveyed His message (at all). Allah will protect you from the

In obedience to this very important command, the Prophet (S) stopped immediately. He gave
instructions for an area to be cleared and a pulpit to be made from the saddles of camels. He
asked Bilal, who had a loud voice, to call back the people who had gone further and to attract the
attention of those who were behind.

The people all gathered at the place which was known as Ghadeer Khum (The pond of Khum). It
was noon time and very hot. The Prophet (S) led the congregational prayers and then stood on
the pulpit so that all the people could see him. He then gave a sermon, part of which is
reproduced below.

"All praise is due to Allah Who is the Creator and Lord of all the Universe. It is the duty of
everyone to offer Him thanks in comfort as well as in difficult times. I bear witness that I am His
servant and creature while He is my Master and Lord. I convey to the people all that He reveals
to me for their guidance.”

I have been commanded by Allah to tell you that I will soon be taken away from your midst. O
People! I am leaving behind two valuable legacies, the Book of Allah and my progeny, the Ahlul
Bayt (A). Never shall they separate from one another until they reach me in Heaven at the
fountain of Kawthar. As long as you will stay with both my legacies, you will never be led astray
after me. Do not lag too far behind them and do not walk ahead of them, for in either event you
will go astray. O People! Allah is my Mawla (Master) and I am the Mawla of the believers."

The Prophet (S) then asked the listeners, "O People! Am I not a greater authority (Mawla) over
you then your own souls?" All the people replied with one voice, "Yes! O Prophet of Allah."
Then the Prophet (S) bent down and lifted up Imam Ali (A) with his hands, showing him to the
crowds on all sides of the pulpit and proclaimed, "Man Kuntu Mawlahu, fa Hadha Aliyyun
Mawlah. (Of whomsoever I am the Master (Mawla), this Ali is also his Master)". So saying, the
Prophet (S) raised his hands towards the heavens and prayed, "O Allah, love those who will love
Ali, despise those who will not support him, and reject those who will reject him."

Announcing this thrice, he got down from the raised platform. At this time the angel Jibraeel (A)
descended with the following verse:

“This day I have perfected your religion for you and completed My favours to you, and have
chosen for you the religion Islam.”

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The Prophet (S) thanked Allah for His favour and then asked Imam Ali (A) to sit in a tent so that
the people could shake hands with him and congratulate him.

Amongst the first people to congratulate Imam Ali (A) on his appointment were Abu Bakr and
Umar. Strangely, they were also the first to deny his rights after the Prophet (S) died.

After the formalities regarding the successorship of Imam Ali (A) were completed, the people
began to leave for their homes. At Ju'fah, those who had come from Syria and Egypt split from
the main caravan, as did the people from Yemen and Hazramaut. However, 10,000 Muslims
accompanied the Prophet (S) to Madina, where they arrived just before the start of 10 A.H.

The detailed events of this day are recorded in most books of history of Muslims, by both Shia
and non-Shia historians. Although there can be no doubt that Imam Ali (A) was chosen to be the
next leader of all the Muslims on this important day, many Muslims ignored this command after
the death of the Prophet (S). While Imam Ali (A) was busy arranging his funeral, they chose
their own leaders who had no right or qualifications to lead them.

The day of Ghadeer is one of the most important landmarks in our history and the Shia
throughout the world joyfully celebrate the day of 18th Zilhaj as 'Eid e Ghadeer.

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                        KARBALA: BEFORE AND BEYOND
The Holy Prophet (SAWA) has said : “The world is like a ship and mankind its passengers. The
welfare of all depends upon the safe conduct of each. If anyone is found making a hole on the
side of a ship, he must be stopped.”

The events of Karbala reflect the collision of the good versus the evil, the virtuous versus the
wicked, the collision of Imam Husain (the head of virtue) versus Yazid (the head of impiety). Al-
Husain was a revolutionary person, a righteous man, the religious authority, the Imam of Muslim
Ummah. As the representative of his grandfather Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), Imam Husain's
main concern was to safeguard and protect Islam and guide fellow Muslims. On the other hand,
the staying power of the rulers (Mu'awiya and his son Yazid) depended solely on the might of
the sword. They used brute force to rule over the Muslim empire even by all possible illicit

Imam Husain as head of Ahlul Bayt (a.s.) never recognized Mu'awiya nor his followers. Before
him Imam Ali (a.s.) had fought battles against Mu'awiya because Mu'awiya continuously
violated the Islamic principles. Imam Al-Hasan (a.s.) had to swallow the bitter pill of making a
peace agreement with Mu'awiya, in order to safeguard the security of the Ummah which was at
stake. When Yazid son of Mu'awiya declared himself as a ruler over the Ummah, he demanded
Imam Al-Husain's (a.s.) allegiance of loyalty. Imam Husain on his part flatly rejected Yazid's
rule and behavior, for there was no way Yazid could represent Islam, it would be blasphemy. But
Yazid, the tyrant ruler over the Ummah, was adamant in his demand, and tension between the
two parties increased day by day.

Imam Husain was quick to realize that giving allegiance of loyalty to Yazid would serve no
purpose but to jeopardize the survival of Islam. To safeguard and protect Islam, therefore, the
Imam had no choice but to confront and collide with Yazid's rulership irrespective of
consequences. Since Yazid had ordered his commanders to seize the Imam's allegiance of loyalty
at any cost, even by brutal force, the commanders had to assemble a relatively large army,
surrounding Imam Husain's camp in a desert called Karbala. Then they cut off the basic
necessities to the camp, including access to water. The camp consisted of Imam Husain, his
family, friends, and companions, all of whom stood fast and firmly with him. These braves
would rather face death for the noble cause of Islam, than submit to the outrageous tyranny and
the un-Islamic ways of Yazid.

Thus, Karbala proved to be a clash involving Islamic truths versus falsehood, right versus wrong,
belief versus disbelief, the oppressed versus the oppressor, faith against brute force. Karbala was
about standing in the face of oppression, regardless no matter the cost. Thus, in Karbala, Al-
Husain the 57 year old grandson of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), sacrificed his totality and all he
had, for one goal. This goal was to let the truth triumph over falsehood eventually, and he did
that brilliantly. His goal was to foil the plan that Mu'awiya had expertly developed for his son,
Yazid, which was to establish a permanent Benu Umayya rulership over the Muslim Ummah
(even by sacrificing the Islamic principles), but doing it in the name of Islam. Brilliantly, Imam
Husain succeeded in foiling this plan and he exposed the disreputable nature of Benu Umayya
though this was at the expense of his life.

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Upon Mu'awiya's death, his son Yazid, 30 years old, managed to impose himself on the people
and become the Khalifa. At first people refused to accept him as a representative of the Prophet
(pbuh) and Islamic Ummah, but Yazid approached people in mosques for their favors. Like his
father Mu'awiya, Yazid used all possible means like bribery, coercion, pressure, threats, and
force to receive the people's acceptance of him as the legitimate ruler. Many people were
worried, threats to their lives and livelihood was too menacing, so they grudgingly and
reluctantly gave in. But, Imam Husain (a.s.) and his family (who practiced Islam in its true
sense), did not give in. As the true representative of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), Al-Husain
flatly refused accepting Yazid either as a Khalifa or a leader of Islam. Despite Yazid's
intimidating military power the Imam stood firm in his resolve and chose to challenge Benu
Umayya's authorities.

Yazid commissioned Waleed Ibn Ut'ba, his Governor over Medina, to ask for Imam Husain's
allegiance of loyalty or else upon refusal, his head. Waleed invited Al-Husain to a meeting for
the purpose. Imam Husain did not give his word at the meeting and decided to leave Medina
along with his family to proceed to Mecca. When Al-Husain reached Mecca he received 12,000
letters from Kufa urging him to go to Kufa to be their leader, and be the Khalifa. Imam sent an
emissary, his cousin Muslim Ibn Aqeel, to Kufa to ascertain first-hand information about the
situation in Iraq. In the mean time Yazid spread a network of informants and secret agents in
Mecca to assassinate the Imam during pilgrimage. Imam learned about the spies, and carefully
evaluated the situation in Mecca. Imam Husain knew that Yazid son of Mu'awiya had no regard
for Islamic values and teachings, that he would do anything to enforce his tyrannical rule. Imam
Husain also knew that giving allegiance of loyalty to an imposter like Yazid would certainly
place Islam at great jeopardy. Therefore he decided to leave Mecca for Kufa to prepare for a
confrontation with Yazid and his forces.

Many friends and relatives urged Imam Husain not to go to Kufa, but he insisted on going. Imam
Husain, along with family, friends, and companions began the journey toward Kufa (1,100
miles) in a long caravan in the blistering heat of summer.

"Wa innama kharajtu li talabi-l islahi fi ummaati jaddi". Indeed I am leaving Madinah to
reform the ummah of my grandfather. – Imam al-Hussain (as)

However, on his way there, he was intercepted by Yazid’s army, which was at the time led by
Hur. On the 2nd Muharram, the Holy Family reached Kerbala. Imam Hussain bought land there
and put up his tents. Hur and his men pitched their camps some distance away.

The following day, Umar bin Sa'ad came to Kerbala with 4000 soldiers. Umar Sa'ad was the
commander of the Yezid Army. He had several meetings with Imam Hussain and was so
impressed by Imam that he began to join Imam for prayers. When Ibne Ziyad heard this, he was
furious. He sent Shimr with 10,000 men and wrote a letter to Umar bin Sa'ad, ordering him to get
"Bai'at" from Imam Hussain or kill him. Umar bin Sa'ad immediately changed his attitude
towards Imam Hussain. Following his instructions he imposed restrictions on Imam Hussain and
his followers from getting water from the Euphrates, and from the 7th Muharram, no one from

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Imam Hussain's camp was allowed near the river.

Finally, the day of Ashuraa (10th of Muharram) dawned upon the soil of Karbala. It was the day
when Jihad would be in full bloom, blood would be shed, 72 innocent lives would be sacrificed,
and a decisive battle would be won to save Islam and the Ummah.

It had been a few days since the water supply was cut off by the enemy. Children were crying for
water, the women were desperate for water, Zainul-Abideen, the son of Imam Husain (a.s.) was
sick with fever. The suffering from the thirst was too painful to bear. And despite this, not a
single person in the camp made any complaints or even questioned the mission of Imam Husain.
Each member supported the Imam wholeheartedly and enthusiastically.

Next morning Imam Husain (a.s.) went out of the camp and saw Umar Ibn Sa'ad mobilizing his
troops to start the hostility. He stared at the intimidating army, and as large as it was Imam
Husain showed no signs of compromise. Imam Husain raised his hands in prayer:

"O Allah! It is Thee in whom I trust amid all grief. You are my hope amid all violence. Thou are
my refuge and provision in everything that happens to me. How many grievances weaken the
heart, leaving me with no means to handle them, during which friend deserts me, and enemy
rejoices in it. I lay it before Thee and complain of it to Thee, because of my desire in Thee, Thee
alone. You relieve me of it and remove it from me. Thou are the Master of all Grace, the Essence
of Goodness, and the Ultimate Resort of all Desire."

Before the actual engagement was to take place, Hur, the previous commander of the enemy
force, felt his conscience violently stirring, he was in turmoil. Upon realizing the gravity of the
situation, he suddenly broke away from Umar Ibn Sa'ad's camp (along with two others). They
rushed toward Imam Husain (a.s.) to join his camp. Hur's heart was jumping with joy, his mind
relieved of an agonizing tension. Hur's defection worried Umar Ibn Sa'ad very much, lest others
do the same and defect. So Umar Ibn Sa'ad threw an arrow in the air to indicate the start of the
battle. This was the outset of a catastrophe and a tragic event that Mu'awiya had once conceived
to happen.

Imam Husain's supporters insisted on being the first to fight. Therefore, they took the brunt of
the enemy attack. The battle was ferocious. Within a short time the Imam's supporters slay a
large number of the enemy fighters, they were on the offensive and the enemy on the defensive.
This caused apprehension and confusion in the enemy military, the 72 of Husain's against the
5,000 of the enemy (some say 30,000) being on the defensive. So worried and nervous, the
enemy commander-in-chief ordered his army not only to set fire to the Imam's tents (which were
occupied mostly by frightened females and children), but at the same time reinforced his fighters
with more troops.

The heroes began to fall, they were men of valor welcoming martyrdom, they fell one after

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another, for the enemy was overwhelming in number. By noon time the Imam stopped the fight
to perform the Salat. By this time those left were mainly his family and a few supporters. They
performed the Salat together. Two supporters were guarding the performers of Salat. The enemy
was standing still, watching!! When Salat was finished one of the guards fell dead; there were 17
arrows in his back.

Ali Akbar, Husain's son obtained permission to fight and dashed toward the enemy. He engaged
them in fierce fighting, falling on them like thunder, slaying numerous fighters. He continued to
move forward, deep inside the enemy. The enemy was overpowering in number, it overwhelmed
him cutting him with swords and spears, and his body became nothing but wounds gushing
blood, until he died. Imam Husain (a.s.) rushed to the area and picked up the wounded limp body
and brought it to the appalled camp. His sister and others in the camp were horrified and shocked
at the scene.

Abbas and five other brothers of Imam Husain went to fight. They also engaged the enemy in a
fierce fighting, almost doing the impossible. Abbas went toward the river to bring some water for
the thirsty children. While he was returning on his horse with the water, he was attacked by a
large horde of the enemy, overwhelming and severely wounding him. As much as he tried Abbas
could not save the water, he fell from his horse to breath his last.

Next to the battle field went the sons of Imam Al-Hasan and Zainab and their cousins (about 17
of them). They were all in their teens but each stood bravely, believing in the mission, facing a
formidable enemy, and showed no less enthusiasm in their quest to embrace the martyrdom.

By the afternoon 70 brave persons had sacrificed their lives in Karbala to save Islam. All had
fought under nerve racking conditions, severe thirst, dehydration, exhaustion, and agonizing
feeling of what would happen to the family of the Prophet (pbuh) afterwards. Husain endured all
that and more, for he saw all his beloved ones brutally cut to pieces, including children.
Remaining the only one, Imam Husain was to face the enemy head on. Precisely at that moment
Imam Husain heard his baby crying incessantly, agonizing because of the thirst. Imam Husain's
love for his family was unbound, especially for a suffering baby. He held the six months old
baby, his youngest son (Ali Asghar) in his arms, and appealed to the enemy fighters for some
water for the baby. Imam wanted to awaken their conscience and stir their human feelings but
the stone-hearted enemy, instead of giving water, zoomed an arrow toward the agonizing baby
and killed him instantly. Imam Husain was shocked. He felt an unbearable wave of pain. The
sight of the limp baby in his arms was agonizingly painful. He filled his palm with the blood of
the baby, and threw it upwards toward the sky, complaining to Allah (swt),

"O' Allah, O' my Lord! My consolation is the fact that Thou in Thine Majesty are witnessing
what I am going through."

Imam Husain (a.s.) was alone, one man against thousands. He took them on, fighting them

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bravely, and kept fighting, receiving many wounds in the process. Thousands of enemy fighters
were surrounding him but none dared to move toward him. The silence was broken when Shimr
screamed for an attack, then screamed again, threatening, and in response they attacked
collectively, and one sword fell on Imam Husain's left wrist and deeply cut his left hand. The
blood gushed like a fountain. Another sword was soon to follow and it hit his upper back. Imam
Husain (a.s.) felt numb as he fell to the ground, bleeding profusely. He was near the point of
shock, even though staggering he tried to stand by leaning on his sword. Then he received the
fatal blow.

It was at this point, that Shimr whose mother was a disbeliever, came forward and severed Imam
Husain's noble head from the body, the noble head kissed often by the Prophet (pbuh)! Shimr
and others had the audacity to carry it on the tip of a spear to Yazid, 600 miles away!
Umar Ibn Sa'ad ordered the horsemen to trample upon the precious bodies of Imam Husain and
all others killed, to disfigure them even further, as if the wounds, the bloodied bodies, and the
headless forms were not enough.

For three days the exposed bodies of the martyrs were left lying in the desert of Karbala.
Afterwards, the people of the tribe of Bani-Asad, who were not far away from the battle field,
helped bury them.

Umar Ibn Sa'ad and his forces (representing Benu Umayya) took the women and children as
prisoners in shackles, put them on camels, and proceeded in a caravan from Karbala to Kufa. At
the forefront of the procession were the heads of Imam Husain (a.s.) and his followers on the tip
of spears. The scene was both grotesque and pathetic. This was the leftover of the beloved family
of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), in such a deplorable unimaginable condition, all caused by
people who called themselves Muslims!

Karbala is the cruelest tragedy humanity has ever seen. Yet, the startling (though appalling)
events in Karbala proved like a powerful volcano that shook the very foundation of Muslims, it
stirred their consciousness, ignorant or learned alike. For sincere Muslims, Karbala turned into a
triumph. The tragic event became the very beacon of light to always remind Muslims to practice
Islam honestly and sincerely, to do what is right irrespective of consequences, and fear no one
except Allah (swt).

On the other hand, Yazid never achieved what he and his father had planned to achieve, for
within three years, Allah's wrath fell upon him, causing him to die at the age of 33 years. And
within a few decades the rule of Benu Umayya crumbled and came to an end. The tragedy of
Karbala taught humanity a lesson that standing for the truth and fighting unto death for it is more
honorable and valuable than submitting to the wrongful, especially when the survival of Islam is
at stake.

On their return to Madina, Bibi Zainab took over the leadership of aza-e-Hussain (mourning for

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Hussain) in the city of the Holy Prophet. This aroused such strong emotions in the people and
such revulsion against the oppressor that Amr ibne Said ibne al-Aas wrote to Yezid to have Bibi
Zainab exiled from Madina. This was done in the beginning of 62 A.H. Bibi Zainab died shortly

Both the 4th and 5th Imams greatly encouraged aza-e-Hussain. In their times aza-e-Hussain had
to be performed in utmost secrecy as the regime was opposed to any remembrance of Kerbala.
The poets who composed elegies and the devout Shiahs who attended the gatherings at which
these elegies were recited did so at the risk of their lives. Nonetheless, the poets continued to
pour out their emotions in their poetry.

Some of this poetry is alive today and one can see the intensity of faith and sadness enshrined in
the words of the poets.

He chose the path of danger with duty and honour, and never swerved from it giving up his life
freely and bravely. His story purifies our emotions. We can best honour his memory by allowing
it to teach us courage and constancy. But most of all, it teaches us to never surrender oneself to
oppression and injustice.

The following is an excerpt from Our Husayn (a), Mourning him and his Karbala :

Then he (Holy Prophet) would embrace Hussain, the son, to smell and kiss him. To kiss the spots
where swords, arrows and stabs are to fall. He would concentrate on his lips, knowing that they
will be hit by an iron rod.

He mourns his Hussain, his flower (as he used to call him), time after time, in the houses of the
Mothers of the Believers (his wives). Whenever his sorrow is hard on him, he would take the
Hussain in his lap and brings him along to the mosque, to the gathering of Sahaba while crying.
His tears falling, he would display to them the infant Hussain with the sand of Karbalaa in his
hand and say: "My nation (Ummah) will kill him, and this is the dirt of Karbalaa." Or he would
take the dirt smell it and cry, with the mention of his murder and death, saying: "The smell of
Karb wa Balaa (sorrow and trial)." Or would say: "By The One who owns my soul, it saddens
me: Who is this who kills Hussain after me?" Or would say: "Woa 'Karb and Balaa'", or
"Karbalaa: the land of Karb (deep sorrow) and Balaa (painful trial)." Or puts Hussain on his lap,
with his red dirt in his hand, while crying and say: "I wish I could express my self! Who kills you
after me?"

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Imam Sadiq was well versed in over 500 different sciences. It was he who constructed the legal
school of thought or madhab of the Ahlul-bayt at a time when the Ahlul Sunnah began emerging
with different schools of thought. He was the first to open an Islamic University in the mosque of
his grandfather. About four to twelve thousand students studied under him. He did not charge
any of his students any fee; on the contrary, he financially helped his poor students. Imam Sadiq
(as) held classes everyday. In due course, he was able to produce great Shi’a scholars
and scientists.

The Holy Imam openly criticized Ptolemic Theory at age eleven, which was the theory of the
sun moving around the earth. He also firmly stated that the Earth rotates on its own axis.

Great scholars such as Galileo, Brache, & Kepler, who discovered the Laws of Planetary Motion
failed to discover the theory of the earth rotating on its own axis. Poincare a great French
mathematician who lived in the 20th century mocked this theory, he died in 1912. Today, it is
common knowledge.

Imam proved that water, air and fire were not elements and that air is a mixture of many

In the 18th century this was a revolutionary idea to say that air is not an element because
scientists during the golden age of science" believed air was an element. Only after Lavoisier
separated oxygen from the air and illustrated its role in breathing and combustion only then
scientists accepted that air is not an element.

Imam said whatever is in the earth is also in the human body, but all the elements are not in the
same proportion. Four elements are in very large quantities, eight elements in small quantities
and eight elements in very minute quantities.

Twelve and a half centuries after his death and thousands of experiments made during a period of
150 years, his theory is confirmed today by science and there is no doubt in his accuracy. There
are 102 elements in the earth and all of them are present in the body

Imam said amid clusters of stars seen at night, some are so bight that our sun in comparison is

About 12 and a half centuries after Imam’s death his words were proved true. There are stars in
the universe, which are billion times brighter than the sun called quasars. Their light is
quadrillion times (10 thousand billion times) the light of the sun. First quasar was discovered in
1927. About 200 has been discovered so far.

Imam said that patients suffering from certain diseases emit special types of rays. If these rays
fall on a healthy person they are sure to make him sick.

In Novosibirsk, Russia, the center of research for medicine, chemistry, and biology, conducted

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many experiments, they found that the cells of a sick person emit many kinds of rays and a
healthy person can contract some diseases by it.

Imam said that humans were born to live long lives, but they shorten their lives themselves

It is found that most longevity depends on good hygiene and balanced diet (abstaining from
excess eating & drinking)

Imam said old age is a chronic disease, incurable. Everyone suffers from it, some at an early age
others at an advanced age. Those who obey the commands of Allah (swt) and abstain from things
prescribed under Islamic code take a long time to age, but others get old soon.

Imam advised mothers they should put their newborns to sleep on their left side.

Imam said we should not pollute the environment else it would become impossible to live on the

Pollution was not a problem in his time. No factories existed until 18th century when England,
France, & Germany started making iron and steel. Then chimneys of factory furnaces began
emitting smoke 24 hrs a day.

The Imam said that light reflected from different objects comes to us, but only a part of the rays
enter our eyes and He said light travels very fast.

The Theory of Light

Imam was the first scholar in the world who separated Science and Philosophy.

Imam said everything except Allah has its opposite, but this does not result in a conflict,
otherwise whole universe would be destroyed.

This is the theory of matter and anti-matter

Imam said time is the distance between two known events. It has no independent existence. It is
only we who feel it exist.

Imam said everything in the universe, even inanimate objects is always in motion, though it is
not seen

This theory which was unacceptable in his time, is an absolute scientific fact today

Imam said that there are living beings in other worlds.

Imam started free discussion of religious matter. He blended science and religion together, and
proved the principals of Shi’ism.

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1000 years after the death of the Imam, European countries scientifically still remained ignorant
and intolerant of free discussion in religion or science. In 1600 AD Bruno, an Italian priest, was
burned alive for saying something, which had nothing to do with the doctrines of Catholicism,
but was only a personal thought.

Imam Jafar as Sadiq’s (as) efforts in spreading knowledge made the 4th century a Golden Period
in Islamic History. Consequently, Europe benefited from the scientific achievements of the
Muslims. Still today, we are able to see that as far as science and medicine has progressed in the
West, their rudimentary foundations undoubtedly trace back to Muslim scholars; thanks to Imam
Jafar as Sadiq alayhis salam.

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                            IMAM HASAN AL-ASKARI (A)
Name: Hasan

Title: al-Askari (One who Lives Near the Soldiers)

Kuniyat: Abu Muhammad

Father: Imam Ali an-Naqi (A)

Mother: Bibi Saleel (A)

Birthdate: 10th Rabiul Akhar 232 A.H. in Madina

Imamat: From 254 A.H. to 260 A.H.

Martyrdom: 8th Rabiul Awwal 260 A.H.

Buried : Samarra, Iraq.

Imam (A) began his period of Imamat during the reign of Mu'taz Billah. Mu'taz was followed by
Mu'tadi and then Mu'tamad. Although the Abbaside Caliphs were busy with their own political
problems, they all kept a very strict eye on Imam (A), and restricted his movements. In fact
Imam (A) spent the greater part of his life in the prisons of these cruel rulers.

The Abbaside Caliphs were more worried about the presence of Imam (A) because they knew
that his son would be the awaited "Mahdi". The Hadith of the Holy Prophet (S) about the Mahdi
was well known and the people eagerly awaited for him to come and relieve them from their
difficult life under the Abbasides. As a result, the rulers inflicted all sorts of calamities on Imam
(A). In spite of the fact that he had very little time with the people, he remained ever busy in
guiding them to the right path by imparting his great religious knowledge. He managed to
discharge his duties of Imamat with cheer and perseverance. History shows that the
commentators of the Holy Qur'an have often quoted the interpretation of verses from Imam (A).

When Mu'tamad came to power he realised that the way to stop the birth of the Mahdi was to
make sure that Imam (A) had no chance to marry and have a child. Accordingly, he decided to
imprison him for life. Imam (A) passed very difficult times in this prison and often had to go
without food or water. He used to offer his prayers by carrying out Tayammum with earth.

One day Mu'tamad decide to torture Imam (A) by putting him before wild lions. To his surprise
and disappointment the beasts bowed in respect to Imam (A) and did not harm him at all. Imam
(A) had been in the prison of Mu'tamad in Baghdad for 2 years when Allah set into motion a
series of events that was to lead to the birth of the Mahdi, our 12th Imam (A).

At the time, there was a drought in Baghdad and people were desperately praying for rain. A
Christian came to Baghdad and claimed that he could make it rain by praying in the Christian

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manner. As soon as he raised his hands in prayer, it began to rain.

The people became confused and many began to listen to his teachings because of his miraculous
powers. When news of this reached Mu'tamad, he realised that he had to do something to save
the situation. After all, he was ruling in the name of Islam and he knew that his power would be
threatened if the Muslims began to turn to Christianity. Not knowing what to do, Mu'tamad at
last decided that there was only one person who could help and that was Imam (A). When
Mu'tamad came to him, Imam (A) did not refuse to help because it was his duty to defend Islam.

Imam (A) asked Mu'tamad to gather the people and then call the Christian. When the people had
assembled, he invited the Christian to demonstrate his ability. When he raised his hands to pray,
some rain clouds appeared.

Imam (A) stopped him and asked a soldier to go over to the Christian and bring back what he
had in his hands. The soldier returned with a bone. When the Christian was told to resume his
prayers, nothing happened. Imam (A) explained to the people that the Christian was using a bone
from the body of a Prophet of Allah. It was a special blessing from Allah that whenever a bone
of one of His Prophets was raised to the sky, it showered with rain. Now Imam (A) told the
people that he himself would pray for the rain to fall.

As he raised his hands, rain clouds appeared immediately. The people began to go to their homes
in fear of being drenched, but Imam (A) told them that those clouds were not for Baghdad.
Finally some clouds appeared which he said were meant for Baghdad. He told the people to go to
their homes and then there were heavy rains and the water shortage in Baghdad came to an end.
The people were delighted at the actions of Imam (A). Many did not know him because he had
been in the prison for most of his life. When they asked him his address, he pointed to Mu'tamad
and said that he was the king's guest. Mu'tamad was too embarrassed and scared to admit to the
people that Imam (A) was his prisoner, so he gave them the address of Imam Ali an-Naqi's (A)
house in Samarra. The people escorted Imam (A) to his home and here he lived for a time during
which our 12th Imam (A) was born.

Mu'tamad could not bear hearing about the popularity of Imam (A) and tried many times to have
him killed. At last he sent a poisoned drink to him which caused the martyrdom of the Imam (A)
at the age of 28 years. The funeral prayers were led by our 12th Imam (A) who was only 5 years
old. Imam (A) is buried besides his father in Samarra.

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                       IMAM MUHAMMAD AL- MAHDI (A)
Name: Muhammad

Title: al-Mahdi (The Guided One)

Kuniyat: Abul Qasim

Father: Imam Hasan al-Askari (A)

Mother: Bibi Narjis Khatun (A)

Birthdate: 15th Sha’baan 255 A.H. in Samarra

Imamat: From 260 A.H. till today

Martyrdom: He is still alive

Imam (A) was born in the time of the Abbaside Caliph Mu'tamad, who had tried to prevent his
birth but had been unsuccessful.

Amongst the titles of Imam (A) are Al-Qayim (the Established one), al-Hujjat (the Proof), al-
Muntazar (the Awaited one), al-Muntazir (the Waiting one) and Sahib uz- Zaman (the Master of
this Age).

Allah granted Imam (A) with wisdom and excellence at birth. Like the Prophets Isa (A) and
Yahya (A), he had the ability to speak in infancy and used to recite verses of the Holy Qur'an
from the cradle. On the day just following his birth, a servant sneezed near his cradle. Imam (A)
immediately said in the usual Muslim tradition, "May Allah have mercy on you" but also added,
"Whoever sneezes, his life is assured for at least the next three days."

During his childhood, his father never used to let him stay in one place in the house. He used to
move him to a different location every so often, so that Mu'tamad would not come to know of his
existence. Imam Hasan al-Askari (A) only let a few trusted companions into the secret of his son
and advised them that he would be his successor.

At the time of the death of Imam Hasan al-Askari (A), his brother Ja'far was preparing to lead the
funeral prayers when Imam (A) suddenly appeared. He was only 5 years old and most people
had never seen him. Imam (A) told his uncle to move aside because only an Imam (A) could lead
the funeral prayers for another Imam (A). He led the prayers and then disappeared.

Mu'tamad received the news that the prayers had been led by a young boy, from whose face light
shone out like the full moon. He immediately knew that he had failed in his plan and despite all
his efforts, the next Imam (A) had been born.

This fact frightened him because he knew of the Hadith of the Holy Prophet (S) that the 12th

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Imam (A) would be the one who would fill the earth with peace and justice in the same way as it
will have been filled with cruelty and injustice. Mu'tamad knew that his own rule was far from
just, so he increased his efforts in locating and killing Imam (A) before any harm came to
himself. In this he was unsuccessful because Allah protected His Hujjat, who had to serve
mankind till the last days.

The Holy Prophet (S) has said that if one dies without knowing the Imam of his time, his death is
that of an unbeliever. We must therefore realise our duties to our Imam (A), who is still alive and
in Ghaybat (Concealment).

There have been two periods of Ghaybat. The first is known as Ghaybate Sughra (Minor
Concealment) which took place from 260 A.H. to 328 A.H. During this time Imam (A) could not
be seen by his followers, but they could communicate with him through his special deputies. In
the period of Ghaybate Sughra, Imam (A) nominated four deputies.

After 68 years the period of Ghaybate Sughra ended and the period of Ghaybate Kubra (Major
Concealment) began. This is the period we are living in today.

Our Duties During the Period of Ghaybate Kubra

Although the Holy Imam (A) is concealed from us, he is aware of our prayers, deeds, actions and
troubles. Any believer who sincerely seeks help from him receives his assistance. During the
period of his concealment we are required to perform certain actions to show our true belief in
his presence.

It is the duty of every believer to remember the Holy Imam (A) often, and to recite various du'as
for his safety and well-being, such as Du'ae Ahad after every morning prayers, Du'ae Nudba on
Fridays and Ziyarat after every daily prayer. At the same time, we should constantly ask Allah to
hasten the re-appearance of the Holy Imam (A) so that he may improve the affairs of the
Muslims and fill the world with peace.

While waiting for the Holy Imam (A) to reappear, we should ensure that the religion of Islam is
spread far and wide and that the faith of the believers remains strong. We should open and run
religious schools and publish religious books and information. Whenever the name of the Holy
Imam (A) is mentioned, one should stand up and put his right hand on his head as a mark of

Just as we give charity (Sadqa) for the protection of our family, we should also give charity in
the name of the Holy Imam (A) for his safety. To show the Holy Imam (A) that we are his
sincere followers, we should frequently recite the Holy Qur'an and perform Haj and Ziyarat on
his behalf. We should constantly remember him and send Salawat on him.

There are many ways to approach the Holy Imam (A) for his help. In times of difficulty, we can
write a petition (Arizah) to him stating our needs, and deposit it into a well or river. This can be
done at any time (not necessarily the 15th of Shabaan), and provided the person practises Islam,
prays, fasts and restrains himself from committing sin, the Holy Imam (A) does come to his aid.

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If there is fear of harm from anybody, one can seek the help of the Holy Imam (A) by praying
two raka'at Namaaz, followed by a brief Ziyarat, and then reciting:

"Ya Mawlaya, Ya Sahibuz Zamaan, ana Mustageethun Bika. Ya Mawlaya, Ikfini Sharra Man
Yu'dhini." This means,

"O my Master! O Master of this Age, I need your help. O my Master! Protect me from the one
who wishes to do me harm."

One way to meet the Holy Imam (A) directly is to spend 40 Tuesday nights in the mosque of
Sahla in Kufa, after which the Holy Imam (A) will approach you himself, Inshaallah.

It is important to constantly remember our Holy Imam (A) and make preparations for his
appearance. Those who do this are undoubtedly blessed with faith from Allah.

The Holy Prophet (S) once told his companions:

"During the last days there will be believers whose faith will each be greater than 25 of you.
When his companions protested saying that they were his supporters and had risked their lives in
the Holy Wars, he continued, saying:

"Although these Muslims will have never seen me or their Imam, they will remain true to their
faith despite being surrounded by calamities and hostilities caused by their enemies.
The Signs Indicating the Reappearance of the Holy Imam (A)

Imam Ali (A) has said that there are some definite signs before the Holy Imam (A) will appear.
These are:

1. Dajaal will emerge. He is a wicked, one-eyed creature who will invite the people to worship
him, claiming to be God.

2. There will be two eclipses in the Holy month of Ramadhan, contrary to normal calculations.
There will be a solar eclipse on the 15th day and a lunar eclipse on the last day.

3. The sun will rise from the west.

4. An image of a man will appear in the sky opposite the sun.
5. A loud voice will be heard from the sky announcing that the Mahdi has come and inviting the
people to pay allegiance to him. This voice will be heard and understood by every human being.

6. Sufiani will rise with his army and will wage a fierce war in his attempt to destroy the Holy
Imam (A). His army will be swallowed up by the earth between Makka and Madina.

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There are many other signs that have been foretold, and some of them can be seen today.
However, it is only when the specific events as listed above occur, that one can be sure that the
Holy Imam (A) has truly reappeared.

The Holy Imam (A) will first emerge in Makka next to the Holy Ka`ba. At his invitation, 313
Muslims will proceed to Makka to swear the oath of allegiance to him. Thereafter, more
Muslims will follow. Let us pray that when the time comes, we are blessed with the opportunity
of being of service to our Holy Imam (A).

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